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metodos de estudio


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técnicas de estudio

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metodos de estudio

  2. 2. Overview of Management METHOD STUDY Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs.
  3. 3. Overview of Management OBJECTIVES OF METHOD STUDY 1. Improvement of processes and procedures 2. Improvement in the design of plant and equipment 3. Improvement of layout 4. Improvement in the use of men, materials and machines 5. Economy in human effort and reduction of unnecessary fatigue 6. Improvement in safety standards 7. Development of better working environment.
  5. 5. Overview of Management COMMONLY USED RECORDING TECHNIQUES 1. Outline Process Charts 2. Flow Process Chart 3. Two Handed Process Chart 4. Multiple Activity Chart 5. Simo Chart 6. Flow Diagrams 7. String Diagrams 8. Cyclegraph 9. Chronocyclegraph 10.Travel Chart Man Type Material Type Equipment Type USING TIME SCALE
  6. 6. Overview of Management CLASS OF CHANGE HANDS & BODY MOTION WORK STATION PROCESS PRODUCT RAW MATERIAL 1 New Minor Changes Same Same Same 2 New New Same Same Same 3 New New New Same Same 4 New New New Modified Same 5 New New New Modified New CLASS OF CHANGE
  7. 7. Overview of Management Class Pivot Body member(s) moved 1 Knuckle Finger 2 Wrist Hand and Finger 3 Elbow Forearm, hand and fingers 4 Shoulder Upper arm, forearm, hand and fingers 5 Trunk Torso, Upper arm, forearm, hand and fingers CLASSIFICATION OF MOVEMENTS
  8. 8. Overview of Management EXAMINE The questioning technique is the means by which the critical examination is conducted, each activity being subjected in turn to a systematic and progressive series of questions.
  9. 9. Overview of Management PRIMARY QUESTIONS the PURPOSE for which the PLACE at which the SEQUENCE in which the PERSON by whom the MEANS by which
  10. 10. Overview of Management ELIMINIATING COMBINING REARRANGING OR SIMPLIFING those activitiesWith a view to
  11. 11. Overview of Management SECONDARY QUESTIONS The secondary questions cover the second stage of the questioning technique, during which the answers to the primary questions are subjected to further query to determine whether possible alternatives of place, sequence, persons and means are practicable and preferred as a means of improvement upon the existing method.
  12. 12. Overview of Management PURPOSE: what is done? why is it done? what else might be done? what should be done? PLACE: where is it done? Why is it done there? Where else might it is done? Where should it be done?
  13. 13. Overview of Management SEQUENCE: When is it done? Why is it done? When might it be done? When should it be done? PERSON: who does it? Why does that person do it? Who else might do it? Who should do it? MEANS: How is it done? Why is it done that way? How else might it be done? How should it be done ?
  14. 14. Overview of Management DEFINING THE IMPROVED METHOD • The report should show: 1. Relative costs in material, labour and overheads of the two methods, and savings expected. 2. The cost of installing the new method, including the cost of new equipment and of re-laying out shops or working areas 3. Executive actions required to implement the new method. • It should also give details regarding : 1. The tools and equipment to be used 2. A description of the method 3. A diagram of the work place layout, jigs/fixtures etc
  15. 15. Overview of Management INSTALLING THE IMPROVED METHOD 1. Gaining acceptance of the change by the Management 2. Gaining acceptance of the change by the workers 3. Maintaining close contact with the progress of the job until satisfied that it is running as intended
  16. 16. Overview of Management THE PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY A. Use of the human body 1. The two hands should begin and complete their movements at the same time 2. Motion of the arms shall be symmetrical and in opposite directions and should be made simultaneously 3. Hands and body motions should be made at the lowest classification at which it is possible to do the work satisfactorily 4. Rhythm is essential to the smooth and automatic performance of a repetitive operation. 5. Work should be arranged so that eye movements are confined to a comfortable area, without the need for frequent changes of focus.
  17. 17. Overview of Management  B. Arrangement of the work place 1.  Definite and fixed stations should be provided for all  tools  and materials. 2.     Gravity  feed,  bins  and  containers  should  be  used  to  deliver  the materials as close to the point of use as possible. 3.     Tools, materials and controls should be located within  the  maximum working area. 4.     Materials  and  tools  should  be  arranged  to  permit  the  best  sequence of motion. 5.         Provision should be made for adequate lighting. 6.       The colour of the workplace should contrast with that  of the  workplace to reduce eye fatigue.
  18. 18. Overview of Management C. Design of tools and equipment 1. The hands should be relieved of all work of 'holding' the workpiece where this can be done by fixture etc. 2. Two or more tools should be combined wherever possible 3. Levers, cross bars and handwheels should be so placed that the operative can use them with the least change in body position and the greatest mechanical advantage.
  19. 19. Overview of Management PURPOSE OF WORK MEASUREMENT 1. To find ineffective time in a process 2. To set standard for output level 3. To evaluate worker's performance 4. To plan work force needs. 5. To determine available capacity 6. To compare work methods 7. To facilitate operations scheduling 8. To establish wage incentive schemes
  20. 20. Overview of Management THE TECHNIQUES OF WORK MEASUREMENT 1. Stop-watch time study 2. Work sampling 3. Predetermined time standards(PTS) 4. Standard Data
  21. 21. Overview of Management A FAIR DAY'S WORK Amount of work that can be produced by a qualified employee when working at normal pace and effectively utilizing his time where work is not restricted by process limitations. Work Measurement Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specific job at a defined level of performance.
  22. 22. Overview of Management THE QUALIFIED WORKER A qualified worker is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, who possess the required intelligence and education and who has acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standards of safety, quantity and quality STANDARD RATING Rating is the assessment of the worker's rate of working relative to the observers' concept of the rate
  23. 23. Overview of Management STANDARD PERFORMANCE It is the rate of output which qualified workers will naturally achieve without over-exertion as an average over the working day or shift, provided that they know and adhere to the specified method and provided that they are motivated to apply themselves to their work.
  24. 24. Overview of Management TIME STUDY Basic Steps a. Obtaining and recording all available information about the job, operator and the surrounding conditions likely to affect the execution of the work b. Recording the complete description of the method, breaking down the operation into 'elements' c. Measuring with a stopwatch and recording the time taken by the operator to perform each 'element' of the operation. d. Assessing the rating e. Extending observed time to 'basic times' f. Determining the allowances to be made over and above the basic time for the operation g. Determining the 'standard time' for the operation.
  25. 25. Overview of Management FACTORS AFFECTING RATE OF WORKING (outside the control of worker) 1. Variation in the quality of materials used 2. Changes in the operating efficiency of the equipment 3. Changes in climatic and surrounding conditions of operation. FACTORS WITHING THE CONTROL OF WORKER a. Acceptable variations in the quality of the product b. Variations due to his ability c. Variations due to his attitude SCALES OF RATING 100-133 60-80 75-100 0-100