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  1. 1. CONCORDANCER<br />Prepared by: <br />SitiHajarbt Ibrahim 0725600<br />NurulFarhanabtMohdSalim 0729742<br />FatinHananibt Mat Radzi 0724040<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />Concordancer is a basic tool for corpus linguist. <br />Turns the electronic texts into databases which can be searched. <br />Offers the possibility of searching for word combinations within a specified range of words and looking up parts of words (substrings, in particular affixes, for example). <br />A more sophisticated program might also provide its users with lists of collocates or frequency lists.<br />
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION<br />Corpora that can be searched are text files, websites, emails, etc (anything that can be converted into electronic texts).<br />Examples of concordance program: <br />TextSTAT<br />WordCruncher <br />AntConc<br />WordSmith<br />
  4. 4. Its use in the field of Corpus Linguistics / teaching and learning<br /><ul><li>Students can use a concordancer to find out how to use a word or phrase
  5. 5. To find out which other words belong with a word they want to use.
  6. 6. Example: </li></ul> In academic writing, a paper can describe, claim, or show, though it doesn't believe or want (*this paper wants to prove that ...).<br />
  7. 7. Language teachers:<br />can use the concordancer to find similar patterns so as to help their students. <br />can also use it to help produce vocabulary exercises.<br />Researcher:<br />can use a concordancer, for example when searching through a database of hospital accident records, to see whether fracture is associated with fall, grease, ladder. <br />
  8. 8. Article 1 : A concordance-based study of metaphoric expressions used by general practitioners and patients in consultation<br />Purpose: To study metaphoric expressions used by doctors and patients in general practice.<br />Design of study: Concordance-based language analysis of spoken data.<br />Method: 373 consultations with 40 doctors in a UK general practice setting were transcribed and scrutinised for metaphoric expressions, using ‘concordancing’ software. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in analysis.<br />
  9. 9. results<br />Doctors use mechanical metaphors to explain disease and speak of themselves as ‘problem-solvers’ and ‘controllers of disease’. <br />Patients employ a range of vivid metaphors, but fewer metaphors of machines and problem/solution. They use metaphors to describe symptoms and are more likely to use metaphoric language at the interface of physical and psychological symptoms (eg. ‘tension’, ‘stress’).<br />
  10. 10. Article 2: Corpus Concordancingin Teaching Academic Discourse Writing to Medical Students<br /><ul><li>Purpose: To teach the skills necessary to describe a research.
  11. 11. Design of study: Concordancing-related corpus analysis and non-concordancing related corpus analysis.
  12. 12. Method: 15 research articles from prestigious scientific journals in the field of medicine were analysed by Group A (students doing analysis using concordancer) and Group B (doing analysis through “traditional way”).
  13. 13. Genre analysis: lexico-grammatical items, including interpersonal metadiscourse devices, and rhetorical features of the text.</li></li></ul><li>results<br /><ul><li>Both types of text analysis enabled the students to make the following generalisations:</li></ul>1. First person pronouns are used when the writers describe their own procedural choices in their research.<br />2. The preferable tense for outlining the objectives of a study is the past tense.<br />3. The most frequent verbs introducing the purpose of the study are “identify”, investigate” and “determine”.<br /><ul><li>The group of students which used corpus concordancing software arrived at these generalisations far more quickly than those students who performed corpus analysis in a traditional, “manual” way.</li>