Before the Roman conquest the was inhabited by
Pre- Roman peoples
- People of Celtic
descent or influence
1.1 Pre-Roman peoples
-They were settle on the Mediterranean coast
-Occupied the east and south of the Peninsula
-They were different tribes.
-Art: : The lady of Baza, The Lady of Elche ( priestesses)
-In the north : there were people of Celtic influence.
-In the Atlantic coast and Central Plateau: people of Celtic descent
-They were organised in different tribes. Among them were:
Celtiberian, Lusitanian,Astures, etc
-They lived in elevated fortified settlements called castros. Dwellings
were circular ( Galicia)
-Art: Sculpture ( verracos) bulls
Location: approximately on the Guadalquivir valley
They were very rich: gold, silver copper
Art: The treasure of El Carambolo
of celtic Influence
Colonisers began to arrive from the Easter Mediterranean attracted by its minerals.
They established colonies and trading post ( factories) to control the metal trading route.
-Came from Phoenicia .
-They never showed any interest in conquering territories.They only had interest
-The main colony they founded was Gadir ( Cádiz)
-The arrival is due to trade reasons: Metals and salt.
-They founded colonies in the North of Mediterranean Coast. Such as:
Emporion(Ampurias) and Rhode ( Rosas)
-Came from the city of Carthage ( North ofAfrica)
-At the beginning they only wanted to control the metal trade. Later they began to
occupy the territory.
- Founded new settlements: Carthago Nova, Ebussus.
-The defeat of the Carthaginians by Rome in the PunicWars put and end to their
presence in the Iberian Peninsula.
2.1The conquest of Hispania
The Romans arrived in the Peninsula during the PunicWars when they were fighting the
Carthaginians for control over the Mediterranean
Rome and Carthage had signed the EbroTreaty
-Carthaginians couldn´t go north the river
- Romans couldn't go south
Carthaginians broke the EbroTreaty and conquered Saguntum
Rome declared war on Carthage
In 218 B.C Romans disembarked in the Peninsula
to destroy Carthaginian cities and the conquest began
It took 200 years.There was a strong resistance inland and in the north.
The conquest was completed in 3 stages
1st stage: Romans occupied the Mediterranean coast
2nd stage: Romans conquered center and west.And Balearic Islands. Numancia resistance
3rd stage: North of the Peninsula
Romanisation spread at different rates :
- On the Mediterranean coast the new customs were adopted quickly.
-Whereas on the Meseta an specially on the north was slower.
- Romanisation was promoted by : army, merchants, administrators.
Definition: the process of assimilating Roman culture by the peoples that lived in the peninsula.
There was a gradual adaptation to the Roman way of life.
2.3The provinces of Hispania
In order to administrate the territories, the Romans divided Hispania into provinces.Their names
and sizes changed with time.
Republic Empire Final stage of the Empire
Economy developed enormously due to the use of the same money , the construction of roads to
comunicate cities and new maritime routes ( Cadiz, Cartagena,Tarragona)..
2.5 Important people from Hispania
Emperors:Trajan, Hadrian, andTheodosius
Poets: Lucano, Marcial
Craft industries: Industry of garum ( fish salting)
-The Germanic people were a group originating from Northern Europe who settled on the
frontiers of the Roman Empire.
- In the 3rd century A.D Germanic barbarians began to invade the Roman empire: Goths,Vandals,Huns,
- Barbarians finally conquered theWestern Roman Empire in 476 A.D
2.2 Germanic invasions of the Peninsula
In 409 the Suebi, the Alans and the Vandals entered the Peninsula.
In 415 the Visigoths came to the Peninsula from Gaul (France), pushing out theAlans, the
Vandals and cornering the Suebi. Only the Suebi were able to resist an establish a kingdom in the
northwest ( Galicia, north of Portugal, León andAsturias)
The Visigoths had control over territories in France and in Iberian Peninsula and established the
They were defeated by the Franks in 507 ( Battle ofVoillé).After it they abandoned France and
establish the capital in Toledo.( Kingdom ofToledo)
In the first years integration of the Hispano-Romans with theVisigoths was difficult because
the invaders used a different language, law code and religion: Arianism.
The conversion of theVisigoths to Catholicism and the introduction of theVisigothic
Code of Law made the assimilation of theVisigoths and the Hispano-Roman population
- King Recaredo converted to Catholicism in 589A.D
- King Leovigildo unified nearly the whole Peninsula
- In 711TheVisigothic Kingdom came to and end; The Muslims invaded the Peninsula taking
advantage of the internal conflict among theVisigoths.
2.2 Kimdong of Toledo
The most important building were churches:
-Basilica ( rectangular) or cruciform ( cross-shaped) floor plan
-Portico: covered area at the front of the building
-Examples: San Pedro de la Nave, Quintanilla de lasViñas, etc
They worked with Making Encrusted with precious stones
Examples:Treasure ofTorredonjimeno andTreasure of Guarrazar