Attention And Pattern Recognition(1)


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Attention And Pattern Recognition(1)

  1. 1. Ch1 introduction Nick Lund Attention and pattern recognition
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Attention and pattern recognition </li></ul><ul><li>What’s attention? </li></ul><ul><li>How is attention studied? </li></ul><ul><li>What are pattern and face recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>How are pattern and face recognition studied? </li></ul><ul><li>The information processing approach </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 3. Attention and pattern recognition <ul><li>Solso (1998)- </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of the thinking mind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception, pattern recognition, attention, memory, language and thinking. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Attention and pattern recognition <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How we interpret and experience information from our sense organs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely the concentration on , and response to , part of the information . </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Attention and pattern recognition <ul><li>Pattern recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to pick out and organize some aspects of our visual input . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treisman and Schmdit (1982) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention -> “ perceptual glue ” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What’s attention? <ul><li>William James (1890) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the taking possession by the mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In clear and vivid form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May seem simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focalisation, concentration of consciousness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing of attention or concentration on one stimulus. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What’s attention? <ul><li>Solso (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The concentration of mental effort on sensory or mental events. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allport (1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No uniform function to attribute everything that have been called “attention”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focused ( or selective) attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided attention </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What’s attention? <ul><li>Focused attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick out or focus on some information from a mass of data. (CH2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divided attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate attention to two or more tasks simultaneously . (CH3) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What’s attention? <ul><li>Automatic processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks that can be so well practiced that need no attentional resources . (CH4) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How is attention studied <ul><li>Eysenck(1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests they can be divided into two basic experimental techniques. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How is attention studied <ul><li>Dichotic listening task(e.g.Cherrt,1953) </li></ul><ul><li>Focused attention </li></ul><ul><li>Shadowing </li></ul><ul><li>Dual task </li></ul><ul><li>Divided attention is affected by varieables such as task difficulty and similarity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How is attention studied <ul><li>Diary method to record everyday mistakes caused by attention errors. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What are pattern and face recognition? <ul><li>Pattern recognition has been defined as ’the ability to abstract and integrate certain elements of a stimulus into an organised scheme for memory storage and retrieval’(Solso, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition and identification become more complex problems when we consider face recognition. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are pattern and face recognition? <ul><li>Behavioural studies </li></ul><ul><li>Neurophysiological studies </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive neuropsychology </li></ul>
  15. 15. Information processing approach <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>reception 、 recording </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><li>categorising 、 sorting 、 interpreting, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>response </li></ul>
  16. 16. Information processing approach <ul><li>Serial Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step-by-step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadbent’s Filter model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allport’s module model </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. summary <ul><li>Attention and pattern recognition <=> memory and perception </li></ul><ul><li>Focused attention </li></ul><ul><li>Divided attention </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic processing </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Information process </li></ul>