PAPAYA LEAVES IN TREATMENT OF
DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER
MOHD SAQUIB KHAN
M.Sc III SEMESTER
DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY
& MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
What is dengue
Mechanism of Action
Ineffectiveness of Medicine
Administration of Papaya Leaves
Gene Expression Studies
WHAT IS DENGUE
o Dengue fever also known as breakbone fever, is an
infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
o Arthropod-borne viral disease carried by Aedes aegypti
as the vector, caused by 4 possible viral serotypes,
namely, serotype I, II, III, and IV of the Flaviviridae family.
o With rapid urbanization and global travel leading to
drastic demographic changes, dengue is a threat to
almost 40% of the world’s population i.e. over 2.5
o WHO currently estimates there may be 50–100
million dengue infections worldwide every year.
o Dengue infection is mainly of three types
-Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever(DHF)
-Dengue Shock Syndrome(DSS)
o Specific test for DHF is tourniquet test.
o In terms of dengue status, all patients recruited had
either dengue NS1 or IgM or both detected by the
technique of ELISA.
o Once a current dengue infection was confirmed, a
thorough screening of the patient was conducted.
INEFFECTIVENESS OF MEDICINE
o Attempts to identify a
potential antiviral for
dengue has been faced
with several challenges
such as the presence of
o Effective vaccination to prevent DHF requires tetravalent
vaccine because preexisting heterotypic dengue antibody
is a risk factor for DHF.
o In 2007 a new serotype came into existence called the
Fifth serotype during the dengue outbreak in
Malaysia,for vaccine developers, factoring a new strain
could be a major outbreak.
ADMINISTRATION OF PAPAYA
o Leaves of papaya were
collected & thoroughly
washed with water.
o Leaves were grinded in
o About 25 ml of leaves
orally,twice daily for 5
Full blood count was monitored every 24 hours for the first 5 days
during the study, to determine the changes in platelet count and
GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES
o Blood for RNA extraction was taken on day 5 after the
last dose of the juice to conduct expression studies on
the PTAFR and the ALOX 12 genes.
o Gene expression was determined using gene expression
assays by Applied Biosystems on the ABI 7500 Fast
System on 12 RNA samples from the experimental group
and 12 RNA samples from the control group.
o Specific predesigned MGB probes were used for ALOX 12
and the PTAFR gene.
o There was a 15-fold increase in the ALOX 12 gene activity
among the patients in the experimental group as
compared to those in the control group at the end of the
o ALOX12 is known to be associated with increased
megakaryocyte production as well as its conversion to
platelets through 12-HETE mediated pathway which in
turn leads to increased platelet production.
o The PTAFR gene was expressed 13.42-folds among
the patients who consumed the juice as compared to
the control group.
o These finding supports the claim that the juice
consumption during the course of dengue infection has
the potential to induce the rapid production of
platelets. This was clearly demonstrated by the
significant increase in the mean platelet count after 40
hours and 48 hours of juice consumption.
o Dengue is now a global threat and is endemic or
epidemic in almost every country located in the
tropics. While we wait for new tools such as vaccines,
antiviral drugs and improved diagnostics, better use
should be made of the interventions that are currently
o Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts Nisar
Ahmad, Hina Fazal , Muhammad Ayaz, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Ijaz
Mohammad, Lubna Fazal. 2011 Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical
o Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of
Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and
Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.Subenthiran S, Choon TC, Cheong KC,
Thayan R, Teck MB, Muniandy PK, Afzan A, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z.
Received 7 January 2013; Revised 21 March 2013; Accepted 21 March
o Salutary effects of carica papaya leaf extract in dengue fever
patients– a pilot study S Hettige1 Sri Lankan Family Physician, 2008.
o G. Kaur, G. Jalagadugula, G.Mao, and A. K. Rao, “RUNX1/core binding
factor A2 regulates platelet 12-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX12): studies in
human RUNX1 haplodeficiency,” Blood,vol. 115, no. 15, pp. 3128–
"Dengue will be with us for many years"
Plianbangchang laments. And as bad as it
is, he says, it "could get worse."