Classical china


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Classical china

  1. 1. Sarah Allen<br />Classical China<br />
  2. 2. Dynasties: Zhou<br />1029-258 BCE<br />No powerful government – rules by alliances with regional noblemen<br />Weak rulers who lacked the means to control their territory directly<br />Could only hope that local rulers would support them<br />Came from the north and displaced the Shang<br />Extended territory into Yangtze River valley<br />The “Middle Kingdom”<br />Heightened focus on central government<br />Known as the Sons of Heaven (gods chose them to rule) <br />
  3. 3. Dynasties: Qin<br />Qin Shi Huangdi, or First Emperor<br />Brutal, but effective <br />Forced regional nobles to join his court and gave their land to peasants who owed him their power<br />Built the Great Wall by forced labor<br />Ordered national census<br />Standardized coins, weights, and measures (including cart axle length) <br />Made Chinese script uniform<br />Shi Huangdi believed that thinking was likely to be subversive to his autocratic rule<br />He was a fiercely unpopular ruler <br />
  4. 4. Dynasties: Han<br />202 BC-220 CE<br />Retained the centralized government but diminished brutal repression<br />Expanded terriroty into Korea, Indochina, and central Asia<br />Allowed for contact with Parthian Empire<br />Wu Ti (140-87 BCE) <br />Most famous ruler<br />Enforced widespread peace throughout most of Asia<br />
  5. 5. Confucianism<br />Kung Fuzi (Kung the philospher)<br />551-478 BCE <br />Emphasized personal virtue<br />Reverance for tradition<br />Stressed for ones superiors (fathers and husbands) <br />Insistence that leaders should behave well also: <br />Mostedty<br />Shunning abusive power<br />Treating their people courteously<br />Love of wisdom, veneration of custom <br />
  6. 6. Legalism<br />Authoritatian state that rules by force<br />Human nature is evil and requires restraint and discipline<br />The army should control and the people should labor<br />Pleasures in educated discourse or courtesy are frivolity<br />Was often combined with Confucianism to produce a leader with a cultured veneer who employed strong-arm tactics<br />
  7. 7. Daoism<br />“the way of nature” <br />Laozi (Daoist leader) <br />True human understanding comes in withdrawing from the world and contemplating the life force<br />Daoist ethics: <br />Harmony with nature<br />Humility and frugal living<br />Policical activity and learning were irrelevant<br />General conditions of the world were of little importance<br />
  8. 8. Art<br />Decorative, highly detailed, stressed craftsmanship<br />Reflected precision and geometric qulities of Chinese writing<br />Calligraphy and painting were huge<br />Other popular mediums: <br />Bronze<br />Pottery<br />Jade<br />Ivory<br />Silk<br />Did not produce monuments (aside from tombs and Great Wall)<br />Absence of a single religion<br />
  9. 9. Science<br />Astronomy<br />Other Science<br />Accurate callendar (444 BCE), based on a year of 365.5 days<br />Calculated the movements of Saturn and Jupiter and charted sunspots<br />Purpose: to make cellestial phenomena predictable<br />Stressed harmony bewteen heaven and earth<br />Invented a kind os seismograph during the Han dynasty<br />Developed precise anatomical knowledge<br />Studied principles of hygiene to extend average lifetime<br />
  10. 10. Technology<br />Ox-drawn plows and collars that didn’t choke the animal<br />Pulleys and winding gear for iron mining<br />Iron tools and lamps<br />Advanced production methods in textiles and pottary<br />Water-powered mills<br />Paper and writing utensils <br />
  11. 11. Work Cited<br />Stearns, Peter N. "Classical Civilization: China." World <br />Civilizations: The Global Experience. 5. Pearson Education, <br />Inc., 2007. Print. <br />