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Inclusion – What is It?


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Presentation to 1st and 2nd year general education teachers to help them understand the term inclusion, and discussion of strategies to help facilitate successful inclusive environments

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Inclusion – What is It?

  1. 1. Presented by Dr. Alicia Brophy
  2. 2. “I have come to frightening conclusion that, I amthe decisive element in the classroom. It is mypersonal approach that creates the climate. It ismy daily mood that makes the weather. As ateacher I possess tremendous power to make achild’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool oftorture or an instrument of inspiration. I canhumiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situationsit is my response that decides whether a crisis willbe escalated or de-escalated, and a childhumanized or de-humanized.”
  3. 3. 1.All individuals are capable of learning.2.The teaching talent to help all students learn according to their potential exists in most schools today.3.The knowledge gap between what is known about effective teaching and what routinely is practiced in classrooms is enormous.4.All students need a safe, caring, and positive learning environment.
  4. 4.  Be able to define inclusion and related terms ◦ What is inclusion? (inclusion vs. full inclusion) ◦ What is mainstreaming? Gain an understanding of Federal Law with regard to inclusion and its history Identify characteristics that have been identified as important to and supportive of inclusion Identify strategies that can be used to support students within an inclusive classroom
  5. 5.  Please take a moment to complete the K part of the KL chart provided K (What you know) L (What you learned)
  6. 6.  Has anyone in this room taught in an inclusive classroom before? Students taught in this type of classroom environment?
  7. 7.  Inclusion is a term that describes the ideology that each child should be educated in the general education environment in the school that they would regularly attend, to the maximum extent possible. It involves providing the support services to the student rather than bringing the student to the services, and requires that the student will benefit from being in the class rather than having to keep pace with other students.
  8. 8.  Full inclusion is the belief that technological supports and instructional practices are currently available to provide accommodations to all students, regardless of whether or not they have a disability, in the classrooms and schools they would regularly attend.
  9. 9.  This term refers to the selective placement of students with disabilities in one or more general education classes. The idea is that students will be “set up for success.” It is assumed that in order for a student to be successfully mainstreamed, they must posses the ability to keep pace with their general education peers both academically and socially.
  10. 10.  The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (as amended in 2004), does not require inclusion. Rather, the law states that children with disabilities should be educated in the "least restrictive environment.” IDEA stipulates that the process for determining the "least restrictive environment" should begin with placement in the general education classroom.
  11. 11.  IDEA does recognize that it is not appropriate to place all children in the general education classroom. ◦ School districts should have a “continuum of placements” available, extending from the regular education classroom to residential settings, in order to accommodate the needs of all children with disabilities.
  12. 12. ◦ Use of the “continuum of placements” concept makes it more probable that each child will be appropriately placed in an environment that is specifically suited to meet their needs.◦ The degree of inclusion should derive from what the student needs (as determined by the IEP team), not by the parents’ desires or school district’s convenience.
  13. 13.  Section 504 is significant in the legal mandate of Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) and the use of supplementary aids and services for students with disabilities because it was used to ensure nondiscrimination on the basis of disability. Because the categories of disabilities covered by the IDEA have expanded during the past two reauthorizations in 1997 and 2004, Section 504 is used less often to provide access to public education for students with disabilities.
  14. 14.  Oberti v. Clementon (1993) ◦ The Federal Court upheld the right of students with disabilities to be educated with their nondisabled peers in general education classrooms. This judicial decision required that school districts need to provide an explanation as to why students with disabilities are educated in separate settings and why this placement is the best option for said students. (Baker, Wang, & Walberg, 1995)
  15. 15.  Board of Education v. Holland (1992, 1994) ◦ The 9th Circuit District Court defined LRE as a strong Congressional preference. This opinion combined factors from several previous decisions to determine what the least restrictive environment is. Those factors dealt with educational benefits in a regular classroom; non-academic benefits for the handicapped child in a regular classroom; the childs effect on the teacher and other child in the regular class; and the cost of supplementary aids and service to mainstream the handicapped child. The Court said cost is only a factor if it will significantly affect another child in the district.
  16. 16.  Hartmann v. Loudoun County Board of Education (1996) ◦ A Virginia federal district court ruled that a nonverbal student with autism should attend a regular education second grade class with appropriate supplemental aids and services. However, when the case was appealed, the 4th Circuit Court concluded that the inclusion efforts were sufficient with staff training and help on behavior issues, reduced class size, and class composed of independent workers.
  17. 17.  Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F. (1999) ◦ The Supreme Court ruled that taxpayer-supported schools are responsible for the costs of providing continual care for disabled students under a federal law that says all children must receive "free, appropriate public education." Under the Courts reading of the IDEAs relevant provisions, medical treatments such as suctioning, ventilator checks, catheterization, and others which can be administered by non-physician personnel come within the parameters of the special education laws related services.
  18. 18.  Cooperative Learning Experiences ◦ Think-Pair-Share ◦ Peer Tutoring ◦ Small, cooperative learning groups Philosophical Orientation Defines Special Education as a Service, Not a Place Provision of Adaptations and Support ◦ Only as needed ◦ Follow accommodations and support that is expressed in a student’s IEP paperwork
  19. 19.  Inquiry-Based Learning Experiences Classroom is Student-Centered and has a Collaborative Learning Environment ◦ Identification of students’ strengths and areas of need ◦ Students have mutual respect within the learning environment ◦ Students help to create the classroom rules and are expected to follow them ◦ Students have a responsibility for developing their community
  20. 20.  Teachers Teaching Teachers ◦ Collaboration between general education and special education teachers is required. ◦ RTI ◦ Strategies for increasing consultation time ◦ Collaborative consultation ◦ Assistance teams ◦ Coaching ◦ Peer collaboration ◦ Cooperative teaching ◦ Communication skills for collaboration
  21. 21.  Parent Teacher Collaboration ◦ Establish cooperation ◦ Develop culturally responsive relationships ◦ Parent-teacher conferences ◦ Parents as teachers
  22. 22.  Focus on time for learning Ensure high rates of student success Provide positive and supportive learning environments Plan and maintain a motivational environment
  23. 23.  Universal Design for Learning (UDL) High Quality Inclusion in a Diverse Society Positive Behavior Support Tiered Models in Early Intervention
  24. 24.  An educational framework based on research in the learning sciences that guides development of flexible learning environments that accommodates individual learning differences
  25. 25.  Since the way individuals learn can be unique, the UDL framework, first defined by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) in the 1990s, calls for initially creating curriculum that provides: Multiple means of representation to give learners numerous ways of acquiring information and knowledge Multiple means of expression to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know Multiple means of engagement to tap into learners interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn
  26. 26. Primary or Core Universal instruction for all students to promote behavior and reading achievementSecondary or Supplemental Targeted small group or individual instruction for students who need additional support or assistance to successfully learn to learn to readTertiary or Intensive Individualized or small group, intense, specialized instruction for students who despite previous instruction and intervention efforts experience marked difficulties in learning to read
  27. 27.  IDEA 2004 addresses the use of RTI ◦ Created the option of using up to 15% of federal special education funds for “early intervention”  for students not been identified for special education  For students who need academic or behavioral support to succeed in general education ◦ IDEA funds  Professional development  Scientifically-based literacy programs and assessments  Support services
  28. 28.  Please take a moment to complete the L part of the KL chart provided K (What you know) L (What you learned)