Stem cell therapy


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Stem cell therapy

  1. 1. STEM CELL THERAPY • Presented by:- • Chinu Sachdeva • M.Pharm 2ND sem • PHARMACOLOGY
  2. 2. What are stem cells? • Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. • They are found in multicellular organisms.
  3. 3. Stem cells are extraordinary because • They can divide and make identical copies of themselves over and over again (self-renewal) • Remain undifferentiated with no specific function. • Specialized differentiated with the potential to produce over 200 different types of cells in body.
  4. 4. Basic Characteristics of Stem Cells 4
  5. 5. SOURCES OF STEM CELLS • Stem cells may be derived from autologus, allogeneic sources. • Placenta a Source of Stem Cells (umbilical cord blood and bone marrow stem cells) •Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant (less prone to rejection than either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells)
  6. 6. Type of Stem cell on the basis of potential differentiation • Totipotent (a.k.a. omnipotent) stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types. Such cells can construct a complete, viable organism. These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells produced by the first few divisions of the fertilized egg are also totipotent. • Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells,i.e. cells derived from any of the three germ layers. • Multipotent have the same basic features of all stem cells. As with all stem cells multipotent stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to: Self-renew for long periods of time and differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions • Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cell types, such as lymphoid or myeloid stem cells. • Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type, their own, but have the property of self- renewal, which distinguishes them from non-stem cells (e.g. progenitor cells, muscle stem cells).
  7. 7. Types of Stem cells Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) • – Derived from the blastocyst of a 5 day-old embryo • – Are pluripotent, i.e., they can differentiate into almost any cell type in the body (primary-like cells) • – Can renew themselves indefinitely Adult Stem Cells (e.g. MSCs, NSCs, ADSCs) • – Isolated from adult tissues, organs or blood, cord blood, etc. • – Are multipotent – i.e., can give rise to a number of related cell types • – Can renew themselves a number of times but not indefinitely Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS Cells) • Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to form pluripotent stem cells called induced pluripotential stem cells (iPS cell).
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  9. 9. How stem cell therapy works? • Stem cells that give rise to the lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system, also make blood cells, are called hematopoietic stem cells. • HSC’s are characterized by the presence of CD 34 antigen • The process of taking stem cells from one person and putting them into another is therefore called “ HCST”. USES:- • To treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukemia and lymphoma, sickle cell anemia. • Used in Providing a functional immune system in a person with SCID. • In Restoring the hematopoietic system
  10. 10. EMBRYONIC STEM CELL • Embryonic stem cells (ES cells): are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocysts, an early-stage embryo. • Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization , at which time they consist of 50–150 cells. • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the fertilized human embryo.
  11. 11. Stages of Embryogenesis Day 1 Fertilized egg Day 2 2-cell embryo Day 3-4 Multi-cell embryo Day 5-6 BlastocystDay 11-14 Tissue Differentiation 12
  12. 12. Types of embryonic stem cell: Embryonic stem cells are distinguished by two distinctive properties:  Pluripotency  Their ability to replicate indefinitely. ES cells are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers:  Ectoderm.  Endoderm.  Mesoderm. These include each of the more than 220 cell types in the adult body.
  13. 13. CLINICAL USES : • Reducing donor-host rejection • Safety: reducing the risk of teratoma and other cancers as a side effect • Use of human embryonic stem cells as models for human genetic disorders
  14. 14. ADULT STEM CELLS • These are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerated damaged tissues. • Example:- Hematopoietic stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Neural stem cells Epithelial stem cells
  15. 15. iPSC
  16. 16. iPSC SOURCES • Human iPS cells – Fibroblasts and keratinocytes - most common sources – Neural cells – neural stem cells need only oct-4 – WBCs from blood being developed – Amniotic Fluid cells -increased efficency – Melanocytes - increased efficency
  17. 17. 20 Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer The nucleus of a donated egg is removed and replaced with the nucleus of a mature, "somatic cell" (a skin cell, for example). No sperm is involved in this process, and no embryo is created to be implanted in a woman’s womb. The resulting stem cells can potentially develop into specialized cells that are useful for treating severe illnesses.
  18. 18. Novel methods • Extraction of single blastomere without damaging embryo and developed into independent hESC lines • Altered Nuclear Technique (ANT) genetically modifying the somatic nucleus so that induced pluripotent stem cells are produced
  19. 19. Implications of stem cells
  20. 20. Cancer stem cells? CANCER STEM CELLS
  21. 21. Stem cells in treating baldness • As hair follicles contain stem cells – dermal papilla • Take stem cells from existing hair follicles • Multiply them in cultures • Implant the new follicles into the scalp
  22. 22. Diabetes • Diabetes patients lose the function of their insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. • Human embryonic stem cells may be grown in cell cultures and stimulate to form insulin- producing cells , that can be transplanted into the patient
  23. 23. Contd… • Pancreas is digested with collagenase that frees islets from surrounding cells • Centrifugation of isolates containing mainly alpha and beta cells • Then purified islets beta cells • And transplanted through a catheter into the liver where they become permanently established.
  24. 24. Corneal disease / blindness • Result in poor vision • Take stem cells from healthy eye • Grown onto contact lenses in clinical lab • Lenses are worn by the patient for a period of three weeks • Then migration of human stem cells from lens to damaged eye and begin to repair process • Thus heals the damaged cornea and quickly improves the vision
  25. 25. Parkinson disease • Caused when key brain cells that produce message carrying chemical/neurotransmitter (dopamine) die off. • Symptoms start with the patients trembling and can end up paralyzed • Harvesting of stem cells from patients bone marrow, foetus or any other source • Culturing of harvested stem cells in lab conditions - to get high concentrations of stem cells • Then purified and high concentration of stem cells are surgically injected in the brain of patient.
  26. 26. Missing teeth • Take stem cells/dental pulp from the patient. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells can be used. • Culture in lab.- into a tooth bud. • Then implant tooth bud in gum which fuses with jaw bone and release chemicals that encourage nerves & blood vessels to connect with gum. • As a result it will give rise to new tooth/ dentin approximately within 2 months.
  27. 27. Heart damage
  28. 28. Stem cells for Gene Therapy
  29. 29. STEM CELL BASED THERAPIES ARE ALREADY IN CLINICAL USE  Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the oldest (40 + years) stem cell therapy and is the treatment that is most widely available.  The stem cells come from bone marrow, peripheral blood or cord blood. For some applications, the patient's own cells are engrafted.  Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is now a common procedure for the treatment of bone marrow failure and hematological malignancies, such as leukemia.  Donor stem cells are used to reconstitute immune function in such patients following radiation and/or chemotherapy
  30. 30. What is Life Cell International private limited? • It is called as stem cell bank in India. • New baby umbilical cord have allot of stem cells. • This branch collect stem cells from baby’s umbilical cord at time of birth and preserved with life cell. • Baby’s umbilical cord stem cells can fight over 80 medical conditions. • Aishwariya rai is the brand embessdor of this company.
  31. 31. Contd…. • It provides stem cell banking services for diseases, such as luekemia, and blood disorders. • The company was founded in 2004 and is headquartered in Chennai, India. Life Cell International Pvt. Ltd. also has offices in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Gurgaon, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Surat, Chandigarh, Pune, Jaipur, Noida, Calicut, and Trivandrum, India; and in Dubai
  32. 32. Baby shield new born screening • It is a launched by life cell international private ltd. • Newborn screening is recognized by health experts as an essential medical test as it can help identify children who may be born with such conditions even before they become sick, so that early and preventive treatment can be initiated in order to safeguard them from severe harm such as mental retardation, physical abnormalities, bone deformity, liver dysfunction or even death. • The Baby Shield screening program is performed on a few drops of blood collected from the baby's umbilical cord at birth and also urine sample retrieved after 48 hours of the baby's birth. • The test results are available within a few days of samples arriving at the lab and this aids early diagnosis and timely treatment thereby improving a child's chances of living a healthy and normal life.
  33. 33. Ethical issues • As human embryonic stem cell are isolated from few days old blastocyst as well as fetal tissues • Many prolifers believe that human life becomes a human person at the time of fertilization • Others disagree : they believe that an embryo has potential to develop into a person, but is not a person itself.