Parte 2


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Parte 2

  1. 1. UNIT 7 The Iberian Peninsula in Antiquity
  2. 2. Before the Roman conquest the was inhabited by Pre- Roman peoples - Iberians - People of Celtic descent or influence -TheTartessians Colonisers: -Phoenicians -Greeks -Carthaginians
  3. 3. 1.1 Pre-Roman peoples THE IBERIANS -They were settle on the Mediterranean coast -Occupied the east and south of the Peninsula -They were different tribes. -Art: : The lady of Baza, The Lady of Elche ( priestesses) PEOPLES OF CELTIC INFLUENCE OR DESCENT -In the north : there were people of Celtic influence. -In the Atlantic coast and Central Plateau: people of Celtic descent -They were organised in different tribes. Among them were: Celtiberian, Lusitanian,Astures, etc -They lived in elevated fortified settlements called castros. Dwellings were circular ( Galicia) -Art: Sculpture ( verracos) bulls TARTESSOS Location: approximately on the Guadalquivir valley They were very rich: gold, silver copper Art: The treasure of El Carambolo
  4. 4. Green: Peoples of celtic Influence or descent Orange: Iberians
  5. 5. Castros
  6. 6. Lady of Elche Lady of Baza
  7. 7. Bicha de Bazalote
  8. 8. Verracos Treasure of El Carambolo
  9. 9. 1.2 Colonisers Colonisers began to arrive from the Easter Mediterranean attracted by its minerals. They established colonies and trading post ( factories) to control the metal trading route. -Came from Phoenicia . -They never showed any interest in conquering territories.They only had interest in metals. -The main colony they founded was Gadir ( Cádiz) -The arrival is due to trade reasons: Metals and salt. -They founded colonies in the North of Mediterranean Coast. Such as: Emporion(Ampurias) and Rhode ( Rosas) -Came from the city of Carthage ( North ofAfrica) -At the beginning they only wanted to control the metal trade. Later they began to occupy the territory. - Founded new settlements: Carthago Nova, Ebussus. -The defeat of the Carthaginians by Rome in the PunicWars put and end to their presence in the Iberian Peninsula. The Phoenicians The Greeks: The Carthaginians
  10. 10. Emporion-Ampurias
  11. 11. Phoenicians, Carthaginians Greeks
  12. 12. 2.1The conquest of Hispania The Romans arrived in the Peninsula during the PunicWars when they were fighting the Carthaginians for control over the Mediterranean Rome and Carthage had signed the EbroTreaty -Carthaginians couldn´t go north the river - Romans couldn't go south Carthaginians broke the EbroTreaty and conquered Saguntum Rome declared war on Carthage In 218 B.C Romans disembarked in the Peninsula to destroy Carthaginian cities and the conquest began It took 200 years.There was a strong resistance inland and in the north. The conquest was completed in 3 stages
  13. 13. 1st stage: Romans occupied the Mediterranean coast 2nd stage: Romans conquered center and west.And Balearic Islands. Numancia resistance 3rd stage: North of the Peninsula
  14. 14. NUMANCIA
  15. 15. 2.2 Romanisation Romanisation spread at different rates : - On the Mediterranean coast the new customs were adopted quickly. -Whereas on the Meseta an specially on the north was slower. - Romanisation was promoted by : army, merchants, administrators. Factors Latin Social organisation money Public constructionsClothes Farming and Mining techniques Houses Roads Definition: the process of assimilating Roman culture by the peoples that lived in the peninsula. There was a gradual adaptation to the Roman way of life. Religion
  16. 16. 2.3The provinces of Hispania In order to administrate the territories, the Romans divided Hispania into provinces.Their names and sizes changed with time. Republic Empire Final stage of the Empire
  17. 17. 2.4 Economy Economy developed enormously due to the use of the same money , the construction of roads to comunicate cities and new maritime routes ( Cadiz, Cartagena,Tarragona).. 2.5 Important people from Hispania Emperors:Trajan, Hadrian, andTheodosius Poets: Lucano, Marcial Philosopher: Seneca Mining. Craft industries: Industry of garum ( fish salting) Trade
  18. 18. 3.1Germanic people -The Germanic people were a group originating from Northern Europe who settled on the frontiers of the Roman Empire. - In the 3rd century A.D Germanic barbarians began to invade the Roman empire: Goths,Vandals,Huns, Angels,Visigoths, etc. - Barbarians finally conquered theWestern Roman Empire in 476 A.D
  19. 19. Germanic Kingdoms
  20. 20. 2.2 Germanic invasions of the Peninsula In 409 the Suebi, the Alans and the Vandals entered the Peninsula. In 415 the Visigoths came to the Peninsula from Gaul (France), pushing out theAlans, the Vandals and cornering the Suebi. Only the Suebi were able to resist an establish a kingdom in the northwest ( Galicia, north of Portugal, León andAsturias) The Visigoths had control over territories in France and in Iberian Peninsula and established the Kingdom ofToulouse. They were defeated by the Franks in 507 ( Battle ofVoillé).After it they abandoned France and establish the capital in Toledo.( Kingdom ofToledo)
  21. 21.  In the first years integration of the Hispano-Romans with theVisigoths was difficult because the invaders used a different language, law code and religion: Arianism. The conversion of theVisigoths to Catholicism and the introduction of theVisigothic Code of Law made the assimilation of theVisigoths and the Hispano-Roman population possible. - King Recaredo converted to Catholicism in 589A.D - King Leovigildo unified nearly the whole Peninsula - In 711TheVisigothic Kingdom came to and end; The Muslims invaded the Peninsula taking advantage of the internal conflict among theVisigoths. 2.2 Kimdong of Toledo Important events:
  22. 22. 2.4 Art Architecture The most important building were churches: Characteristics: -Horseshoe arches -Barrel vault -Basilica ( rectangular) or cruciform ( cross-shaped) floor plan -Portico: covered area at the front of the building -Examples: San Pedro de la Nave, Quintanilla de lasViñas, etc Jewellery They worked with Making Encrusted with precious stones Examples:Treasure ofTorredonjimeno andTreasure of Guarrazar gold bronze Crosses Crowns Bracelets, etc
  23. 23. Barrel vault Cruciform Floor plan Basilica Floor plan Horseshoe arches
  24. 24. San Pedro de la Nave San Juan de Baños
  25. 25. Corona de Recesvinto Treasure of Guarrazar