Saskia SassenColumbia UniversityIntegrating Cities 2012 AmsterdamBENEATH THE HATREDS ANDRACISMS…STRUCTURALCONVERGENCE
Unstable Meanings Structural approximation beneath ideological and political distance Two emergent cross-border spaces:The security apparatus and we the citizens (the new colonials?)Inequality and expulsions
The making of histories An analysis that seeks to recover how a condition, a system, a subject, were made. The diverse elements that got assembled to make that condition or that subject.
. Analytic Tactics Destabilizing stable meanings In the shadows of powerful explanations When territory exits conventional framings: it becomes institutionally mobile, nomadic and can alter the meaning of nation-state membership: Today’s large diverse cities
MULTIPLE IMMIGRATION SPACESThe spaces (institutional, ideational, tactical) forproducing the migrant subject can be very diverse- the new transnational class of professionals- the contract-labor worker entering for seasonalwork under specific short-term conditions- the business-visa immigrant- the family-dependent immigrant- the green card immigrant- the high-tech visa worker
Top 20 remittance-recipient countries, 2006 (US$ billions) Billions Billions of dollars of dollars1. India 21.7 11. Serbia 4.12. China 21.3 12. Pakistan 3.93. Mexico 18.1 13. Brazil 3.64. France 12.7 14. Bangladesh 3.45. Philippines 11.6 15. Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.36. Spain 6.9 16. Portugal 3.27. Belgium 6.8 17. Vietnam 3.28. Germany 6.5 18. Colombia 3.29. United Kingdom 6.4 19. United States 310. Morocco 4.2 20. Nigeria 2.8Source: Author’s Calculations Based on IMF BoP Yearbook, 2004, and World Bank Staff estimates.
Security regimes 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies work on programs related to counterterrorism, homeland security and intelligence in about 10,000 locations across the US An estimated 854,000 people – nearly 1.5 times as many people as live in Washington, D.C. – hold top-secret security clearances
. Of the estimated 265,000 private companies doing intelligence work, 1,931 do work at the top-secret level. Out of 854,000 people with top-secret clearance, an estimated 265,000 are private contractors
MAP OF GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATESECURITY AGENCIES IN THE US Source: Washington Post. 2010. “Top Secret America,” Interactive Maps. Washington Post, July 2010. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/top-secret-america/map/
MAP OF COUNTER-TERRORISMORGANIZATIONS IN THE US Source: Washington Post. 2010. “Top Secret America,” Interactive Maps. Washington Post, July 2010. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/top-secret-america/map/
INEQUALITY IS MADE The aims of economic systems can vary greatly The modes in which governments regulate economies
Income % of top 10% earners 1917-2005*Income is defined as market income but excludes capital gainsSource: Mishel, L. 2004. “Unfettered Markets, Income Inequality, and Religious Values.” Viewpoints. May 19, 2004.Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved July 26, 2008 [www.epi.org/content.cfm/webfeatures_viewpoints_moral_markets_presentation.]
Who are the top 1% and therest--2010 Income: wages, gov transfers, capital gains, dividends, other investment income, etc. Top 1% of US households had a mininum income of $516,633 Bottom 60% earned a max of $59,154 bottom 40 %: max of $33,870 bottom 20%: max of $16,961. See http://taxpolicycenter.org/numbers/displayatab. cfm?Docid=3047
Expulsions: Foreclosures 2006 : 1.2 million foreclosures, up 42% from 2005. This is: One in every 92 U.S. households 2007: 2.2 million forecls, up 75% from 06 2008: 3.1 million, up 81% from 07 2009: 3.9 million (or 1 in 45 US hholds) (From 2007 to 2009: 120% increase in forecls) 2010: 2.9 mill forecls. (2006-2010: total 14.2 mil) Source: RealtyTrac 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010; Blomquist 2011
In the shadows of“urbanization” In all the talk about the growth of urban populations there is never mention of what processes are feeding this growth. One set of processes consists of expulsions – of people from their land due to “landgrabs” or mining. Where do they go? To cities, where they will add to the homeless and to the slums.
One instanceFrom 2006 to 2010: 70million hectares of land in Afri ,LatAm, Cambodia, Ukraine bought/leased by rich govts,firms,fin firms The land is now more valued than the people or activities on it The active making of surplus populations Novel assemblages of Territory/Authority/Rights