Training encourages learning to happen and it develops the Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes (KSAs) needed to perform a job. For example: KSAs of a Branch Manager K – knows how to conduct a swot analysis, knowledge of the products and services of the company S – planning skills, superior communication skills (written, oral, and reports generation), marketing skills, A – hardworking, honest, humble, team player, responsible
Improvement of skills – generates new and innovative ideas, provide high-quality customer service, or improvement of skills in making new products/services. If you have talented employees, there must be a career path for them. Otherwise, they will leave the company because of the absence of the opportunity for career growth. Honing the best people can result to increased motivation of the employees. Therefore, these people are the company’s edge to stay on top of the game. The most obvious reason why organizations send their people to trainings is the return on investment (ROI) or profits. Which is sensibly related with # 3.
Providing training and development programs for the employees will work best when it is aligned with the strategy of the company. It is imperative to match the business strategy with the training initiatives to avoid waste of time, money, and effort. The first step is to review the Mission, Values, and Goals to determine the business strategy of the company. Here is an example of a business strategy that focuses more with customer satisfaction. The conceptualization and implementation of training initiatives and activities respectively were based on the business strategy. Meanwhile, the metrics are the evaluation process in order to find out the effectiveness of the training activities.
Planning for training and development must be systematic but flexible enough to adapt to business needs (or business resources). It is a step by step process. Identify whether there is a training need – TNA Determine the basic attitude and motivation of the employees to ensure their preparedness for the training. Write learning objectives, materials, and curriculum Make sure the employees can apply the content of the training program. Choose the training method (traditional or non-traditional) Evaluate the program and make necessary revisions so that learning objective is achieved.
There are times when a TNA is not necessary. For example, the organization will communicate a new vision or address a legal concern – it is advisable to train ALL employees regarding those. However, teams who have been working for so many years who have attended a couple of team-building trainings who have an EFFICIENCY problem can benefit from a TNA. The TNA will identify what is causing the performance problem and as well as the training program that will allow them to become more productive.
There are 2 kinds of TNA Proactive – problems are not yet identified. The TNA is conducted to identify what will cause the future performance gaps. Reactive – problems are already present. The TNA is conducted to know what causes the performance gaps and will determine if these gaps can be remedied by a training or can be addressed by taking other measures.
The performance gaps (PG) triggers the needs analysis in a reactive TNA. Actual Performance (AP) is less than (<) the Expected Performance, resulted to (=) a Performance Gap (PG)
Conducting a Training Needs Analysis is also a step by step process. When the gaps have been identified, the person in charge of the TNA must take a look into the three aspects of the company – internal/external business environment (organization), the jobs (operational), and the people (person). The analysis of the organization, jobs, and the people, will provide a concrete result on what caused the performance gaps. Training needs or non-training needs can be determined after knowing the causes of the performance gaps.
Usually, in conducting the organizational analysis, you interview the top management about the mission, strategies, budget, and values of the company. To reiterate, training and development (T&D) programs must be strategic in the first place to avoid a mismatch between the training provided and the people who are trained. Although, the business strategy must be aligned with all other functions and systems in the organization and not just in T&D alone. Like for instance, recruitment of employees should consider the business strategy when selecting and hiring competent employees. Because if there is a mismatch between the people and the job, it causes more dilemma than anyone could imagine.
The operational analysis determines the tasks to reach the expected performance. Identify what is the job, the duties and responsibilities of the job. 2. Then you can get the information from the job description. You can also interview the job-holders and their supervisors. 3. You can either give them a questionnaire or organize a meeting with them. ***Kindly see the sample questionnaire attachment. 4. In analyzing the data gathered, it is important to identify the level of importance of the KSAs. For example, a branch manager rated his communication skill as very important, yet the company is providing more training on knowledge of products and services. Therefore, the training provided is not the training need for the branch manager.
The person analysis will identify those incumbents who are not meeting the performance requirements because each employee will be examined. For example, in a production department of computer chips. Their expected performance should be 5 rejects per month but their actual performance is 50 rejects per month. In conducting the person analysis, you will determine who are the employees who do not have the KSAs to perform the job. To determine who the ‘problem employees’ are, you can either interview their team members, peers, and supervisors or look at the data given in their performance appraisals or their self-ratings. Sometimes, these data are not accurately done because of lack of time and it could be fabricated as well. To find out if the employee is really fit for the job (or has the necessary KSAs to perform well), give them written tests (cognitive exams about their job), or behavioral tests to find out their attitude while in the work place.
After identifying what caused the performance gaps, we can now determine the training needs vs. the non-training needs
When the performance gaps are caused by insufficient KSAs, the solution is a training. For example: A newly promoted staff (from marketing officer to marketing manager) who did not have proper training on how to handle subordinates. But there are also KSA deficiencies which can be solved by other measures – through job aids, changing work conditions, or coaching and mentoring.
1. Reward/Punishment incongruence happens when there is a mismatch between what the company provides and what the employee needs. For example: A high-performer employee gets more work load compared to his/her team members who are also receiving the same salary. Simply put, the best performers often gets a reward through a punishment. Solving this problem does not require a training. The company can either provide an attractive incentive scheme for those employees who are performing well or better yet, promote them (but of course the employee must be ready for the promotion, and that promotion will then require a training for the new position). 2. Employees who are supposed to be monitored by their supervisors but due to lack of time, they are neglected and the inadequate feedback caused them to perform less than expected on their jobs. These employees does not need a retooling program to perform well, but guidance from their superiors or supervisors. In this particular problem, it is best to train the supervisor on how to properly manage their subordinates and not the employees. 3. Sometimes, conditions in the work place obstruct the desired performance levels. Like for example, getting refunds from a financial institution who always delay the release of checks because it is what the management instructed them to do. In this case, the employees are not the problem, but their system (or the company itself).
For this part, I did not put notes because the content is very self-explanatory. If you have questions you can email me or do your own research. Thanks
Training Needs Analysis
T R A I N I N G A N D D E V E L O P M E N T Susana J. Eslava 8.1 Training Needs Analysis 8.2 Preparing Training Program Curriculum
<ul><li>- A planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies. </li></ul>Training Defined:
<ul><li>Improve employee skills </li></ul><ul><li>Attract, motivate, and retain talented employees </li></ul><ul><li>Allows any organization to gain a competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>For better financial performance </li></ul>Rationale of Training
Training: must be Strategic Business Strategy Strategic Training and Development Initiatives Training and Development Activities Metrics that show Value of Training <ul><li>Customer oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Diversify the learning portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Improve customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerate the pace of employee learning </li></ul><ul><li>Capture and Share knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Use web-based training </li></ul><ul><li>Increase amount of customer service training </li></ul><ul><li>Make development planning mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a place for knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Performance improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced customer complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Customer loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Employee engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Turnover </li></ul>
Training: must be systematic Conduct Needs Assessment Ensure Employee Readiness for Training Create a Learning Environment Develop an Evaluation Plan Select Training Method Monitor and Evaluate the Program Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6
<ul><li>Operational Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Define the job </li></ul><ul><li>Determine where to collect information </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the method to use </li></ul><ul><li>Gather and analyze data </li></ul>TNA: Input
<ul><li>1. Determine the training objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2. Consider the demographics </li></ul><ul><li>3. Design of training program – training approaches </li></ul>Preparing a Training Program
<ul><li>Terminal Objective </li></ul><ul><li>A statement that describes: </li></ul><ul><li>What the participants will be able to do as a result of the training </li></ul><ul><li>What the expected output shall be at the end of the training </li></ul>Writing Training Objectives
<ul><li>States what the trainer should be doing or what he wants vs. what the learner needs or should be able to do. </li></ul>Common pitfalls in writing Terminal Objectives
POOR: In this course, the trainees will be taught how to use Microsoft Excel. BETTER: As a result of this seminar, participants can use Microsoft Excel in preparation of standard reports.
<ul><li>It describes the subject matter to be taught. </li></ul>Common pitfalls in writing Terminal Objectives
POOR: As a result of the program, participants will understand the legal considerations in long-term lending. BETTER: As a result of this program, participants will be able to screen out loan applications that do not meet the legal and governmental requirements.
Common pitfalls in writing Terminal Objectives
POOR: The objective of this course is to discuss common problems encountered in dealing with customers. BETTER: As a result of this program, sales and service personnel will be able to handle customer complaints according to the company’s code of professional salesmanship .
Common pitfalls in writing Terminal Objectives Promises too much .
POOR: As a result of this program, participants will become excellent communicators. BETTER: As a result of this program, participants will be able to make concise and systematic oral presentations.
Determine The Demographics <ul><li>How many people? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the age range? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the preferred learning style? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the level of the learners? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the location of the learners? </li></ul>
Learning Styles/Methods of Training <ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Assignments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Presentations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audio Visual Presentations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group Discussion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving Workshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field Trips </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On the Job Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unstructured Group Interactions </li></ul></ul></ul>
Design of the Training Program <ul><li>Terminal Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>4. Time, Materials, Others </li></ul>
<ul><li>Course Title: Conducting an Effective Performance Feedback Session </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Title: Using the problem-solving style in the feedback interview </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson length: Full day </li></ul><ul><li>Learning objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Define the eight key behaviors used in the problem-solving style of giving appraisal feedback without error </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the eight key behaviors in an appraisal feedback role play without error </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audience: Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-requisites: </li></ul><ul><li>Trainee: None </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor: Familiarity with the tell-and-sell, tell-and-listen, and problem-solving approaches used in performance appraisal feedback interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Room Arrangement: Fan Type </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and Equipment Needed: VCR, over-head projector, pens, transparencies, VCR tape titled “Performance Appraisal Interviews,” role-play exercises </li></ul>