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An Introduction to Dewey's Decimal Classification (DDC)

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Library Classification Scheme (DDC)

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An Introduction to Dewey's Decimal Classification (DDC)

  1. 1. MELVIL DEWEY IT’S CALLED THE DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM—OR DDC. THIS SYSTEM GOT ITS NAME FROM MELVIL DEWEY, THE MAN WHO HAD THIS GREAT IDEA FOR ORGANIZING LIBRARY COLLECTIONS. HE LIVED FROM 1851 TO 1931 AND INTRODUCED THE DDC IN 1876 THE DDC HELPS LIBRARIES ARRANGE THE ITEMS SO THAT LIBRARY USERS CAN FIND THEM
  2. 2.  MELVILLE LOUIS KOSSUTH DEWEY WAS BORN ON 10 DEC 1851 IN NEW YORK.HE WAS SON OF A HUMBLE SMALL STOREKEEPER  IN 1870 HE JOINED AS STUDENT IN AMHERST COLLEGE AND GRADUATED IN 1874  IN 1872 HE JOINED COLLEGE LIBRARY AS A PART TIME LIBRARIAN  IN 1873 HE PREPARED A PLAN OF DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION WHICH WAS IMPLEMENTED AND APPROVED BY THE LIBRARY STAFF AND FINALLY PUBLISHED IN 1876 STORY OF MELVIL DEWEY
  3. 3. DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION  DDC IS MOST WIDELY USED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM  MORE THAN 138 COUNTRIES USE DDC  PUBLISHED BY OCLC (ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTRE,INC) IN FULL AND ABRIDGED EDITIONS  THE DDC HAS BEEN TRANSLATED INTO OVER THIRTY LANGUAGES  PRESENTLY 23RD EDITION IS IN USE
  4. 4. DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION  DDC IS DIVIDED INTO :-  10 MAIN CLASSES (COVERS ENTIRE WORLD OF KNOWLEDGE)  EACH MAIN CLASS IS SUBDIVIDED IN 10 DIVISIONS  EACH DIVISION IS SUBDIVIDED INTO 10 SECTIONS  EACH SUBDIVISION IS DIVIDED INTO FORM DIVISIONS
  5. 5. DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION  THE MAIN STRUCTURE OF THE DDC IS PRESENTED IN THE DDC SUMMARIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE VOL-2 :-  1ST SUMMARY : 10 MAIN CLASSES  2ND SUMMARY : 100 DIVISIONS  3RD SUMMARY : 1000 SECTIONS
  6. 6. NOTATION OF DDC  ARABIC NUMERALS ARE USED TO REPRESENT EACH CLASS  THE DDC USES THE CONVENTION THAT NO NUMBER SHOULD BE FEWER THAN THREE DIGITS.  1ST DIGIT REPRESENT THE MAIN CLASS  500 - SCIENCE  2ND DIGIT INDICATES DIVISION  510 - MATHEMATICS  520 - ASTRONOMY  530 - PHYSICS  3RD DIGIT INDICATES SECTION  530 - GENERAL WORKS ON PHYSICS  531 - CLASSICAL MECHANICS  532 - FLUID MECHANICS  533 - GAS MECHANICS
  7. 7. NOTATION OF DDC  A DECIMAL POINT, OR DOT (.), FOLLOWS THE THIRD DIGIT IN A CLASS NUMBER, AFTER WHICH DIVISION BY TEN CONTINUES TO THE SPECIFIC DEGREE OF CLASSIFICATION NEEDED  THE DOT (.) IS NOT A DECIMAL IN THE MATHEMATICAL SENSE, BUT A PSYCHOLOGICAL PAUSE TO BREAK THE MONOTONY OF NUMERICAL DIGITS AND TO EASE THE TRANSCRIPTION AND COPYING OF THE CLASS NUMBER  THE NUMBER SHOULD NEVER END IN ‘0’ ANYWHERE TO THE RIGHT OF THE DECIMAL POINT
  8. 8. 1ST SUMMARY THE TEN MAIN CLASSES
  9. 9. 1ST SUMMARY THE TEN MAIN CLASSES 000 COMPUTER SCIENCE, INFORMATION & GENERAL WORKS 100 PHILOSOPHY & PSYCHOLOGY 200 RELIGION 300 SOCIAL SCIENCES 400 LANGUAGE 500 SCIENCE 600 TECHNOLOGY 700 ARTS & RECREATION 800 LITERATURE 900 HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY
  10. 10. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (000) COMPUTER SCIENCE, INFORMATION & GENERAL WORKS 000 COMPUTER SCIENCE, INFORMATION & GENERAL WORKS 010 BIBLIOGRAPHIES 020 LIBRARY & INFORMATION SCIENCE 030 ENCYCLOPEDIAS & BOOKS OF FACTS 040 [UNASSIGNED] 050 MAGAZINES, JOURNALS & SERIALS 060 ASSOCIATIONS, ORGANISATIONS & MUSEUMS 070 NEWS MEDIA, JOURNALISM & PUBLISHING 080 QUOTATIONS 090 MANUSCRIPT & RARE BOOKS
  11. 11. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (100) PHILOSOPHY & PSYCHOLOGY 100 PHILOSOPHY 110 METAPHYSICS 120 EPISTEMOLOGY 130 PARAPSYCHOLOGY & OCCULTISM 140 PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOLS OF THOUGHTS 150 PSYCHOLOGY 160 PHILOSOPHICAL LOGIC 170 ETHICS 180 ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL & EASTERN PHILOSOPHY 190 MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
  12. 12. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (200) RELIGION 200 RELIGION 210 PHILOSOPHY & THEORY OF RELIGION 220 THE BIBLE 230 CHRISTIANITY 240 CHRISTIAN PRACTICE & OBSERVANCE 250 CHRISTIAN PASTORAL PRACTICE & RELIGIOUS ORDER 260 CHRISTIAN ORGANISATION, SOCIAL WORK & WORSHIP 270 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY 280 CHRISTIAN DENOMINATIONS 290 OTHER RELIGIONS
  13. 13. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (300) SOCIAL SCIENCES 300 SOCIAL SCIENCE, SOCIOLOGY & ANTHROPOLOGY 310 STATISTICS 320 POLITICAL SCIENCE 330 ECONOMICS 340 LAW 350 PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION & MILITARY SCIENCE 360 SOCIAL PROBLEMS & SOCIAL SERVICES 370 EDUCATION 380 COMMERCE, COMMUNICATION & TRANSPORTATION 390 CUSTOMS, ETIQUETTE & FOLKLORE
  14. 14. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (400) LANGUAGE 400 LANGUAGE 410 LINGUISTICS 420 ENGLISH & OLD ENGLISH LANGUAGE 430 GERMAN & RELATED LANGUAGE 440 FRENCH & RELATED LANGUAGE 450 ITALIAN, ROMANIAN & RELATED LANGUAGES 460 SPANISH, PORTUGUESE, GALICIAN 470 LATIN & ITALIC LANGUAGE 480 CLASSICAL & MODERN GREEK LANGUAGE 490 OTHER LANGUAGES
  15. 15. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (500) SCIENCE 500 SCIENCE 510 MATHEMATICS 520 ASTRONOMY 530 PHYSICS 540 CHEMISTRY 550 EARTH SCIENCE 560 FOSSILS & PREHISTORIC LIFE 570 BIOLOGY 580 PLANTS (BOTANY) 590 ANIMALS (ZOOLOGY)
  16. 16. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (600) TECHNOLOGY 600 TECHNOLOGY 610 MEDICINE & HEALTH 620 ENGINEERING 630 AGRICULTURE 640 HOME & FAMILY MANAGEMENT 650 MANAGEMENT & PUBLIC RELATIONS 660 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 670 MANUFACTURING 680 MANUFACTURE FOR SPECIFIC USE 690 CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS
  17. 17. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (700) ARTS & RECREATION 700 ARTS 710 AREA PLANNING & LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 720 ARCHITECTURE 730 SCULPTURE, CERAMICS & METALWORK 740 GRAPHIC ARTS & DECORATIVE ARTS 750 PAINTING 760 PRINTMAKING & PRINTS 770 PHOTOGRAPHY, COMPUTER ARE, FILM, VIDEO 780 MUSIC 790 SPORTS, GAMES & ENTERTAINMENT
  18. 18. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (800) LITERATURE 800 LITERATURE, RHETORIC & CRITICISM 810 AMERICAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH 820 ENGLISH & OLD ENGLISH LITERATURES 830 GERMAN & RELATED LITERATURES 840 FRENCH & RELATED LITERATURES 850 ITALIAN, ROMANIAN & RELATED LITERATURES 860 SPANISH, PORTUGUESE, GALICIAN LITERATURE 870 LATIN & ITALIC LITERATURES 880 CLASSICAL & MODERN GREEK LITERATURES 890 OTHER LITERATURES
  19. 19. 2ND SUMMARY THE HUNDRED DIVISIONS (900) HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY 900 HISTORY 910 GEOGRAPHY & TRAVEL 920 BIOGRAPHY & GENEALOGY 930 HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT WORLD (TO CA. 499) 940 HISTORY OF EUROPE 950 HISTORY OF ASIA 960 HISTORY OF AFRICA 970 HISTORY OF NORTH AMERICA 980 HISTORY OF SOUTH AMERICA 990 HISTORY OF OTHER AREAS
  20. 20. 3RD SUMMARY THE THOUSAND SECTIONS (510) MATHEMATICS 510 MATHEMATICS 511 GENERAL APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS 512 ALGEBRA 513 ARITHMETIC 514 TOPOLOGY 515 ANALYSIS 516 GEOMETRY 517 [UNASSIGNED] 518 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS 519 PROBABILITIES & APPLIED MATHEMATICS
  21. 21. 3RD SUMMARY THE THOUSAND SECTIONS (530) PHYSICS 530 PHYSICS 531 CLASSICAL MECHANICS 532 FLUID MECHANICS 533 GAS MECHANICS 534 SOUND & RELATED VIBRATIONS 535 LIGHT & RELATED VIBRATIONS 536 HEAT 537 ELECTRICITY 538 MAGNETISM 539 MODERN PHYSICS
  22. 22. OVERVIEW OF DDC  DDC IS BUILT ON SOUND PRINCIPLES  NOTATIONS ARE UNIVERSALLY RECOGNIZED  CATEGORIES ARE WELL DEFINED  HIERARCHIES ARE WELL DEVELOPED  BASIC CLASSES ARE ORGANISED BY DISCIPLINES OF FIELD OF STUDY
  23. 23. PRINCIPAL OF HIERARCHY STRUCTURAL HIERARCHY ALL TOPICS ARE PART OF THE BROADER TOPICS ABOVE THEM NOTATIONAL HIERARCHY NUMBER AT ANY GIVEN LEVEL IS USUALLY SUBORDINATE TO A CLASS WHOSE NOTATION IS ONE DIGIT SHORTER 600 TECHNOLOGY (APPLIED SCIENCE) 630 AGRICULTURE & RELATED TECHNOLOGIES 636 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 636.7 DOGS 636.8 CATS
  24. 24. NOTATIONAL HIERARCHY 700 THE ARTS 720 ARCHITECTURE 725 PUBLIC STRUCTURE 725.8 RECREATIONAL STRUCTURE 725.82 BUILDING FOR SHOWS & SPECTACLES 725.822 THEATER AND OPERA BUILDING
  25. 25. CLASSIFICATION WITH THE DDC DETERMINE SUBJECT DETERMINE DISCIPLINE DETERMINE FORM OR APPROACH
  26. 26.  Classify according to subject & discipline and then the form in which the subject is presented  Always consider the authors intention  classify the Book on two or more subject under the predominates subject  If there is no subject in classification scheme classify under allied subject  Avoid classification, which is in nature of criticism  Classify according to usefulness a particular place BASIC RULES OF CLASSIFICATION
  27. 27. DETERMINING SUBJECT  THE KEY ELEMENT IN DETERMINING THE SUBJECT IS THE AUTHOR’S INTENT AND TO UNDERSTAND THE SAME REFER THE FOLLOWING :-  TITLE  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER HEADINGS  CHAPTER SUBHEADINGS  PREFACE & INTRODUCTION  SCAN THE TEXT  BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE  REVIEW & REFERENCE WORK
  28. 28. DETERMINING DISCIPLINE  AFTER DETERMINING THE SUBJECT - SELECT THE PROPER DISCIPLINE, OR FIELD OF STUDY, OF THE WORK  SELECT DISCIPLINE FOR WHICH IT IS INTENDED, RATHER THAN THE DISCIPLINE FROM WHICH THE WORK DERIVES DISCIPLINE CLASS NUMBER MILITARY SCIENCE 355 MILITARY ETHICS 172.42 MILITARY ENGINEERING 623 MILITARY MEDICINE 616.980 23 MILITARY MUSIC 781.599
  29. 29. DETERMINING FORM  AFTER DETERMINING SUBJECT & DISCIPLINE, TURN TO SUMMARIES AND SCHEDULES  GO THROUGH NOTES IN THE SCHEDULES  REFER RELATIVE INDEX FOR DETERMINING EXACT CLASS NUMBER
  30. 30. MODIFICATION OF CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FICTION ALL WORKS OF FICTION AT BE MARKED ‘F’ AND TAKEN OUT OF THE SEQUENCE IN 800 AND ARRANGED IN A SEPARATE SEQUENCE ALPHABETICALLY BY NAMES OF AUTHORS POETRY & DRAMA POETRY & DRAMAS IN SOME LANGUAGES ARE AMALGAMATED AND ALPHABETISED BIOGRAPHY ALL BIOGRAPHICAL WORKS ARE MARKED ‘B’ AND ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY HISTORICAL FICTION MAY BE CLASSIFIED WITH FICTION CHILDREN BOOKS MAY BE MARKED ‘J’ FOLLOWED BY THE NUMBER ACCORDING TO DDC
  31. 31. MERITS OF DDC  SUBJECT IS DOMINANT FACTOR AND EACH SUBJECT HAVE A PERMANENT PLACE  CONSISTENT AND EXHAUSTIVE  PROCEED TO GREAT EXTENSION TO SMALL EXTENSION SMALL INTENTION TO GREAT INTENSION  SIMPLE NOTATION  USE MNEMONIC AIDS WHICH HAVE GENERALLY SAME MEANING IN ENTIRE SCHEME  HAVE AN ELABORATIVE, SYSTEMATIC AND COMPREHENSIVE RELATIVE INDEX  PRACTICAL AND IS OF UNIVERSAL APPLICATION
  32. 32. DEMERITS OF DDC  THERE IS NO EVOLUTION IN THE NINE MAIN CLASSES. AS A RESULT LANGUAGE IS SEPARATED FROM ITS FINISHED FORM OF LITERATURE AND HISTORY FROM ITS COLLECTORATE FORM OF SOCIAL SCIENCES. THE SCHEME REPRESENT THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF 1893.  IT FAILS TO MAKE OBVIOUS PROVISIONS FOR SOME TOPICS  LITTLE SCOPE FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECTS PERTAINING TO ASIA & AFRICA  DUE TO NUMERICAL LIMITATIONS, IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF MINUTE SUBJECTS, LONG STRING OF DECIMAL NUMBERS ARE EMPLOYED
  33. 33. THANKS !

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