Au Psy492 Week7 As2 Elderly Depression Davenport

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Elderly-Davenport

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Au Psy492 Week7 As2 Elderly Depression Davenport

  1. 1. Depression in older Adults<br />Current & Future Need for <br />Better Diagnoses & Treatment<br />Sara Davenport<br />Argosy University<br />
  2. 2. Abstract<br /><ul><li>A cross-section of theories relating to characteristics of and risks for depression in older adults
  3. 3. Effective, documented treatments
  4. 4. Frequency by which depression is overlooked by primary care physicians
  5. 5. Common theme: Better strategies in managing mental health care for older adults
  6. 6. The Baby Boom Generation
  7. 7. Urgent call for more comprehensive research</li></li></ul><li>Current & Future Need for Better Diagnosis & Effective Treatment: LiteratureOverview <br /><ul><li>35 Million in U.S. over 65 years of age. </li></ul>One half need mental health services; less than 20% receive treatment. (Benek-Higgins, McReynolds, Hogan & Savickas (2008).<br /><ul><li>Baby Boomers add 76 million in next 18 years
  8. 8. No good prior models of care= need for change.
  9. 9. Articles focus on American populations plus three International Study Groups</li></ul>Subjects: Patient/doctor relationship, major issues of concern for elders, influence of social interaction, impact of loneliness, role of religion, physiological effects of aging on depression and therapeutic options for enhancing well-being.<br />
  10. 10. Missteps in the Doctor’s Office<br /><ul><li>Less than 4% of geropsychology/geropsychiatry clinicians work with elderly patients. (Benek-Higgins, McReynolds, Hogan & Savickas 2008).
  11. 11. Older patients visit general practitioners – not well-versed in geriatric care.
  12. 12. Without sound medical diagnosis, older patients dismissed.
  13. 13. Medicare=50% co-pay for medical; only 20% for mental health; in facility stay 90 days.
  14. 14. Some sample populations small; larger groups would be better (Adelman, Greene, Friedmann & Cook 2008).</li></li></ul><li>The Importance of Purpose<br />“Mattering” Important to Elders (Andrea Dixon 2007)<br /><ul><li>Reduced Stress
  15. 15. Greater Self-Esteem
  16. 16. Personal Strength
  17. 17. Greater Overall Well-Being
  18. 18. Fewer Experiences of Depression and Sadness
  19. 19. Explore Extracurricular Activities
  20. 20. Day-to-day responsibilities
  21. 21. Spiritual/religious connections
  22. 22. Relationships with Families / Friends
  23. 23. Active Social Life</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Gender, Marital Status, & Community Involvement<br /><ul><li>Difference between women and men regarding social networking (Ahern & Hendryx 2008).
  24. 24. Volunteering, religious attendance community involvement = reduced risk of depression in women – not men.
  25. 25. Men rely on women – do not adapt well to widowhood; women enjoy sense of freedom!
  26. 26. Outside interests decrease loneliness, depression, anxiety interpersonal hostility, increased vulnerability to health problems and suicide </li></ul>(Rokach, Matalon, rokach & Ssafarov 2007).<br /><ul><li>Information presented by authors highly </li></ul>scientific – not contradictory.<br />
  27. 27. The Aging Brain<br /><ul><li>Longitudinal versus cross-sectional study (Dotson, Davatzikos, Kraut & Resnick (2009).
  28. 28. Relationship between late-life depression and decreased brain volume?
  29. 29. Research skewed
  30. 30. Future research recommended; comparative studies helpful</li></li></ul><li>Religion & Well-Being<br /><ul><li>76% of Older Americans agree : Religion important (Princeton Religion Center, McFadden 1995).
  31. 31. Church attendance increases with age
  32. 32. Religious older people have higher levels of physical and mental health
  33. 33. 1987 Yale Health and Aging Project (McFadden 1995) indicates lower levels of functional disability and depression in elderly.
  34. 34. Studies indicating correlation between religion and mental health not as valid as religion and physical health.
  35. 35. “Empirical studies show that religion can have salutary effect on late life well-being.” (McFadden p.161).</li></li></ul><li>Helpful Therapies<br /><ul><li>Meditation-Based Intervention
  36. 36. Physical Activity
  37. 37. Goal Setting
  38. 38. Sense of Humor</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Literature review = Comprehensive summary of factors influencing diagnosis and treatment of depression in older adults.
  39. 39. Each presented different aspects – only minor contradiction.
  40. 40. Possibilities for future research = strategic planning & funding issues, comparisons between value of influencing factors on well-being of elders, use of medication.
  41. 41. Prevailing agreement of research: lack of accurate diagnosis in mental health issues, better attention today and for burgeoning Baby Boomer group.</li></li></ul><li>References I<br />Adelman, Ronald D., Greene, Michele G., Friedman, Erika, Cook, Mary Ann. (2008).<br />Discussion of Depression in Follow-Up Medical Visits with Older Patients. Journal<br />Of American Geriatric Society, Vol. 56 (1), 16-22.<br />Ahern, Melissa M, Hendryx, Michael. (2008). Community Participation and the Emergence of Late Life Depressive Symptoms: Differences Between Women and Men. Journal of Women’s Health, Vol. 17 (9), 1463-1470.<br />Ayers, Catherine R., Sorrell, John T., Thorp, Steven R., Wetherell, Julie Loebach (2007).<br />Evidence-Based Psychological Treatments for Late Life Anxiety. Psychology and Aging,<br />Vol. 22, 8-17.<br />Benek-Higgins, M., Hogan, Ebony, McReynolds, C.J., & Savickas, S. (2008). Depression and the Elder Person: The Enigma of Misconceptions, Stigma and Treatment. Journal ofMental Health Counseling, Vol. 30 (4), 283-296.<br />Cairney, John, Faulkner, Guy, Veldhuizen, Scott, Wade, Terrance J. (2009). Changes<br />Over Time in Physical Activity and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults. <br />Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 54 (3), 160-169.<br />
  42. 42. References II<br />Dixon, Andra L. (2007). Mattering in the Later Years: Older Adults’ Experiences of Mattering to Others, Purpose in Life, Depression and Wellness. Adultspan: Theory Research & Practice, Vol. 6 (2) 83-95.<br />Dotson, Vonetta M., Davatzikos, Christos, Kraut, Michael A., Resnick, Susan M. (2009).<br />Depressive Symptoms and Brain Volumes in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Vol. 34 (5) 367-375.<br />Laidlaw, Ken, McAlpine, Susan. (2008). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: How Is It Different with<br />Older People? Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol. 26 (4), 250-262.<br />Lowe, Deborah A., Rogers, Steven A. (2009). Changing Face of Depression Among Aging<br />Population. Conference Abstract U.S. American Psychological Association. <br />Marziali, Elsa, McDonald, Lynn, Donahue, Peter (2008). The Role of Coping Humor in the<br />Physical and Mental State of Older Adults. Aging and Mental Health, Vol. 12 (6), 713-718.<br />
  43. 43. Reference III<br />Paukert, Ambul, Phillips, Laura, Cully, Jeffrey A., Loboprabhu, Sheila M., Lomax, James W., Stanley, Melinda (2009). Integration of Religion into Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Geriatric Anxiety and Depression. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, Vol. 15 (2).<br />Rokach, Ami, Matalon, Raan, Rokach, Ben, Safarov, Artem (2007). The Effects of Gender and Marital Status on Loneliness of the Aged. Social Behavior and Personality, An International Journal, Vol. 35, (2), 243-253.<br />Smith, A, Graham, L., Senthinathan, S. (2007) Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy for Recurring Depression in Older People: A Qualitative Study. Aging and Mental Health, Vol. 11 (3), 346-357.<br />Street, Helen, O’Connor, Moira, Robinson, Hayley (2007). Depression in Older Adults: Exploring the Relationship Between Goal-Setting and Physical Health. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol 22 (11), 1115-1119. <br />

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