Material and parts
Supplies and services
Specialty Products Unsought Products
Buy less frequently
> Gather product information
> Fewer purchase locations
Special purchase efforts
> Unique characteristics
> Brand identification
> Few purchase locations
Products consumers don’t
Require much advertising &
Example:- life insurance,
Buy frequently & immediately
> Low priced
> Many purchase locations
• Staple goods
• Impulse goods
• Emergency goods
Product mix of
Maruti 800 zen Esteem Maruti alto
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE OF
Introduction Growth Maturity Decline
of the Stages
• introductory stage: developing the market, creating
awareness, reaching the innovators
• growth stage: competition begins, sales grow quickly,
profits peak, market penetration
• maturity stage: competition is intense, sales slow down,
differentiated product offerings, customers are brand
loyal, few new entrants
• decline stage: customers move to other options,
competitors leave, profits are low, consider exit
Definition of packaging
• Packaging refers to technlogy of enclosing or
protecting products for distribution,storage,sale
• Packaging reduces the risk of
wastage,spoilage,leakage and evaporation etc in
the process of transportation and storage.
Function of packaging
Definition of labeling
• According to kaelly irwin,
“Label refers to any printed statement
related to merchandise that accompanies the
goods at the point of sale”.
Importance of labeling
To communicate brand name of the product.
To give instruction about use of product.
To indicate date of mfg,date of expiry and
To give warning against risk if any.
To make unique among the competitors
Function of labeling
Labeling indicates brand name of the
Label indicates warranties given by the
It educates the customer.
It makes it possible to use product without
• It enhance the product personality.