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Mother and child care


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This ppt contains care and precautions of breast feeding mother.And of child who having the medications

Published in: Health & Medicine

Mother and child care

  2. 2. Medication Safety Tips for the Breastfeeding Mom
  3. 3.  Many medications are safe to take while breastfeeding, you should always consult your health-care professional before taking any medication, drug or herbal remedy.  Something which is safe for use during pregnancy may not necessarily be safe for a nursing baby.
  4. 4. BREAST FEED WHILE ON MEDICATION  Should only take medication if you really need it.  In general, most medications that are applied to the skin, inhaled (for example, asthma treatments), or applied to the eyes or nose are safe for breastfeeding women.  Most vaccines are safe, as well as medications that are commonly prescribed to infants.
  5. 5. CONT..  Some medications which can be used while breastfeeding may require close monitoring.  For example, you and your baby’s blood levels may need to be evaluated regularly.  Closely monitor your infant for any potential adverse effects.
  6. 6. Medications can pose a higher risk and are usually not used in conjunction with breastfeeding:  Anti-cancer drugs  Immune suppressants  Ergot alkaloids  Radioactive medications  Anticonvulsants
  7. 7. Nearly all medications transfer into breast milk to some extent.  Although a mother’s use of topical preparations such as creams, nasal sprays or inhalers generally carries less risk to a breastfed infant than medications administered orally It is important to remember that medication or products applied directly to the nipples before or after breastfeeding may be harmful for your baby.
  8. 8. The safety of certain medications also depends on the age of the infant. Nearly all reported adverse effects in nursing infants have occurred in infants less than six months old. New born and premature infants are most at risk.
  9. 9. • When taking any medication, watch closely for reactions in your baby, including • Loss of appetite • Diarrhoea • Sleepiness • Excessive crying, • Vomiting • Skin rashes. • Call your baby's paediatrician immediately if any of these symptoms appear.
  10. 10. MEDICATIONS WHICH AFFECT ABILITY TO PRODUCE MILK Breast feeding mothers should always watch for changes in their milk production, even for subtle differences. Some medications can decrease milk production: Antihistamines Sedating medications Some decongestants Some weight loss medications Diuretics Very high doses of vitamin B6 Hormonal contraceptives containing estrogen Nicotine Ergot alkaloids
  11. 11. AVOID….?????????? • Caffeine • Alcohol • Cigarette smoking • Street drugs • Over-the-counter products • Natural or herbal remedies
  12. 12. Administration of Medication in the Child Care Setting
  13. 13. When medicine is given in the child care setting All staff members designated to administer medication must receive training by a health care professional annually. Staff designated to administer medications are familiar with the actions of medications, their administration, dosages, measurement, documentation and specific policies and procedures of the program
  14. 14. Medicines are given for acute(sudden or short term) conditions like antibiotic therapy or for chronic (ongoing) conditions like asthma.  Medications must be prescribed by a physician OTC medication given by permission of the parent with prior approval of the physician.
  15. 15. • Written Authorization • Staff must have a written authorization signed by the parent/guardian for medication prescribed by the child’s health care provider. • Must have a written authorization signed by the parent/guardian for OTC (over the counter) medication and prior approval (standing order) by a health care provider designating the intended use of the medication
  16. 16. • Receiving Medications • Both prescription and OTC medication shall be accepted only in its original container • Prescription medications shall be labelled with the full pharmacy label and clearly readable. • OTC medication shall be clearly labelled with the child’s name. • The container must be in a condition that the name of the medication and the directions can be read
  17. 17. • Protect the safety of the child. • A designated, trained staff person shall administer and document giving the medication. • Prescription medication shall require a signed authorization by the health care provider and the parent and shall be kept on file and updated regularly. • OTC medications may be dispensed in accordance with the manufactures' instructions with written permission by the parent.
  18. 18. How to give medicine in the child care setting: Receiving Medications Check the label of the original container before accepting the medication from the parent/guardian. Always use the right technique: Note the expiration date. (Do not accept and/or discard expired medications) Make sure the medication is in a child-proof container. Make sure the administration of medication consent is completed properly, is current and on file.
  19. 19. The “5 Rights” 1.Right child (Child’s first and last name). 2.Right medicine (generic or brand name) 3.Right dose (teaspoons: tsp, cubic centimetres: cc) 4.Right route (mouth, nose, eye, ear drops) 5.Right time (before meals, after meals) and frequency (per day) or intervals (every 4 hours)
  20. 20. Administer medication and document immediately Observe child and monitor periodically for side effects and allergic reactions. Observe for the most dangerous type of allergic reaction, Anaphylaxis. An emergency care plan is posted in each classroom and someone trained in first aid and CPR should be on duty.
  21. 21. Anaphylaxis This is a severe allergic reaction which is life- threatening. Anaphylaxis occurs after the administration of a drug, eating a particular food, or sting of an insect to which the person is allergic. If you observe or think a child is having an anaphylactic reaction: Instruct someone to call ems STAY WITH THE CHILD
  22. 22. Anaphylaxis cont’d Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis may include: Hives/itching Dizziness/weakness Nausea/ vomiting Abdominal cramps Swelling of the face, hands, feet, and mucous membranes Wheezing Shortness of breath Difficulty breathing Sense of impending doom/fear Loss of consciousness
  23. 23. Allergic Reactions • These reactions are related to the action of the medicines • When an allergic reaction to a drug occurs, the body’s immune system reacts to a drug by producing histamines. • Histamines produce symptoms of an allergic reaction and the severity of the symptoms can change quickly
  24. 24. Allergic Reactions cont’d Signs of allergic reactions • Mouth- itching, swelling of the lips, tongue or mouth • Throat: itching/sense of tightness in the throat, hoarseness and hacking cough • Skin: hives, itchy rash, redness and swelling of the face and extremities ◦ Abdomen: nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea • Lungs: shortness of breath, repetitive coughing, wheezing • Heart: Thready pulse, fainting, loss of consciousness All above symptoms can potentially progress to a life threatening situation
  25. 25. Common Dosing Instruments The following are tips for using common dosing instruments: Syringes: Syringes are convenient for infants who can’t drink from a cup. Draw up the correct dose at eye level and squirt the medicine in the back of the child’s mouth where it is less likely to spill out. Syringes can be measured out and caped for later use. However these caps can be a choking hazard if not removed before administering the medication
  26. 26. Common Dosing Instruments cont’d The cap should be discarded or placed where the child can not get it. There are two kinds of syringes: Oral syringes for administering medications by mouth Hypodermic syringes (for injections), which can be used for oral medication when the needle are removed. Parents should remove the needle from the hypodermic syringe.  Always remove the cap before administering by mouth
  27. 27. Common Dosing Instruments cont’d Droppers: Safe and easy to use for infants and children. Always measure at eye level and administer quickly because dropper tend to drip, Cylindrical dosing spoons: The spoon looks like a test tube with a spoon at the end. Small children can hold the handle and the spoon fits easily into their mouth.
  28. 28. Common Dosing Instruments cont’d. Dosage cups: These are used for children who can drink from a cup without spilling. Be sure to check the measurements on the side of the cups for the correct number. Measure liquid doses at eye level. Medication pacifiers: These are used for infants. The medication is measured and poured into the medication holder and the infants sucks the medication through the pacifier.
  29. 29. Common Dosing Measurements Whether they measure teaspoons, ounces or millilitres, dosing devices must be used. Regular tableware must never be used because it is not an accurate measure. One type of teaspoon may be twice the size of another. If a product comes with a particular device, it should be used. Do not use a device from another product. Read the measuring instruments carefully, the numbers on the side are small and sometimes difficult to read.
  30. 30. Procedures for giving topical medications: Skin Creams/Ointments Wash hands, identify child, read medication consent. Check expiration date. Remember “5 Rights”. Explain the procedure to the parent, provide privacy. Put on disposable gloves Remove any dressings if necessary. Place in a plastic bag.
  31. 31. Procedures for giving topical medications cntd…. Remove previously applied medication with a gauze pad using a circular motion from the centre to the outside of the affected area. Discard each pad. Change contaminated gloves. Apply medication using a clean glove or applicator. Apply dressing as instructed. Remove gloves, discard equipment in plastic bag and wash hands. Document on medication log that medicine was given
  32. 32. Procedures for giving Metered Dose Inhalers: Wash hands, identify child, read medication consent. Check expiration date. Remember “5 Rights”. Explain the procedure to the parent, provide privacy. Shake inhaler for about two (2) seconds, Hold mouthpiece 1-2 inches from lips (or as instructed), open mouth wide(if using a spacer, place mouthpiece in mouth).
  33. 33. Procedures for giving Metered Dose Inhalers contd… Breathe out normally, open mouth and begin to inhale slowly, as the canister is squeezed. Have child hold his breath for about 10 seconds to allow medicine to settle into air passages. Wait 1 or 2 minutes before the second puff. Document and observe child for effects of the medication