What are stem cells?
• Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into
specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem
• They are found in multicellular organisms.
Stem cells are extraordinary because
• They can divide and make identical copies of themselves over and over
• Remain undifferentiated with no specific function.
• Specialized differentiated with the potential to produce over 200 different
types of cells in body.
SOURCES OF STEM CELLS
• Stem cells may be derived from
autologus, allogeneic sources.
• Placenta a Source of Stem Cells
(umbilical cord blood and bone
marrow stem cells)
•Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell
Transplant (less prone to rejection
than either bone marrow or
peripheral blood stem cells)
Type of Stem cell on the basis of
• Totipotent (a.k.a. omnipotent) stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and
extraembryonic cell types. Such cells can construct a complete, viable organism. These cells
are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells produced by the first few
divisions of the fertilized egg are also totipotent.
• Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into
nearly all cells,i.e. cells derived from any of the three germ layers.
• Multipotent have the same basic features of all stem cells. As with all stem cells multipotent
stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to: Self-renew for long periods of time
and differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions
• Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cell types, such as lymphoid or
myeloid stem cells.
• Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type, their own, but have the property of self-
renewal, which distinguishes them from non-stem cells (e.g. progenitor cells, muscle stem
Types of Stem cells
Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs)
• – Derived from the blastocyst of a 5 day-old embryo
• – Are pluripotent, i.e., they can differentiate into almost any cell type in the body
• – Can renew themselves indefinitely
Adult Stem Cells (e.g. MSCs, NSCs, ADSCs)
• – Isolated from adult tissues, organs or blood, cord blood, etc.
• – Are multipotent – i.e., can give rise to a number of related cell types
• – Can renew themselves a number of times but not indefinitely
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS Cells)
• Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to form pluripotent stem cells called induced
pluripotential stem cells (iPS cell).
How stem cell therapy works?
• Stem cells that give rise to the lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system,
also make blood cells, are called hematopoietic stem cells.
• HSC’s are characterized by the presence of CD 34 antigen
• The process of taking stem cells from one person and putting them into another is
therefore called “ HCST”.
• To treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukemia and lymphoma, sickle cell
• Used in Providing a functional immune system in a person with SCID.
• In Restoring the hematopoietic system
EMBRYONIC STEM CELL
• Embryonic stem cells (ES cells): are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner
cell mass of a blastocysts, an early-stage embryo.
• Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization , at which
time they consist of 50–150 cells.
• Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the
fertilized human embryo.
Stages of Embryogenesis
Types of embryonic stem cell:
Embryonic stem cells are distinguished by two distinctive properties:
Their ability to replicate indefinitely.
ES cells are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate into all derivatives of
the three primary germ layers:
These include each of the more than 220 cell types in the adult body.
CLINICAL USES :
• Reducing donor-host rejection
• Safety: reducing the risk of teratoma and other cancers as a side effect
• Use of human embryonic stem cells as models for human genetic
ADULT STEM CELLS
• These are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development,
that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerated damaged
• Example:- Hematopoietic stem cells
Mesenchymal stem cells
Neural stem cells
Epithelial stem cells
• Human iPS cells
– Fibroblasts and keratinocytes - most common sources
– Neural cells – neural stem cells need only oct-4
– WBCs from blood being developed
– Amniotic Fluid cells -increased efficency
– Melanocytes - increased efficency
The nucleus of a donated
egg is removed and replaced
with the nucleus of a mature,
"somatic cell" (a skin cell, for
No sperm is involved in this
process, and no embryo is
created to be implanted in a
The resulting stem cells can
potentially develop into
specialized cells that are useful
for treating severe illnesses.
• Extraction of single
damaging embryo and
developed into independent
• Altered Nuclear Technique
genetically modifying the
somatic nucleus so that
induced pluripotent stem
cells are produced
Stem cells in treating baldness
• As hair follicles contain stem cells
– dermal papilla
• Take stem cells from existing hair
• Multiply them in cultures
• Implant the new follicles into the
• Diabetes patients lose the function
of their insulin-producing beta
cells of the pancreas.
• Human embryonic stem cells
may be grown in cell cultures and
stimulate to form insulin-
producing cells , that can be
transplanted into the patient
• Pancreas is digested with collagenase that frees islets from surrounding cells
• Centrifugation of isolates containing mainly alpha and beta cells
• Then purified islets beta cells
• And transplanted through a catheter into the liver where they become permanently
Corneal disease / blindness
• Result in poor vision
• Take stem cells from healthy eye
• Grown onto contact lenses in clinical lab
• Lenses are worn by the patient for a period of three weeks
• Then migration of human stem cells from lens to damaged eye and begin to repair
• Thus heals the damaged cornea and quickly improves the vision
• Caused when key brain cells that produce message carrying
chemical/neurotransmitter (dopamine) die off.
• Symptoms start with the patients trembling and can end up paralyzed
• Harvesting of stem cells from patients bone marrow, foetus or any other source
• Culturing of harvested stem cells in lab conditions - to get high concentrations of
• Then purified and high concentration of stem cells are surgically injected in the
brain of patient.
• Take stem cells/dental pulp from the
patient. Both adult mesenchymal stem
cells and embryonic stem cells can be
• Culture in lab.- into a tooth bud.
• Then implant tooth bud in gum which
fuses with jaw bone and release
chemicals that encourage nerves &
blood vessels to connect with gum.
• As a result it will give rise to new
tooth/ dentin approximately within 2
STEM CELL BASED THERAPIES ARE
ALREADY IN CLINICAL USE
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the oldest (40 + years) stem cell therapy
and is the treatment that is most widely available.
The stem cells come from bone marrow, peripheral blood or cord blood. For some
applications, the patient's own cells are engrafted.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is now a common procedure for the treatment
of bone marrow failure and hematological malignancies, such as leukemia.
Donor stem cells are used to reconstitute immune function in such patients following
radiation and/or chemotherapy
What is Life Cell International
• It is called as stem cell bank in India.
• New baby umbilical cord have allot of stem cells.
• This branch collect stem cells from baby’s umbilical cord at time of birth
and preserved with life cell.
• Baby’s umbilical cord stem cells can fight over 80 medical conditions.
• Aishwariya rai is the brand embessdor of this company.
• It provides stem cell banking services for diseases, such as luekemia, and
• The company was founded in 2004 and is headquartered in Chennai, India.
Life Cell International Pvt. Ltd. also has offices in Ahmedabad, Bangalore,
Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Gurgaon, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata,
Mumbai, Surat, Chandigarh, Pune, Jaipur, Noida, Calicut, and Trivandrum,
India; and in Dubai
Baby shield new born screening
• It is a launched by life cell international private ltd.
• Newborn screening is recognized by health experts as an essential medical test as it
can help identify children who may be born with such conditions even before they
become sick, so that early and preventive treatment can be initiated in order to
safeguard them from severe harm such as mental retardation, physical abnormalities,
bone deformity, liver dysfunction or even death.
• The Baby Shield screening program is performed on a few drops of blood collected
from the baby's umbilical cord at birth and also urine sample retrieved after 48 hours
of the baby's birth.
• The test results are available within a few days of samples arriving at the lab and
this aids early diagnosis and timely treatment thereby improving a child's chances of
living a healthy and normal life.
• As human embryonic stem cell are isolated from few days old blastocyst as
well as fetal tissues
• Many prolifers believe that human life becomes a human person at the time
• Others disagree : they believe that an embryo has potential to develop into
a person, but is not a person itself.