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FOJ Lectures


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Lecture slides for a Fundamentals of Journalism Course

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FOJ Lectures

  1. 1. FOJ - 1033<br />July 5<br />
  2. 2. For Starters<br />Me<br />Sarah B. Kent<br />WATR 216<br /><br />You<br />Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual (2000 or newer).<br />A portable data storage device with a USB connection<br />A blog<br />
  3. 3. For Starters (cont.)<br />EDUCATIONAL ACCESSIf you have a documented disability and require accommodations, please contact me privately at the beginning of the semester to make arrangements. “Documentation” can be obtained through the Center for Educational Access (479/575-3104 or<br />ACADEMIC HONESTYCheating and plagiarism are unacceptable. Period. If you have questions consult the student handbook; if you still have questions, consult me.<br />DISTRACTIONSKeep wireless devices on silent, and leave if you feel you must use them excessively. Food and drink are fine, but not if they are disruptive or excessive. Be forewarned, I may ask you to leave if I feel you’re food/drink/use of a wireless device is excessive.<br />
  4. 4. For Starters (cont.)<br />Lecture Portion (650 points)<br />Tuesdays<br />Homework<br />In-Class Assignments<br />Tests<br />Lab Portion (350 points)<br />Wednesday/Thursday<br />Lab assignments<br />Revisions<br />Final Project<br />
  5. 5. For Starters (cont.)<br />Don’t miss class.<br />Just don’t.<br />You have to be in lab to get the lab assignment and post it your blog on time.<br />You have to be in lecture to get the in-class assignments.<br />Let me know AHEAD of time if you have to miss.<br />READ YOUR SYLLABUS!!<br />
  6. 6. Course Objectives<br />Follow the Seven Cs of writing.<br />Think critically about the information you are given.<br />Find answers to questions in a specified resource – in this case the AP Stylebook.<br />
  7. 7. Seven Cs<br />Complete Coverage in research and analysis<br />Test 1 on July 12<br />Cogent and Convincing arguments<br />Test 1 on July 12<br />Clear and Concise language<br />Test 2 on July 19<br />Corrections<br />Test 3 on August 9<br />
  8. 8. Complete Coverage<br />Get the information from the right source<br />Get the information accurately<br />Get the information to your audience<br />We’ll start backwards<br />
  9. 9. Delivering Information<br />Timeliness, Prominence, Human Interest, Significance, Proximity<br />Who, What, When, Where, Why, How<br />Inverted Pyramid<br />Audience attention span<br />Distractions<br />AP Style<br />Saves space<br />Saves time<br />
  10. 10. AP Style<br />For the lecture portion of the class, you will not be required to memorize any AP Style rules. <br />You will be required to look things up in your manual.<br />Practice looking things up so you can quickly find the correct answer during an exam.<br />Practice looking things up so you can impress a future boss.<br />Practice looking things up so you will start to memorize the rules you will need later in life.<br />
  11. 11. AP Style (cont.)<br />The goals of AP Style<br />Fit the maximum amount of content…<br />… in the minimum amount of space …<br />… with the minimum amount of confusion.<br />General rules you will frequently be asked to find or remember in this class<br />Numbers <br />Titles <br />States<br />Past Tense<br />Second reference<br />
  12. 12. AP Style (cont.)<br />You will lose points for AP Style errors on lab assignments.<br />You will be asked to look up AP Style rules on exams.<br />You will be asked to look up AP Style rules in homework assignments.<br />
  13. 13. Accuracy: Critical Thinking<br />Ask questions.<br />Don’t believe something just because it is in your notes for a lab assignment.<br />There will be mistakes in there to test whether you notice them.<br />There will be mistakes in there to test how you will fix them.<br />Don’t let me get away with saying the wrong thing – there are a lot of rules, and even I can confuse them.<br />
  14. 14. Accuracy (cont.)<br />Use common sense<br />If the notes say he had 22 caliber bullets removed from his leg …<br />If the notes say 50 million people fled the city …<br />If your source told you yesterday’s temperature of 125degrees set a record low temperature…<br />Consult multiple sources<br />If N blames B for a dilemma, consult B<br />If X and P are both involved, talk to X and P<br />If A and O both have an opinion, quote A and O<br />
  15. 15. Accuracy (cont.)<br />Do not add unverified information<br />Do not infer motives<br />Do not infer context<br />Rely on the experts<br />Someone who experienced it<br />Someone who witnessed it<br />Someone who has heard/read about it<br />You are never the expert as a reporter<br />You are invisible<br />You are a conduit<br />
  16. 16. Sources<br />Go to the right source<br />Don’t call your dentist if you have a problem with your feet.<br />Don’t call the Governor’s office about federal policy.<br />Go to the best source<br />Don’t ask the cashier about store policy, ask the manager, or quote the manual<br />Don’t ask the manager about sales data, ask the cashier, or pull the register receipts<br />
  17. 17. Cogent and Convincing<br />Cogent and convincing arguments persuade your audience that you are correct.<br />As a reporter, you are unbiased.<br />Invisible<br />Conduit<br />But, you are still trying to get your audience to believe you – to trust you.<br />Complete Coverage gets you part of the way there.<br />How you convey that coverage matters, too!<br />
  18. 18. Fortunetellers v. Storytellers<br />Don’t make predictions<br />He loves going swimming.<br />She plans on advertising on NPR.<br />They will not let anyone pass the picket line.<br />Report on what people said and did<br />He loves to swim. “I would live in the pool if I could,” he said.<br />She said NPR would be the best venue for the ads.<br />They stood resolutely, shoulder to shoulder forming a wall against those would pass their picket line.<br />
  19. 19. Quotes<br />Direct Quote<br />Only if that is the most interesting, complete and accurate way of saying it<br />The note read, “Everyone is invited, but it is not entirely suitable for children.”<br />“It’s like I was looking through a broken window before, and now everything makes so much more sense,” she said.<br />“My favorite color is purple,” he said, “because it reminds me of that dizzy feeling you get when you hold your breath for too long.”<br />“I could have saved her,” he said. “If I weren’t such a coward, I could have saved her.”<br />
  20. 20. Quotes (cont.)<br />Indirect Quote<br />According to the statement, the toxins were contained.<br />She withheld comment.<br />He said he would rather not eat blueberry pie, but would if that was all the contest offered.<br />The hospital listed her in good condition.<br />Partial Quote<br />He said he would do anything for her “except give up basketball.”<br />She said she loved him “from the Earth to the stars.”<br />
  21. 21. Quotes (cont.)<br />Make sure your audience understands the context.<br />Three more states must vote in favor of ratifying the federal Equal Rights Amendment. Green stated, “The founding fathers never thought about gay rights.”<br />Smith said she wants to be a marine botanist when she grows up. She said dolphins are her favorite animal.<br />The mayor had lunch with Cassie Greyson. “The ordinance has to pass,” Jones said. “It just has to.”<br />
  22. 22. Quotes (cont.)<br />Make sure your audience knows why you are quoting your source.<br />James Wilson has been an oncologist for 20 years.<br />Patrick Jane spent five minutes with the sister, and during that time, he inferred that she was divorced, liked Bach, drank tea with milk and honey, and had killed her brother-in-law.<br />Sheldon Cooper has collected comic books since he was 6 years old.<br />
  23. 23. Quotes (cont.)<br />Make sure your audience knows who is talking.<br />Always put an attribution <br />Said, stated, noted<br />NOT claimed<br />According to only works with documents<br />Unless a title gets in the way, X said. You would never say “Ran I to the store.”<br />Do not plagiarize<br />It’s bad enough in school …<br />… in a media job, your audience is everyone – and one of them is probably familiar with the original.<br />
  24. 24. Plagiarism<br />Plagiarism is using someone else’s words or ideas as your own either intentionally or for mere failure to credit the original source <br />Note: it does not matter whether it is intentional<br />Note: it does not matter whether it was a direct quote<br />Information published on the Internet must be appropriately cited and quoted.<br />If that is not possible, you do not have a good source.<br />If that would be embarrassing, you do not have a good source.<br />
  25. 25. Plagiarism<br />When do you attribute?<br />Someone else’s idea, opinion, or theory<br />Paraphrases of another’s words<br />A fact that is known because of someone else’s work deriving a conclusion<br />A unique understanding of a fact<br />A unique statement of a fact<br /> When is it safe to not attribute?<br />Common knowledge<br />Not necessarily everyone knows it<br />But everyone can find it easily<br />
  26. 26. Plagiarism (cont.)<br />“Having made everything seem so simple, Carlyle is now faced with the daunting task of explaining why it is not, in fact, so simple. The answer: because it isn't simple. ‘One of the greatest challenges in implementing FRBR,’ Carlyle says, ‘is to determine which items will be assigned by catalogers to which set - in other words, to implement the model.’ Yes, Carlyle says that the greatest challenge in implementing the model is implementing it.” – an excerpt from Sarah Kent’s Reflections on Carlyle’s Analysis of Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records.<br />
  27. 27. Plagiarism (cont.)<br />Having made the concept of FRBR so easy to understand, Carlyle then had to explain why it is, in fact, not so simple. The greatest challenge, according to Carlyle, is implementing the model.<br />
  28. 28. Plagiarism (cont.)<br />Carlyle does such a good job of simplifying the FRBR model, one almost forgets she is trying to solve the problem of how complex FRBR actually is. Carlyle notes, rather circularly, that “One of the greatest challenges in implementing FRBR is to determine which items will be assigned by catalogers to which set – in other words, to implement the model.” That is exactly what she says: the problem with implementing the model is implementing it.<br />
  29. 29. Plagiarism (cont.)<br />Hints you might be in trouble:<br />You are trying to come up with synonyms to avoid using the original language.<br />You are rearranging syntax to avoid using the original sentence structure.<br />You are moving things around within a paragraph, or simply adding another sentence.<br />Evidence you are okay:<br />You took some of the information from the original, but the analysis is all yours.<br />Any points of agreement are attributed or are common knowledge.<br />
  30. 30. Plagiarism (cont.)<br />Carlyle took on the task of making FRBR seem simpler to those who do not understand it. The first portion of the analysis clarified murky points, put technical jargon into more readily understandable language, and used common examples of the more complicated parts of the model. By the time Carlyle is done making everything so easy to understand, this reader forgot she was originally trying to explain why it was so hard to understand. Carlyle does manage to bring it back around, though, explaining that the really tough part comes into play when it is time “to determine which items will be assigned by catalogers to which set – in other words, to implement the model.”<br />
  31. 31. Next Tuesday<br />Exam 1<br />Complete Coverage<br />Cogent and Convincing arguments<br />Notes from today.<br />Homework #1 – 5<br />Syllabus<br />
  32. 32. In-Class Assignment & Homework<br />Page one of the packet must be completed before you leave today.<br />The other five assignments are homework to be done on your schedule and returned to me before next Monday.<br />Use your AP Stylebook.<br />Follow the directions given on the assignment.<br />You are encouraged to ask questions of me and each other.<br />
  33. 33. FOJ - 1033<br />July 12<br />
  34. 34. Agenda - Exam<br />50 multiple choice questions<br />a,b,c,d…<br />true/false<br />right/wrong<br />2 points each = 100 points<br />Tests are a learning opportunity – use your resources – especially each other!<br />Bridge-Closed-When-Under-Water principle<br />BCWUW<br />Any questions?<br />
  35. 35. FOJ - 1033<br />July 19<br />
  36. 36. Housekeeping<br />Exam 2 July 26<br />Clear and Concise language<br />Notes from today<br />Homework #6-13<br />Yes, already another test next week.<br />little boxes for today’s in-class assignment<br />Due before you leave today<br />Work on it while we’re talking<br />
  37. 37. Seven Cs<br />Complete Coverage in research and analysis<br />Some of this will be part of Test 3<br />Cogent and Convincing arguments<br />Some of this will be part of Test 3<br />Clear and Concise language<br />Test 2 on July 26<br />Corrections<br />Test 3 on August 9<br />
  38. 38. Clear and Concise Language<br />Use concrete rather than vague language.<br />The weather was extreme for the season.<br />The flowers were planted in the garden.<br />Avoid unnecessary “to be” introductions.<br />There was a tornado reported last night.<br />It is important to eat something in the morning.<br />Two negatives do not make a right.<br />He is not unwilling to help.<br />She is not going to skip the party.<br />
  39. 39. Clear and Concise Language (cont.)<br />Items in a list or series must be parallel.<br />When you walk in the park it clears your mind, giving you time to think, and should make you more calm.<br />The robber was tall, blonde hair, red shoes, walked with a limp.<br />There were 16 people in the lobby some of them were waiting for an escort, others played with their mobile phones, and one would later be identified as the robber.<br />I like to read, cooking, and time to watch a movie.<br />
  40. 40. Clear and Concise Language (cont.)<br />Do not let clauses dangle.<br />While running across the street, the car hit him.<br />I have some cookies Jake baked in my lunch bag.<br />Before their vacation, the bills needed to be paid.<br />After cutting the grass, the garden was weeded.<br />Write in complete sentences.<br />To underpin expertise in the field by using an interactive website on the World Wide Web to identify problems and potential solutions.<br />Parker, a tall, thin man with owlish spectacles and a bald head, looking across the dusty table in the low-lit archives full of books and old records.<br />
  41. 41. Clear and Concise Language (cont.)<br />Write in complete sentences (cont.).<br />Council passed initiative, approved funding.<br />You can make an emergency tourniquet out of any piece of cloth, wrap it once around the appendage then tie it in an overhand knot.<br />Respect the value of words.<br /><ul><li>refer back
  42. 42. at the present time
  43. 43. completely destroyed
  44. 44. thinking to myself
  45. 45. needless to say
  46. 46. very hungry
  47. 47. really tired
  48. 48. so silly
  49. 49. extremely happy
  50. 50. truly angry</li></li></ul><li>Clear and Concise Language (cont.)<br />Respect the meaning of words.<br />Idioms like “under the weather” do not mean what they say; you need to mean what you say.<br />Many words have lost their meaning like awesome, fantastic, absolutely and incredible; you need to say what you mean.<br />“That” as a pronoun or conjunction should usually be eliminated. Ask whether the meaning changes.<br />Adjective: That man is going to fall.<br />Demonstrative pronoun: That is the last thing he will do.<br />Relative pronoun: Sylvia is the girl that he likes.<br />Conjunction: My girlfriend admitted that she is always wrong.<br />
  51. 51. Clear and Concise Language (cont.)<br />Respect the meaning of words (cont.).<br />Watch out for accidental sexism.<br />The plant no longer had enough manpower.<br />If a person gets lost, he should just stay where he is.<br />A lawyer must be kind to his clients.<br />A nurse must be kind to her patients.<br />A child will be brave if he is encouraged to take risks.<br />Be mindful of inadvertent racism.<br />Carlton Stevens, the popular Indian bartender, is running for mayor.<br />He is a hard-working, even-tempered Latino.<br />She is an assertive, fun-loving Asian.<br />They are an educated, well-spoken African-American family.<br />
  52. 52. Clear and Concise Language (cont.)<br />Respect the meaning of words (cont.).<br />Do not be unintentionally ageist.<br />He was alert for a 60-year-old man.<br />She was spry for a 70-year-old woman.<br />Although she had just turned 16, she was responsible enough to care for her siblings.<br />Ask people how they want to be identified.<br />Someone from Haiti may be black, but they are certainly not African-American.<br />Someone from Chicago may not be Latino nor Mexican.<br />Someone from South Africa could be a white African-American.<br />Someone may prefer elderly to senior or vice-versa.<br />
  53. 53. Clear and Concise Language (cont.)<br />Respect the meaning of words (cont.).<br />Use a watchful eye when talking about a person with an illness, disorder or disability.<br />Sally Bowles, who is HIV positive, dances there on Fridays.<br />The theatre introduces Christine Dae, the schizophrenic.<br />Even with his epilepsy, he manages to run the store.<br />He accomplished it all from his wheelchair.<br />Michael Pepe, an asthmatic, climbed Mount Everest.<br />The deaf woman was able to save the child from the fire.<br />The blind man safely returned to his cabin.<br />
  54. 54. Clear and Concise Language (cont.)<br />Respect the meaning of words (cont.).<br />Do not fall into the Euro-centric trap.<br />They live in a third-world country.<br />The under-developed nation is experiencing a drought.<br />She had many stories upon returning from the Far East.<br />Do not fall into the politically-correct trap, either.<br />It is not technically correct to re-phrase Middle East with Western Asia, even though it is more politically correct.<br />Include the information for a reason – if you are embarrassed about asking how to phrase it, don’t use it.<br />Do not randomly start replacing words with gender-neutral pronouns or racially sensitive monikers – determine whether a different syntax or phrase would be more suitable.<br />
  55. 55. FOJ - 1033<br />July 26<br />
  56. 56. Agenda<br />Questions?<br />Exam 2:<br />25 multiple choice questions<br />4 points each<br />The exam will also serve as the 25-point in-class assignment for today.<br />Homework #14-17 will be sent out<br />Follow the directions<br />Work alone or together<br />Any other questions?<br />
  57. 57. FOJ - 1033<br />August 2<br />
  58. 58. Why We Don’t Study Copy Editing<br />The English language (which, by the way, is not the language they speak in England!) is ridiculous.<br />Let’s all acknowledge that point, understand we are stuck with it anyway and move on with ways to cope with it.<br />But first …<br />
  59. 59. American English is Ridiculous<br />Why don’t “rough” and “trough” rhyme?<br />Why don’t “though” and “thought” have the same vowel sound?<br />Why don’t “through” and “bough” rhyme?<br />Why do you not hear a letter “g” in any of these words?<br />Thankfully, there is no shortage of commiseraters who have provided tons of books, websites, and software to help us through this quagmire.<br />
  60. 60. Recommended Sources<br />The Bluebook of Grammar and Punctuation<br /><br />Elements of Style<br /><br />Woe is I<br /><br /><br /><br />AP Stylebook<br />
  61. 61. Yet another problem ….<br />It’s not enough that the problem is overwhelming, and the solutions are well-documented, but to further the insanity (and inanity, too)…<br />True copy editing is an inherent skill.<br />You just have to have the eye for it – like people who have an ear for music.<br />
  62. 62. Thus spoke the professor:<br />For the purposes of this class, we are focusing on corrections instead of copy editing. <br />Corrections are a very important aspect of any writing.<br />"I have never thought of myself as a good writer. Anyone who wants reassurance of that should read one of my first drafts. But I'm one of the world's great rewriters."James A. Michener (Pulitzer-prize-winning author)<br />
  63. 63. Corrections<br />Ensure the first Six Cs are accounted for<br />Complete Coverage<br />Cogent and Convincing<br />Clear and Concise<br />Then polish it up, paying particular attention to<br />Grammar<br />Usage<br />Style Guidelines (AP Style)<br />Microsoft’s Pros and Cons<br />
  64. 64. Grammar and Usage<br />Again … huge problem, tons of books, tons of electronic resources, etc.<br />For the purposes of correcting your own work or someone else’s, look for some of the very common errors.<br />Prepositions<br />Word Choice<br />Punctuation<br />Believing and Ignoring Microsoft<br />
  65. 65. Prepositions<br />Can you have one at the end of a sentence?<br />From where do you come? (uppity)<br />On which table should I put it? (uppity)<br />“Where is she from, Susie?” (silly solution)<br />How can you avoid extras in a sentence?<br />Where’d he go to? (Where’d he go?)<br />Where’d she get that at? (Where’d she get that?)<br />Put it up on top. (Put it on top.)<br />Look out of the window. (Look out the window.)<br />Cut it up into pieces. (Cut it into pieces)<br />
  66. 66. Prepositions (cont.)<br />How can you avoid extras in a sentence? (cont.)<br />I was born on Feb. 20. (THIS IS A TRICK)<br />You always use “on” with a date or time of occurrence. Tip: replace “born” with “arrived.”<br />Remember to be clear and concise and you should do just fine with prepositions.<br />
  67. 67. Word Choice<br />Word choice is critical!<br />The wrong word can obliterate clarity.<br />The wrong word can force you to add more words.<br />The wrong word will carry less force.<br />The wrong word can make you lose credibility.<br />The wrong word can convey only part of the message.<br />
  68. 68. Word Choice (cont.)<br />Homonyms= Words that are spelled the same but mean something different.<br />Bear as in an animal, Bear as in to tolerate, Bear as in to carry<br />Light as in not heavy, Light as in not dark, Light as in put a source of light on.<br />Homophones=Words that are sound the same put mean something different.<br />Bear and Bare<br />Weight and Wait<br />
  69. 69. Word Choice (cont.)<br />Like<br />He looks like Neil Patrick Harris! (preposition)<br />She looks like she is sick. (conjunction)<br />“as if”/“as though” is preferred<br />“he looks sick” is even better<br />You look like you’re in love. (conjunction)<br />I like Chinese take-out. (verb)<br />He was like, “Okay, let’s go.” (colloquial verb)<br />Then we, like, just took it. (hedger)<br />
  70. 70. Word Choice (cont.)<br /> Fewer (can be counted) versus Less (cannot be counted)<br />Farther (physical distance) versus Further (greater advancement)<br />Number (can be counted) versus Amount (cannot be counted)<br />Accept (agreement) versus Except (but)<br />
  71. 71. Word Choice (cont.)<br />Advice (noun) versus Advise (verb)<br />Aisle (hall) versus Isle (land) versus I’ll (contraction of I will)<br /> Allot (distribute) versus A Lot (quantity)<br />Appraise (valuate) versus Aprise (notify)<br />If (condition) versus Whether (alternative)<br />Good (adjective) versus Well (adverb)<br />
  72. 72. Word Choice (cont.)<br />I.E. (in other words) versus E.G. (example)<br />Epic (saga) versus Epoch (time period)<br />Empathy (understanding) versus Sympathy (compassion)<br />Emigrate (move from a country) versus Immigrate (move to a country)<br />I versus Me<br />I is a subject<br />Me is an object<br />I don’t know why I did that, it is not like me.<br />
  73. 73. Word Choice (cont.)<br /> Of versus Have<br />I should’ve gone to the store<br />I should of gone to the store<br />I should have gone to the store<br />Between versus Among<br />It’s hidden between the trees. (middle)<br />I divided it between them. (two)<br />I divided it among them. (three or more)<br />
  74. 74. Word Choice (cont.)<br /> Adverse (detriment) versus Averse (avoid)<br />Both words should be used sparingly<br />Can make you sound smart<br />Can make you sound uppity<br />Lie, Lie, Lay<br />
  75. 75. Word Choice (cont.)<br />"The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and the lightning bug.“<br />Mark Twain<br />
  76. 76. Punctuation<br /> Commas connect a series of words, phrases and clauses.*specific AP Style rules*<br />Semicolons connect independent clauses and long elements in a list.<br />Colons let the reader know that a list (after a complete sentence) or restatement is to follow.<br />Dashes indicate a dramatic break.<br />Hyphens connect compound modifiers and broken words.<br />Quotation marks indicate speaking. *specific AP Style rules*<br />
  77. 77. Believing and Ignoring Microsoft<br />Microsoft, and other word processing programs will tell you when it thinks you have misspelled a word or made an error in grammar or usage.<br />There are two problems with this:<br />Not everyone pays attention to the indicators.<br />Microsoft (and the other word processors) are not always correct.<br />They do not always catch homonyms.<br />They do not always understand complicated syntax.<br />
  78. 78. FOJ - 1033<br />August 9<br />
  79. 79. Agenda<br />Questions?<br />Exam 3:<br />47 multiple choice questions<br />2 points each<br />1 short-answer question<br />6 points<br />The exam will also serve as the 25-point in-class assignment for today.<br />No homework assignment – last day of lecture. Keep coming to lab.<br />Any other questions?<br />