Communicating With Others By: Fernando Dominguez
Table of Contents• What is Communication?• Transmission Model of Communication• Verbal and Nonverbal Communication• Communication Environments• Defining Argumentative Communication• Goals of Argumentation• Threshold
What is Communication?• Communication is when one or more people send and receive a message.• The messages are distorted by noise, occur in context, have an effect, and allow feedback.• The message goes through a process of sender, encoding, message, channel, receiver, decoding, and feedback.
Transmission Model of Communication• The sender is the source of message and the person sending the message.• The message is then encoded by the sender, where there’s a selection of verbal/nonverbal selection of how to send the message. Represents the actual idea and thought.• After encoding, the message is then finally sent containing composition and grammar.
Transmission Models of Communication (Cont.)• Channel is the medium in which the message is past. Our channels of communicating are our five senses.• The message is then acknowledged by the receiver. The receiver is the audience that the message was intended for.• Once the message is received, it is then decoded.• Decoding is the ability to translate the message into symbols that the receiver can comprehend. A message can be decoded based on the amount of noise.• Once the message is decoded, the receiver must then send feedback or information back to the sender.
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication• Verbal Communicating is communication that uses language such as words, numbers, or symbols.• Verbal communication is 9% writing, 16% reading, 30% speaking, and 45% listening.• Nonverbal Communication takes place when a message is sent through non-linguistic ways.• Nonverbal communication is body language, facial expressions, and eye contact.
Communication Environments• There are five communication environments: intrapersonal, interpersonal, small group, community, and mass.• Intrapersonal communication is when you communicate with yourself. It could be thinking or talking to yourself.• Interpersonal communication is taken place when a couple of people are communicating.• Small group communication takes place in a conversation between three or more people.• Community communication is communication between fifth teen or more people.• Mass communication is communication transmitted by the media. For example, newspapers, radio, and television.
Defining Argumentative Communication• An argument is caused by a disagreement or confusion in the message.• Some argument are easy to resolve and require little thought or have an authority figure to resolve it.• However, some arguments are more difficult to resolve and require some thought or a type of value.• This is when communication and argumentation take action.
Goals of Argumentation• The goals of argumentation are to find not the truth but an argument that is valid.• Truth is the complete accuracy of propositions, statements, or sentences.• Arguing over the truth promotes dogmatism, which discourages constructive argumentation.• Validity is the strength of the conclusion and supports the argument being made.• Arguing for the most valid position promoted open- mindedness which encourages constructive argumentation.
Threshold• Threshold is the degree of validity and certainty which helps the audience made a decision.• The continuum of argumentative certainty helps people determine the validity.• Here is an example of the continuum. 0%------25%------50%------75%------99% Opinion Assertion Inference Fact