COMPUTER ASSISTED
LEARNING/MULTIMEDIA
CBI
CBT
CAL
emphasis on learning
computer assisted
learning
THIS PRESENTATION:
Overview of
computer assisted learning.
MORE SPECIFICALLY:
I. types of CAL software,
II. hypermedia/multimedia environments,
III. authoring languages,
IV. design ...
I. TYPES OF CAL
SOFTWARE
 drill and practice
 games
 simulations
 tutorials
 tools
 (hypermedia)
 (CMI software; e....
categorizing is difficult:
imagine a “space travel game” in a
“hyper environment” with a
tutorial component.
• drill and practice
Typically, drill and practice
activities are supplementary
to the “normal” teaching process.
• drill and practice
Drill and practice is good for
fundamental mastery.
• drill and practice
Can be thought of as a “flash card”
system of the stimulus-response
model.
• drill and practice
Speed is important for both
presentation and feedback.
 randomness
 record keeping
• drill and practice
often incorporates:
• games
Often CAL software is presented
in game format.
• games
May include point scoring, and
can be individual or team format.
• games
Have the potential for a very
motivational environment.
• simulations
Can provide microworlds (e.g.,
a world without friction or
gravity).
• simulations
The University of Illinois has
successfully provided computer-
driven “dry” chemistry labs.
SIMULATIONS ARE
 safe
 inexpensive
 fast
 slow
 clean
 possible
• tutorials
Self-paced, where the computer
acts as an infinitely-patient,
all-wise tutor.
Is this guy slow, or what??
Typically a good tutorial will have a
structure(s) as follows:
give
information
test
give
info.
. . .
remediate
OK
(needs
...
give
information
test
give
info.
remediate
OK
(needs
help)
...
can be very
complex
• tools
Typically, application programs
which are being used by the
student for learning.
 spreadsheet programs
 statistics packages
 hypermedia software
 desktop publishing software
 presentation software
...
II. HYPERMEDIA
&MULTIMEDIA
ENVIRONMENTS
hyper- pref. „over‟, „above‟, „too‟...
eg. hypersensitive or hypertension
hypermedia can be thought of as
“chunks” of information (nodes),
stored in a structure, and accessed
by links (buttons).
• HYPERTEXT
Textual information, structured
by use of links and nodes.
Here is some example
text which is going to
be shru...
• HYPERMEDIA
Like hypertext, but including
sound, video, and/or animation.
Here is some example
text which is going to
be ...
• MULTIMEDIA
Involves more than one medium
(>2 really, since most literature
contains graphics and text).
• multimedia
Involves the use of sound,
animation, and/or video
as well as text and graphics.
Even Ted Nelson said he didn‟t
know the difference between
hypermedia and multimedia.
• multimedia
1
1 Educational Multime...
• multimedia
Computer-controlled multimedia
allows the seamless integration
of media.
• multimedia
Multimedia can provide a
sensory-rich learning environment.
• multimedia
Interactive multimedia is the
incorporation of multimedia with
human-computer interaction.
• multimedia
Interactive multimedia provides
an obvious educational advantage
over current broadcasting &
publishing which...
play speed movie
take a quiz
more information
WWW
tutorial
Speed
Information regarding the concept of speed can appear as ...
play speed movie
take a quiz
more information
WWW
tutorial
Speed
Information regarding the concept of speed can appear as ...
There are many possible “HyperDesigns”.
Linear
..... .....
There are many possible “HyperDesigns”.
Network
Possible applications of less complex
designs include electronic books, and
information/ training kiosks.
HYPERDESIGNS GIVE THE USER
OPPORTUNITY FOR:
 more control, but
 require careful planning and analysis.
q
IV. DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
 the design team and
 user interface design
Two important points in designing
CAL software are:
Typically, the design team can
circulate ideas on storyboards
(hard copies of screen templates).
dfgg
dfffgaaa dfgg
dfffgaaa dfgg
dfffgaaa
aaa
Storyboards circulate among
design team members.
dfgg
dfffgaaa dfgg
dfffgaaa...
 allow the user control
 use visual cues
 be consistent
 design, don‟t decorate
Some quick tips for User Interface Des...
V. A CRITICAL VIEW
1. CAL is an inferior teaching medium.
a critical view:
2. Users can become disoriented and
lost in hyper environments.
a critical view:
3. Too much attention is paid to
appearance (esp. graphics) and
not enough to educational issues.
q
SUMMARY
1. There are many types of CAL
software other than sequential
point-and-click text.
Summary
2. hypermedia/multimedia
environments offer great potential
but require care in design.
Summary
3. Many important design issues
need to be considered.
q
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Educational Software and Multimedia

  1. 1. COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING/MULTIMEDIA
  2. 2. CBI CBT
  3. 3. CAL emphasis on learning computer assisted learning
  4. 4. THIS PRESENTATION: Overview of computer assisted learning.
  5. 5. MORE SPECIFICALLY: I. types of CAL software, II. hypermedia/multimedia environments, III. authoring languages, IV. design considerations, V. a critical view of CAL/multimedia.
  6. 6. I. TYPES OF CAL SOFTWARE  drill and practice  games  simulations  tutorials  tools  (hypermedia)  (CMI software; e.g.. tests)
  7. 7. categorizing is difficult: imagine a “space travel game” in a “hyper environment” with a tutorial component.
  8. 8. • drill and practice Typically, drill and practice activities are supplementary to the “normal” teaching process.
  9. 9. • drill and practice Drill and practice is good for fundamental mastery.
  10. 10. • drill and practice Can be thought of as a “flash card” system of the stimulus-response model.
  11. 11. • drill and practice Speed is important for both presentation and feedback.
  12. 12.  randomness  record keeping • drill and practice often incorporates:
  13. 13. • games Often CAL software is presented in game format.
  14. 14. • games May include point scoring, and can be individual or team format.
  15. 15. • games Have the potential for a very motivational environment.
  16. 16. • simulations Can provide microworlds (e.g., a world without friction or gravity).
  17. 17. • simulations The University of Illinois has successfully provided computer- driven “dry” chemistry labs.
  18. 18. SIMULATIONS ARE  safe  inexpensive  fast  slow  clean  possible
  19. 19. • tutorials Self-paced, where the computer acts as an infinitely-patient, all-wise tutor. Is this guy slow, or what??
  20. 20. Typically a good tutorial will have a structure(s) as follows: give information test give info. . . . remediate OK (needs help)
  21. 21. give information test give info. remediate OK (needs help) ... can be very complex
  22. 22. • tools Typically, application programs which are being used by the student for learning.
  23. 23.  spreadsheet programs  statistics packages  hypermedia software  desktop publishing software  presentation software  CAD software  etc. • examples of tools q
  24. 24. II. HYPERMEDIA &MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTS
  25. 25. hyper- pref. „over‟, „above‟, „too‟... eg. hypersensitive or hypertension
  26. 26. hypermedia can be thought of as “chunks” of information (nodes), stored in a structure, and accessed by links (buttons).
  27. 27. • HYPERTEXT Textual information, structured by use of links and nodes. Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won‟t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what? Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won‟t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what? Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won‟t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what?
  28. 28. • HYPERMEDIA Like hypertext, but including sound, video, and/or animation. Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won‟t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what? Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won‟t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what? Here is some example text which is going to be shrunk down to a size which is barely recognisable; good too because then my poor spelling won‟t be recognised. Now, I have run out of example text. Oh well; so what?
  29. 29. • MULTIMEDIA Involves more than one medium (>2 really, since most literature contains graphics and text).
  30. 30. • multimedia Involves the use of sound, animation, and/or video as well as text and graphics.
  31. 31. Even Ted Nelson said he didn‟t know the difference between hypermedia and multimedia. • multimedia 1 1 Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Conference, June 1994, Vancouver. [Ted Nelson coined the term hypertext (“non-sequential writing”)].
  32. 32. • multimedia Computer-controlled multimedia allows the seamless integration of media.
  33. 33. • multimedia Multimedia can provide a sensory-rich learning environment.
  34. 34. • multimedia Interactive multimedia is the incorporation of multimedia with human-computer interaction.
  35. 35. • multimedia Interactive multimedia provides an obvious educational advantage over current broadcasting & publishing which is passive.
  36. 36. play speed movie take a quiz more information WWW tutorial Speed Information regarding the concept of speed can appear as text here. I know very little about it myself, so perhaps a multimedia tutorial about it would help me. To learn about it, select options below, some perhaps more than once.. Choose one option below:
  37. 37. play speed movie take a quiz more information WWW tutorial Speed Information regarding the concept of speed can appear as text here. I know very little about it myself, so perhaps a multimedia tutorial about it would help me. To learn about it, select optionsbelow, some perhaps more than once.. Choose one option below: Metaphors abound. A computer screen of information can be a slide, a page, a card, a node, whatever...
  38. 38. There are many possible “HyperDesigns”. Linear ..... .....
  39. 39. There are many possible “HyperDesigns”. Network
  40. 40. Possible applications of less complex designs include electronic books, and information/ training kiosks.
  41. 41. HYPERDESIGNS GIVE THE USER OPPORTUNITY FOR:  more control, but  require careful planning and analysis. q
  42. 42. IV. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS  the design team and  user interface design Two important points in designing CAL software are:
  43. 43. Typically, the design team can circulate ideas on storyboards (hard copies of screen templates).
  44. 44. dfgg dfffgaaa dfgg dfffgaaa dfgg dfffgaaa aaa Storyboards circulate among design team members. dfgg dfffgaaa dfgg dfffgaaa dfgg dfffgaaa dfgg dfffgaaa content expert graphic artist cognitive scientist programmer
  45. 45.  allow the user control  use visual cues  be consistent  design, don‟t decorate Some quick tips for User Interface Design q
  46. 46. V. A CRITICAL VIEW 1. CAL is an inferior teaching medium.
  47. 47. a critical view: 2. Users can become disoriented and lost in hyper environments.
  48. 48. a critical view: 3. Too much attention is paid to appearance (esp. graphics) and not enough to educational issues. q
  49. 49. SUMMARY 1. There are many types of CAL software other than sequential point-and-click text.
  50. 50. Summary 2. hypermedia/multimedia environments offer great potential but require care in design.
  51. 51. Summary 3. Many important design issues need to be considered. q

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