Comparison of Qatar & Sweden education systems.


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  • they were struggling to have such a reform since world war II .During the first decade of the twentieth century there are pointing to a closing down of the space for: professional autonomyStudents influence and impactLocally based school development.Resulted from a renewed strong central administration , focusing on activities such as monitoring- control – inspection – evaluation and assessment on the level of both the individual and the system.
  • they were struggling to have such a reform since world war II .During the first decade of the twentieth century there are pointing to a closing down of the space for: professional autonomyStudents influence and impactLocally based school development.Resulted from a renewed strong central administration , focusing on activities such as monitoring- control – inspection – evaluation and assessment on the level of both the individual and the system.
  • 1. The prime minister in the early 1990s, was the minister of schools, who was responsible for the decentralization of the school system.2. Moderate, liberal, center, and Christian Democratic parties----- the current minister of education is chairman of the Liberal Party.
  • 1 @they are appointed by the government on a temporary basis to inquire into a matter such as target of reform and submit recommendations. @ they submit recommendations. @ produce reports that are sent out for public reactions and hearing, which enable the government to prepare a bill.This process creates a public discourse around reforms and engage politicians, experts and interested laymen.Later there have been changings in the policymaking process, specially in the committee system. They have been limited directives and a shorter time for investigation, hearing and research, specially in educational sector.
  • The number of independent schools has increased at comprehensive school level, even more at upper secondary school level.Accompanied by increase in the production and flow of information on students’ performance and school results.
  • For high school teacher Swedish needs more to the tone of Skr23 000 per month, based on the German wage level. - See more at:
  • A committee was established in 2008
  • 4. The relative autonomy of the municipalities, schools, and teachers are challenged in several ways. Simplification and clarity of curriculum objectives and state- governed intervention through visiting development activities and inspection are examples of the reduction of the scope of action at the local level.
  • Comparison of Qatar & Sweden education systems.

    1. 1. & Education Systems Prepared by: Sarafadeen Ayigoro Ibraheem
    2. 2. Structure of Education Systems NAE (2010). Classbase (2012). & Qatar
    3. 3. Parliament Municipality Board of independent school Municipality Schools Supreme Education Council Government Independent Schools Education institute Evaluation institute Independent Schools Higher education institute Private Schools & Qatar
    4. 4. The curriculum, national objectives, and guidelines for the public education system are laid down by Parliament and Government. Within this framework the municipality or the board of an independent school may determine how its schools are to be run. Each school has the responsibility of working within the established framework to achieve the goals established. Approaches adapted to local conditions are chosen on the basis of national steering documents. The municipalities and principal organizers of independent schools are responsible for financial management as well as follow-up and evaluation of their respective activities. Independent schools are obliged to participate in the national follow-up and evaluation. Education institute propose the necessary financial allocations to support schools, establish and monitor Independent Schools and develop criteria and requirements for schools licensing; issue licenses for the establishment of private and public schools, based on certain approved criteria; develop curriculum standards. ​ Evaluation Institute. has two primary roles: to inform schools, teachers and students about their performance, thus helping them reflect and improve upon it. The Evaluation Institute consists of four offices: SAO,SEO, Data Collection and Management Office (DCM) and Qatar Office of Registration, Licensing and Accreditation (QORLA). The Higher Education Institute (HEI) aims at supporting the development of Higher, Technical and Vocational Education by offering a variety of scholarship. & Qatar
    5. 5. The academic school year normally begins at the end of August and runs to the beginning of June in the following year, comprising a total of about 40 weeks. The curriculum for compulsory education dates back to 1994. It has a strong emphasis on goals in terms of norms and values, such as democratic values, equal rights and opportunities for everyone, irrespective of gender, race, ethnicity, religion or sexual identity. The nine-year compulsory school program is for all children between the ages of 7 and 16 years. In Sweden today there are 4,666 compulsory schools and 976 upper secondary schools. Classbase (2012). & Qatar
    6. 6. The vast majority of schools in Sweden are municipally run, which means that the municipality is the responsible authority. However, students and their parents are entitled to choose another municipal school, or a school that is run independently. The proportion of students in independent schools has grown considerably since the beginning of the 1990s; in 2008/09 the figure had grown to about 10%. The same trend may be observed in upper secondary education, where the percentage has grown to 20%.  The nine-year compulsory school program is for all children between the ages of 7 and 16 years. Upon the request of parents, a child may begin school one year earlier, at the age of 6.  Sami children can receive education in Sami School that covers grades 1-6. This schooling corresponds to the first six years of compulsory school.  Special schools offer a ten-year program for the deaf and hearing impaired. Programs for students with learning disabilities include compulsory school and training school for students with severe learning disabilities. & Qatar
    7. 7. The Education Act prescribes that to be permanently appointed as a teacher an applicant must have: 1) teaching diploma from a university, 2) knowledge of the Swedish language 3) an appreciation of the regulations applicable to the school system. In Qatar, at least degree certificate in related subject. & Qatar
    8. 8. According to the Swedish Education Act, all children and youth shall have equal access to education. “provide the students with knowledge and, in cooperation with the homes, promote their harmonious development into responsible human beings and members of the community.” Compulsory schooling includes regular compulsory school, Sami school, special school, and programs for students with learning disabilities. Non-compulsory schooling includes preschool classes; upper secondary school, and upper secondary school for students with learning disabilities; municipal adult education, and adult education for adults with learning disabilities. All education throughout the public school system is free. There is no charge to students or their parents for teaching materials, school meals, health services or transport. The National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools was established in 2008 for the purpose of coordinating the government’s support for special needs education. The agency takes over the former functions of the National Agency for Special Educational Support, the Swedish Institute for Special Needs Education, and the National Agency for Special Schools for the Deaf and Hearing Impaired. The aim is to ensure that children, young people, and adults with disabilities will be able to develop while receiving an education based on equality, participation, accessibility, and companionship. & Qatar
    9. 9. In Sweden, 104 hours or 15 days a year (approximately 6% of teachers' total working time) are allocated for teachers' in-service training. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), (2005 and 2007), the national government appropriated a large grant to establish a professional development program called “lifting the teachers.” The grant pays the tuition for one university course for all compulsory school and preschool teachers, and supports 80% of a teacher's salary while the teacher works in a school for 20% of her time while studying in a university post-graduate program for the remaining time (Rönnerman, 2008). In Qatar, 53 hours is allocated for teachers’ professional development and in-service training annually. & Qatar
    10. 10. The government and the Ministry of Education and Research is responsible for setting the goals and framework for the educational system, while municipalities are responsible for organizing and allocating resources to schools operating within their boundaries. Finally, teachers and school heads are responsible for students achieving the educational standards and goals set by the national government. The Supreme Education Council, however, is currently more influential and is trying to create a world-class education system in Qatar. It does this by giving the schools independence to exercise more control over their own affairs. Since 2008 there have been three school authorities to support and follow-up work on school quality and outcomes: The National Agency for Education The Schools Inspectorate The National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools & Qatar
    11. 11. According to the Education Act, the management of education in the school shall be undertaken by a school head who must see to the cultivation of education in the school. School heads assess teachers work, which influences teacher remuneration through the decentralized individual pay scheme. The teacher is responsible for setting up an individual development plan for each student. The plan should state the goals of the individual student and should be regularly discussed and revised with the student and his or her care provider. The plan should, among other things, be used as an instrument for self-evaluation by which the student reflects on his or her own learning and achievements. Teachers assess students continuously and set grades in certain years. They are supported in this by the results of national tests in some subjects. & Qatar
    12. 12. Curriculum: The curriculum is designed to make clear what all students should learn, at the same time its provide great scope for teachers and students to choose their own materials and working methods. The curriculum do not lay down ways of working, organization or methods. On the other hand, it lay down the qualitative knowledge which teaching should develop and thus provide a framework within which the choice of materials and methods are to be locally determined. At each school and in each class, the teacher must interpret the national curriculum and together with the students plan and evaluate teaching on the basis of the student's preconditions, experiences, interests and needs. Assessment: The responsibility for system evaluation rests with the National Agency for Education. The NAE has among other things the task of following up and evaluating preschools, school-age childcare, schools and adult education. The NAE is to use national studies to increase the understanding of how the school sector develops in relation to national objectives and identify the causes of fluctuations in effectiveness between the various municipalities and schools. & Qatar
    13. 13. The following instruments are used to perform the evaluation of the school system: 1. National tests, 2. International student assessments, 3. In-depth analysis of certain issues, and 4. National reviews of policies. & Qatar
    14. 14. Started the new educational reform, to make compulsory education for both secondary and higher education available and accessible to all, by expanding the educational system. It was meant to create a context within which educators and students would have considerable influence on educational practices. For:  Managing the problem of remaining in equality in 1090s.  Restructuring the system.  Stressing professionalism, democratization and efficiency. Education policy during the first decade of the twenty- first century have focused on the delivery of educational outcomes. Educational reform was deeply affected by September 11, which pointed to the basis for a changed emphasis in resource allocation. & Qatar
    15. 15. 1. 2. Until 2006, the Swedish government was a social Democratic minority government supported by the Parliament and green parties. in 2006, the government changed and an alliance government came to power, consisting of four parties. & Qatar
    16. 16. administration structure policymaking policy implementation Political issue Handled by the government government Small departments Parliament Policy implementation is performed within national agencies. With a certain amount of autonomy from political influence. The number of regulations directing agency work has increased, decreasing agency autonomy. The committees system With political members or experts appointed by the government1 & Qatar
    17. 17. In 1999, a parliamentary committee had been charged with writing a new Education Act. They delivered their report in 2002, however the government was in a transformation period to reformulate educational policy. & Qatar
    18. 18. In 2002, a number of reforms have been considered but not proposed to the parliament. Reformation started at 2006 by announcing series of reforms and new policies aimed at strengthening evaluation and control over educational outcomes. A number of them was rushed through the policymaking process such as:  Grading system  A curriculum for primary and lower secondary school.  Restructuring of upper secondary school.  New structure for teacher education.  Changing in grading scale and a new structure for principal education have been already approved. & Qatar
    19. 19. Sweden produced good results in ( 2006-2007) & Qatar
    20. 20. Even though they were talking about weakening results, because of this they were calling for education reform. This problem reinforced the independent schools and they started checking the following: 1. Overall students’ performance. 2. Tests, and Inspection 3. Equity in gender, ethic and class gap in students’ performance. Nevertheless, the reformation ended with focus on the following and some others: Promoting teachers’ education. Addressing the character of academic teacher education Strengthening instruction in subjects. Pedagogy and research in educational science. The goal is to define teacher education as basic education on which further education will build to create specialization, and help teachers to continue grade studies. & Qatar
    21. 21. Grading system has been changed to start form grade 6 instead of 8. Curriculum development. New programs for national tests. Promote students motivation. Transparency Visibility And accountability Vocational oriented Secondary Schools : & Qatar
    22. 22. Assessment; Crossroads Passing Entrance through Exit & Qatar
    23. 23. Renewed centralization The reform headed to: Greater control Increase in democratic participation Accountability Moved in Efficiency Results: tests ( national Professionalism International) inspections & Qatar
    24. 24. Equality Quality & Qatar
    25. 25. References: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2005). Teachers matter: Attracting, developing, and retaining effective teachers. Paris: OECD Wei, R.C., Andree, A., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2009). How nations invest in teachers. Educational Leadership, 66(5), 28-33 Sweden Ministry of Education and Research. (2010). OECD review on evaluation and assessment frameworks for improving school outcomes in Sweden: Retrieved from Classbase. (2012). Education Database: Education System in Qatar. Retrieved from & Qatar