Successfully reported this slideshow.

MAT Chapter 1


Published on

Presentation by Mohammed Zaid (Lecturer M. H. Saboo Siddik Polytechnic)

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

MAT Chapter 1

  1. 1. What is Multimedia • Derived from the word “Multi” and “Media” Multi • Many, Multiple  Media • Medium • Multiple means by which information is stored, transmitted, presented or perceived. • E.g. text, photographs, maps, sound, video etc.
  2. 2. Definition of multimedia • Multimedia is a combination information in the form of text, graphic, sound, animation, and video that is delivered interactively to the user by electronic means.TEXT AUDIO GRAPHIC VIDEO ANIMATION Color Charts Voice Sound Effect Music Maps Photograph Type faces Motion Pictures Animation
  3. 3. Goals & Objectives • Re-engineering of existing application. • Interactive tools • Open solutions (portable). • Bidirectional communication. • To produce cost effective solutions. • More work in less time. • Centralized information.
  4. 4. •TEXT Example
  5. 5. •GRAPHICS Example
  6. 6. •AUDIO Example
  7. 7. •ANIMATION example
  8. 8. Multimedia System • System capable of processing multimedia data and applications. • Characteristics: – Must be computer controlled. – Integrated components. – Information must be represented digitally. • Components: – Computer system, commn. n/w, display devices, capture devices, storage devices.
  9. 9. Limitation of Traditional Input Device • Keyboard most common input device – evolution  simple , numeric  alphanumeric and multifunction • GUI pointing device mouse or pen – essential for selecting and moving graphical objects. • Traditional multimedia variety of other types of input. • Only Text initially no measure of quality  normal dot matrix printer • high quality of text, text color, text attributes advanced printer like laser printer. • Data inputs like audio or voice, full motion video, still photos and images etc  require special device like digital pens ,video cameras , image scanners
  10. 10. Digital v/s Analog • Need to convert analog to digital. – E.g. scanning image • For full-motion video and audio, most i/p devices produce analog while computer can process only digital. (e.g. microphone) • Coding & Decoding process. • Hardware devices and software programs that perform this function are called codecs. – It includes compression and decompression algos.
  11. 11. Pen Input • An input device that allows the user to point, write, draw and gesture. • Gesture allows user to select and act upon the object. • Features: – Natural device for unskilled or partly skilled person. – Can be used as a pointing device. – Small in size – Can be used for palmtop computers (PDAs), notebooks etc. – Allows adding annotations to forms and documents.
  12. 12. The digital pen captures and stores writing. The writing is sent via USB or Bluetooth
  13. 13. Light Pen Structure
  14. 14. Light Pen • Light pen input device  used with  CRT display to point at items on the screen or to draw new items or modify existing ones. • The light pen had a photo sensor at the tip. • Photo sensor o/p  amplified shaped fed to  flip flop whose status is (set) • Whenever status flip flop is !comp is interrupted and reads coordinates of points where light is touched on screen
  15. 15. Uses of light pen • Can use instead of keyboard to request further info • Provide quick response to operator inquiry • Used as input device in CAD application • Write and sketch on the screen of CRT
  16. 16. Image Scanner • Types of scanner: – Flatbed Scanner – Sheet fed Scanner – Drum Scanner – Hand held Scanner
  17. 17. Flatbed Scanner
  18. 18. Sheet fed Scanner
  19. 19. Hand held Scanner
  20. 20. Working of Scanner
  21. 21. Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) • Protocol that enables computer, synthesizers, keyboards and other musical device to communicate with each other. • Has been widely accepted and utilized by musicians and composers. • 16 channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. • MIDI messages are unidirectional. • An extra sound cable is necessary for 2-way communication. • No error detection capability. • Max cable limit is 15 meter
  22. 22. • MIDI connector • MIDI ports – IN – OUT – THRU (allows data to be forwarded to another instrument) • Multiply devices can be connected in a daisy chain maner
  23. 23. • MIDI components: – Channel – Voice – Sequencer (storage server / s/w music editor) – Synthesizer – Track – Pitch • MIDI Message Status byte Data byte Data byte 1 Data byte 2 Channel number and Function to be performed Additional parameter Additional parameter
  24. 24. • Classification of MIDI messages MIDI messages Channel messages Voice messages Mode messages System messages Common messages Rea-time messages Exclusive messages
  25. 25. • Channel Messages: – Applied to specific channel – Channel number is included in the status byte for these messages – Classified into: • Voice Messages: – Carry musical performance data – Instruct the receiving instrument to assign particular sounds to its voice • Mode Messages: – Affects the way the receiving instrument responds to incoming channel voice messages • System Messages: – Not channel specific, affect the system as a whole, e.g. timing signal for synchronization. – No channel number is specified in their status byte – Classified into: • Common Messages: – Intended for all receivers in the system • Real-Time Messages: – related to synchronization – To synchronize all of the MIDI clock-based equipments within a system, like Sequencer. • Exclusive Messages: – Related to things that cannot be standardized, like patch parameters or sample data
  26. 26. Video Display Technology • Display Terminologies: – Triad – Pixel – Drift (image moves up in a very slow motion) – Jitter (image jumps at high rate) – Swim (a sort of shadow image move from top to bottom) – Convergence – pincushioning
  27. 27. Block diagram of a CRT monitor
  28. 28. Monochrome CRT
  29. 29. Construction of LCD
  30. 30. Working of LCD
  31. 31. Printers • Types of printers: – Dot Matrix – Ink Jet – Laser
  32. 32. Ink Jet Printer
  33. 33. Laser Printer
  34. 34. Multimedia Elements 1. Facsimile • first practical means of transmitting document images over a telephone line. • The basic technology, now widely used, has evolved to allow higher scanning density for better-quality fax. • standardized at a very early stage to CCITl Group 3 compression standards (RLL). • Typical pixel densities used for facsimile are in the 100 to 200 dpi (pixels/inch) range.
  35. 35.  Document images • used for storing business documents that must be retained for long periods of time or may need to be accessed by a large number of people. • Removes the need for making several copies of the original for storage or distribution. • Usually 300 dpi • For gray scale or color, the sizes are larger to accommodate the color information. – Normally 400 dpi
  36. 36. Geographic information system maps (GIS) • being used widely for natural resource and wildlife management. • Two kinds of technologies are used for storage and display of geographic maps. • Raster storage allows a map to be displayed on a graphical display system just like any other GUI application
  37. 37. • applications consist of road maps and area maps (used to track natural resources). • Attribute data is assigned and identified, usually by map coordinates. • Another application combines raster images that have the basic color map and a vector overlay showing the railroads or highways and other human-made structures, and text display showing attributes of features in the map.
  38. 38. • Full-motion Stored and Live Video • Holographic Images • Audio messages • Video messages
  39. 39. Holographic image
  40. 40. Multimedia Applications • Document Image • Image Processing and Image Recognition – Image recognition – Image enhancement – Image reconstruction – Image animation – Image annotation • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) • Handwriting Recognition • Full Motion Digital video applications • Electronic Messaging
  41. 41. Multimedia Systems Architecture APPLICATIONS Graphical User Multimedia Interface Extensions O.S. Software Multimedia Drivers Driver Support System hardware Add-on multimedia (Multimedia-enabled) devices and peripherals
  42. 42. Fig: Multilevel architecture based on interface bus Application Application Application compatibility Layer Systems Compatibility Layer Hardware layer Application compatibility Layer Systems Compatibility Layer Hardware layer Network File Server Analog devices Analog devices Multimedia Interface bus Object file serverWAN CD-ROM LAN Juke box
  43. 43. Multimedia Data Interface Standards • Earliest and simplest formats used were: – Intel’s DVI (Digital Video Interface) – Apple’s Quicktime – Microsoft’s AVI (Audio Video Interleave) • Intel’s DVI – Processor-independent specification for video interface • Apple’s Quicktime – Designed by Apple computers, to support multimedia applications – Capable of handling various formats of digital videos, pictures, sounds, panoramic images. – Video file formats • QuickTime movie (mov), MPEG-2,4 , AVI, 3GPP – Audio file formats • iTunes audio, MP3, WAV, AMR.
  44. 44. • Microsoft AVI: – Offers low-cost, low-resolution video processing – Suitable for average desktop users
  45. 45. Storage Media • Primary Storage Media: – Temporary storage – Types: RAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM • Random Access Memory: – Temporary storage – Programs can be loaded from outside and executed. – Larger the RAM better the performance. – Volatile memory. – Stores data and instructions that are frequently used by the CPU. – Instructions in RAM constantly changes, depending on the need of the CPU. – Types: • DRAM and SRAM.
  46. 46. • ROM – Contains inst. Which are activated each time the computer is turned on. – ROM inst. Performs POST check. – Instruction can not usually be changed. – Instructions are built into the electronic circuits of the chips. – non-volatile. – Access to info is random. • Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) – Not economically feasible. – Are blank ROM that can be programmed using special programming apparatus. – Suitable for development work. – Not programmed during manufacturing but are custom programmed by the user – One time programmable – More flexible and convenient than ROM.