Published on

Published in: Education, Business


  2. 2.  Bio-medical waste, generated from a number of healthcare units, is imparted necessary treatment to reduce adverse effects that this waste may pose.  Installation of individual treatment facilities by small healthcare units requires comparatively high capital investment. In addition, it requires separate manpower and infrastructure development for proper operation and maintenance of treatment systems.  A Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility (CBWTF) is used for treatment and disposal of BMW.  The concept of CBWTF not only addresses costs related problem but also prevents proliferation of treatment equipment in a city.  By running the treatment equipment at CBWTF to its full capacity, the cost of treatment of per kilogram gets significantly reduced.
  3. 3.  Due to increase the population the amount of biomedical waste generation also increased it requires attention .  Within the domain of municipal solid waste, biomedical waste acquires a special dimension, since it is infectious and hazardous.  It is capable of spreading disease or be harmful to individuals.  The amount of infectious waste is around 25% and non- infectious wastes constitutes nearly 75%. In the absence of proper segregation, the non-infectious waste becomes infectious and poses environmental threat to the society.  An inappropriate treatment and disposal can spread infectious diseases like tuberculosis, hepatitis, enteric fever, HIV infection, or even AIDS.
  4. 4. Color coding Types of container Waste category Treatment option Yellow Plastic bag Human anatomical/Ani mal waste Incineration Red Disinfected container/ plastic bag Microbiology and Biotechnology , Soiled And Solid waste Autoclaving/Mi crowaving / Chemical Treatment
  5. 5. Color coding Types of container Waste category Treatment option Blue Plastic bag/puncture proof container Waste Sharps, Solid Waste Autoclaving/Micro waving / Chemical Treatment and Shredding Black Plastic bag Discarded medicines and cytotoxic drugs, Incineration ash, Chemical waste Disposable secured landfill
  6. 6.  Treatment and disposal of the biomedical waste shall be done by the following methods  Incineration.  Autoclaving. Shredding.  Disposal option.
  7. 7.  INCINERATION  85% to 90% of the total BMW is treated by Incineration.  Incineration systems uses high temperature combustion under controlled conditions to convert wastes containing infectious and pathological material to inert mineral residues and gases.  Incineration is a process where the combustible waste is reduced to exhaust gaseous products and the incombustible waste is reduced to ash  The key parameter in an incinerator are  Temperature should be 900-1000*C .  The waste be exposed for at least two seconds  Incinerator should have the air pollution control equipment.
  8. 8. BRAND TYPE &MODEL Make controlled air Oil Fired Incinerator, Model TYPE OF WASTE Bio-medical Waste BURNING CAPACITY 100 kg/hr COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY 99.0% POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT Cyclone separator, Droplet Separator . MODE OF WASTE HANDLING Manual MODE OF ASH HANDLING Manual
  9. 9. DOORS 1 waste charging door in primary chamber 1 ash removal door in primary chamber 1 ash removal door in cyclone separator OPERATING HOURS (Total Quantity) ÷ (Capacity/hr)+1-1 ½ hrs for preheat & cooling of furnace TYPE OF FUEL DIESEL TYPEOFBURNER OPERATION Automatic ON-OFF CONNECTED ELECTRICAL LOAD Approx.7 kW (AC3 phase, 400/440V, 50 cycles,4 wire) OPERATING TEMPERATURE PRIMARY CHAMBER SECONDARY CHAMBER 8000C ± 500C 10500C ± 500C
  10. 10.  AUTOCLAVING  The autoclave process is technology for the treatment of microbiology laboratory waste, human blood any body fluid waste, waste sharps and anatomical waste.  Autoclaving is a time-tested process of sterilization of medical waste using high temperature and high pressure steam.  Typical operating conditions for an autoclave are a temperature of at least 1210C at a pressure of 105 kPa for a period of atleast 1hour.  Effective sterilization results in the destruction of bacteria, virus, spores, fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms.
  11. 11.  Shredders are used to destroy plastic and paper waste to prevent their reuse.  After autoclaving the plastic waste is sent to the shredder. The shredded waste is sold out to authorized plastic molding units.  Only waste that is disinfected should be used in a shredder.  This reduces the bulk of waste making transportation easy.  Shredder have a set of revolving blades/shafts, which cut the waste into small pieces.  Maintainance costs is high.
  12. 12.  Incineration ash - Secured landfill.  Treated solid waste - Municipal landfill  Sharps, after disinfection ( if encapsulated ) - Municipal landfill  Treated wastewater - Sewer/drain or recycling)  Oil & grease - incineration
  13. 13.  Reduction in public health hazard.  Decrease in pollution emissions.  Lower collection, treatment, and overall healthcare costs.
  14. 14.  The Bio-Medical Waste generated from the hospitals and all other source will be treated without polluting the environment.  In warangal 90% BMW is treated by The incineration process.  All the above treatment and disposal process is done within the norms of CPCB & guidelines.  The remaining material after incineration is safely disposed according to the CPCB guidelines.  Incineration of Bio-Medical Waste is one of the techno- economical viable scheme, which have many advantages such as significant volume reduction, weight reduction & also ability to manage most types of wastes with little processing before treatment.
  15. 15.  International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 3, August 2010 ISSN: 2010-0264.  Kakatiya mediclean services Warangal.  Institute of Town Planners, India Journal 6 - 2, 01-25, April - June 2009  Journal of ISHWM Vol 5 Issue 1 April 2006.  Sandhya Arunkumar, R Sathish Muthukumar ,” Biomedical waste disposal in dental clinics”SRM University Journal of Dental Sciences Volume 2, Issue 2, April - June 2011,  Dr. D.S.Vyas, Mr. Urvij B. Dave,” The Safe Disposal of Bio- Medical Waste” National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology   m