Ethics At Oracle


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Ethics At Oracle

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS AND BUSINESS ETHICS Ethics is a word for a philosophy that encompasses proper conduct and good living. It is significantly broader than the common conception of ethics as the analyzing of right and wrong. A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or that is simply satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than moral conduct. Business ethics is a form of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. In the increasingly conscience-focused marketplaces of the 21st century, the demand for more ethical business processes and actions (known as ethicism) is increasing. Simultaneously, pressure is applied on industry to improve business ethics through new public initiatives and laws (e.g. higher UK road tax for higher-emission vehicles). Businesses can often attain short- term gains by acting in an unethical fashion; however, such antics tend to undermine the economy over time, a fact which only Barack Obama has seemed to notice. Business ethics can be both a normative and a descriptive discipline. As a corporate practice and a career specialization, the field is primarily normative. In academia descriptive approaches are also taken. The range and quantity of business ethical issues reflects the degree to which business is perceived to be at odds with non-economic social values. Historically, interest in business ethics accelerated dramatically during the 1980s and 1990s, both within major corporations and within academia. For example, today most major corporate websites lay emphasis on commitment to promoting non-economic social values under a variety of headings (e.g. ethics codes, social responsibility charters . Let us have a look into 7 broad categories that make up a company’s Ethics Quotient: 1) Corporate citizenship and responsibility 2) Corporate governance 3) Innovation that contributes to public well being 1
  2. 2. 4) Industry leadership 5) Executive leadership and tone from the top 6) Integrity track record and reputation 7) Internal systems and ethics/compliance program 2
  3. 3. CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE Oracle Corporation was formed in 1977 in California, USA. Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL) specializes in developing and marketing enterprise software products — particularly database management systems. Through organic growth and a number of high- profile acquisitions, Oracle enlarged its share of the software market. By 2007 Oracle ranked third on the list of largest software companies in the world, after Microsoft and IBM. Subsequently it became larger than IBM after its acquisition of Hyperion and BEA. The corporation has arguably become best-known due to association with its flagship Oracle database. The company also builds tools for database development, middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software (ERP), customer relationship management software (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) software. The founder and CEO of Oracle Corporation, Larry Ellison, has served as Oracle's CEO throughout the company's history. Ellison also served as the Chairman of the Board until his replacement by Jeffrey O. Henley in 2004. Ellison retains his role as CEO. Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database systems named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks". He had heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Ed Oates (a future co-founder of Oracle Corporation). System R also derived from Codd's theories, and Ellison wanted to make his Oracle product compatible with System R, but IBM stopped this by keeping the error codes for their DBMS secret. Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 under the name Software Development Laboratories (SDL). In 1979 SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc. (RSI). In 1982, RSI renamed itself as Oracle Systems to align itself more closely with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Robert Miner served as the company's senior programmer. 3
  4. 4. Business General Oracle is the world’s largest enterprise software company. It develops, manufacture, market, distribute and service database and middleware software as well as applications software designed to help its customers manage and grow their business operations. Its goal is to offer customers scalable, reliable, secure and integrated software systems that provide transactional efficiencies, adapt to an organization’s unique needs and allow better ways to access and manage information at a lower total cost of ownership. It seek to be an industry leader in each of the specific product categories in which it competes and to expand into new and emerging markets. In fiscal 2007, it focused on strengthening our competitive position and enhancing our existing portfolio of products and services as well as acquiring and integrating businesses. An active acquisition program is an important element of its corporate strategy. In the last three fiscal years, it have invested over $25 billion, in the aggregate, to acquire a number of companies, products, services and technologies, including the acquisition of PeopleSoft, Inc., Siebel Systems, Inc. and Hyperion Solutions Corporation. Typically, the significant majority of its integration activities related to an acquisition are substantially complete in the United States within three to six months after the closing of the acquisition. The acquisition program supports our long-term strategic direction, strengthens our competitive position, expands its customer base and provides greater scale to accelerate innovation, grow our earnings and increase stockholder value. It expect to continue to acquire companies, products, services and technologies. Software and Services Oracle is organized into two businesses, software and services, which are further divided into five operating segments. Its software business is comprised of two operating segments: (1) new software licenses and (2) software license updates and product support. Its services business is comprised of three operating segments: (1) consulting, (2) On Demand and (3) education. Its software and services businesses represented 79% and 21% of our total revenues, respectively, in fiscal 2007 and 80% and 20% of our total revenues, respectively, in both fiscal 2006 and fiscal 2005. 4
  5. 5. SOFTWARE BUSINESS New Software Licenses New software licenses include the licensing of database and middleware software, which consists of Oracle Database and Oracle Fusion Middleware, as well as applications software. Its technology and business solutions are based on an internet model comprised of interconnected database servers, application servers, web servers and computers as well as mobile devices running web browsers. This architecture enables users to access business data and applications through a universally adopted web browser interface, while providing enterprises the most efficient and cost effective method of managing business information and applications. In an internet model, database servers manage and protect the underlying business information, while application servers run the business applications that automate a myriad of business functions. We have focused on concepts such as global single instance application deployment that involve fewer, high quality databases of important business information, rather than dozens or hundreds of disparate databases that are difficult to synchronize and coordinate. Database As the world’s most popular database, Oracle’s relational database enables the secure storage, manipulation and retrieval of all forms of data including structured data that resides in business applications, XML data, analytics data, spatial data and other unstructured data such as documents, spreadsheets and images. Designed for enterprise grid computing, the Oracle Database is available in four editions: Express Edition, Standard Edition One, Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition. Enterprise Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager is designed to deliver top-down applications management. Our customers use Oracle Enterprise Manager to monitor and manage their applications and underlying software infrastructure, including both Oracle and non-Oracle infrastructure products. 5
  6. 6. Secure Enterprise Search Oracle Secure Enterprise Search provides an internet-like search experience to users searching secure content inside the enterprise. Oracle Secure Enterprise Search indexes and searches public, private and shared content across internal and external web sites, databases, file servers, document repositories, enterprise content management systems, applications and portals. Oracle Secure Enterprise Search has built-in functionality that permits users to see only search results leading to information for which they have authorized access. Middleware Oracle Fusion Middleware is a broad product family that forms a reliable and scalable foundation on which customers can build, deploy and integrate business applications and automate their business processes, using Oracle Fusion Middleware, our customers increase their capacity to adapt to business changes rapidly, reduce their risks related to security and compliance, increase user productivity, and drive better business decisions. Application Server The foundation of Oracle Fusion Middleware is Oracle Application Server. Designed for grid computing, Oracle Application Server incorporates clustering and caching technology, which increases application reliability, performance, security and scalability. Oracle Application Server also provides a complete integration platform that is designed to simplify and accelerate business, application and data integration projects. 6
  7. 7. Awards for Oracle's Commitment 2006 : Oracle Ireland wins Irish ICT Excellence Award—Best ICT Company to Work For 2005 : Oracle América voted Company of the Year 2005 by Computing Magazine Oracle Voted African Employer of the Year 2005 Oracle Commendation from the City of Pleasanton Oracle Education Foundation's ThinkQuest Named Best Internet Site For Kids Oracle Ranks #2 in The Top 20 Best Workplaces for Commuters from the FORTUNE 500 Companies 2004 : Oracle Named One of Top Corporate Philanthropists by Business Week; Ranks in the Top Ten for In-Kind Donations 2003 : Belmont Community Special Recognition Award Redwood City Fire Department Praises Oracle for its Community Spirit and Contributions— Presentation Ceremony Planned 2002 : Belmont Community Special Recognition Award Points of Light Foundation Award Honoree 7
  8. 8. CHAPTER 3 : A SUMMARY OF ORACLE BUSINESS VALUES Certain core values are essential to Oracle’s business: INTEGRITY Oracle employees demonstrate honesty and sound ethical behavior in all business transactions and personal integrity in all dealings with others. MUTUAL RESPECT Oracle employees consistently treat individuals with respect and dignity. TEAMWORK Oracle employees work together as a team for the collective interests of Oracle. COMMUNICATION Oracle employees share information widely and effectively with each other, except when confidentiality is required. INNOVATION Oracle employees seek innovative and creative approaches to problem solving. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Oracle employees consistently treat customer satisfaction as a top priority. QUALITY Oracle employees make excellence and quality a part of day-to-day work processes and seek continuous improvement in all that they do. FAIRNESS Oracle employees are committed to dealing fairly with customers, suppliers, and one another. COMPLIANCE Oracle employees comply with all laws and regulations that govern Oracle’s business. BUSINESS CONDUCT Oracle employees observe the standards that have been established by Oracle and act ethically in their approach to business decisions. 8
  9. 9. CHAPTER 4 : ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS OF ORACLE: Oracle is committed to maintaining its facilities and operating its business in ways that minimize its impact on the environment. Through a combination of green-minded business practices and employee involvement, Oracle strives to implement environmental best practices, and the company’s efforts play a significant role in Oracle’s overall corporate citizenship initiatives. As an office-based business, Oracle focuses on the following: • Improving energy use performance • Reducing global greenhouse gas emissions • Adopting eco-friendly procurement procedures • Reducing water consumption • Transportation • Recycling ORACLE’S APPROACH Global Environment Forum: Oracle Global Real Estate and Facilities leads an ongoing Global Environment Forum to implement environmental best practices throughout the company’s facilities. The forum reviews the company’s energy and environmental practices, discerns best practices, sets guidelines and goals, and monitors progress. Business Practices Changes: Oracle has made changes to its business practices in areas such as procurement, product delivery, recycling, and transportation, and is taking a more eco-friendly approach to running its large marketing events. EPA Climate Leaders: Oracle was the first software company to voluntarily participate in the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Climate Leaders Program in 2004. Oracle will achieve its reduction goals almost entirely through more efficient energy use such as: • Global replacement of incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light- emitting diodes (LEDs) in all Oracle-owned buildings. 9
  10. 10. • Upgrades to heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and energy management and control systems. • Energy efficient design and operation of data centers, including development of a benchmarking index for energy performance and the use of an innovative heat containment system. • Compressors upgraded with advanced variable-speed technology • Energy management system upgraded from pneumatic to direct digital controls. • Advanced controls schemes for elimination/ reduction of overlapping cooling and heating, and energy-efficient operation. • Manual override of motion sensors during unoccupied hours. U.S. EPA Green Power Partnership Program: Oracle’s Austin Data Center joined the EPA’s Green Power Partnership Program in 2004. This program requires participating companies to purchase a minimum percentage of their power from clean and renewable sources (e.g., sun, wind). Oracle’s green power purchase exceeds the minimum EPA requirement. ISO 14001 Certification: Oracle’s European and South African operations are certified to the ISO 14001 environmental standard in 14 countries. These operations have defined common objectives, set localized targets, and launched various initiatives including • Saving 37,400 liters of water by operating a new waterless valet scheme. • Promoting hybrid vehicles as company car options. • Actively assessing vendors’ environmental policy as part of the procurement process. • Using hydroelectric power when possible. • Aggressively recycling paper goods. • Offering environmental awareness training to all employees. • Purchasing energy from sustainable resources. Climate Savers Computing Initiative: As a member of Climate Savers, Oracle has committed to improve energy efficiency by purchasing initiative-compliant, high-efficiency computers and servers, and enabling their power management capabilities. 10
  11. 11. Oracle’s Green Business Practices Supply Chain and Suppliers: In addition to becoming more conscious about its own impact on the environment, Oracle also considers if its key suppliers are doing the same. Examples of how Oracle works with its suppliers include the following: • Included environmental selection criteria within its Managed Supplier Partner program. Oracle evaluates tier 1, 2, and 3 suppliers, in part, on their environmentally friendly policies and practices. • Changed PC procurement to ensure suppliers preinstall power-saving enablers on every PC delivered to Oracle. • Implemented dual-sided printing, thereby reducing paper consumption. • Extended the use of remanufactured toner cartridges. Products and Packaging: Oracle has reduced the environmental impact of internal manufacturing and distribution operations by consolidating warehouse facilities and moving to electronic delivery of software and documentation. After moving to electronic distribution in 1998, Oracle has reduced the amount of printed documentation it ships by more than 96 percent. Recycling: Almost since its founding, Oracle has had a formal program to recycle waste by- products found in most office environments: batteries, bottles, cans, cardboard, CDs, computers, paper, toner cartridges, and more. Examples of Oracle’s efforts in this area include the following: • Approximately 71 tons of paper, cardboard, cans, bottles, and plastic are recycled each year at its headquarters in California. • Oracle builds global partnerships with leading IT hardware recycling companies to retire all Oracle IT hardware and technology assets in an environmentally friendly manner. Oracle has set a high global standard, using the U.S. and Singapore environmental laws as a basis, regardless of whether other countries have lower standards. Oracle also works with its partners to donate refurbished computers, where feasible, to nonprofit organizations. 11
  12. 12. Transportation Alternatives: Oracle is committed to decreasing the number of cars on the road and has established alternative commuter programs. Oracle has been consistently recognized as one of the “Best Workplaces for Commuters” by the EPA. Oracle sponsors shuttles to and from local train stations, and provides bicycle lockers, priority carpool parking, OraBikes for local use, vanpool programs, and discounted public-transit tickets for employees. Marketing Events: Oracle Marketing has made its large global conferences more eco-friendly by, for example, using recycled carpeting, making materials available online, encouraging use of Nalgene water bottles, printing all items on recycled paper, and increasing the use of hybrid vehicles for customer and executive transportation. ORACLE and ENERGY MANAGEMENT Oracle must extend energy-saving efforts to all regions so that the same energy-performance criteria apply to all Oracle facilities. Oracle is working to decrease its environmental impact by reducing the amount of energy it uses to heat, cool, light, and maintain its corporate offices. In addition to adopting simple conservation measures such as turning off monitors overnight, reducing lighting in hallways and stairwells, and replacing incandescent lighting with fluorescent lights, Oracle also incorporates cutting-edge energy saving features in the design and construction of new facilities. Using Renewable Power Oracle recognizes the importance of using renewable sources of energy. As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Green Power Partnership Program, Oracle pledged to purchase power from renewable sources such as wind, solar, and geothermal for its Austin, Texas, data center. Because Oracle committed to purchasing more than 10 percent of its power for the data center from renewable sources—far more than the minimum 3 percent required to be a certified Green Power partner—the EPA has honored it with membership in the Green Power Leadership Club. The Austin data center was designed to include modern energy-saving features such as an airflow management system that adjusts airflow according to the number of servers running. This allows center managers to use the minimum amount of power necessary for maintaining suitable conditions for the equipment. Rising to the Challenge Because energy management is a global issue, Oracle’s conservation efforts extend across all regions. During the California energy crisis of 2000–2001, for example, 12
  13. 13. Oracle implemented stringent conservation and efficiency measures. As a result, the company was able to cut energy usage at its Redwood Shores headquarters by 10.5 percent in 2001—and has continued to achieve savings of 9.3 percent, 11.5 percent, and 12.4 percent in 2002, 2003, and 2004, respectively. 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER 5 : ORACLE ON SOCIETY Oracle has a long history of employee volunteerism, charitable giving, respect for the environment, and a strong commitment to improving education. But we have never taken the step of recording our efforts for the benefit of our employees, shareholders, customers, and policy makers around the world—that is, until now. Programs such as ThinkQuest, is a global competition for students to create educational Web sites and thereby build understanding across cultures, and Oracle Academy, which works in partnership with secondary schools to educate students, are just two examples of our creative efforts. Oracle Volunteers: provides opportunities for Oracle employees to actively address social needs and make a measurable, positive impact in the community. Oracle volunteers lend their time and talents to not only serve underserved populations, but also to enrich the quality of life in the communities where we live and work. Volunteers teach basic safety and life skills lessons to the blind, protect native habitats for endangered wildlife, tutor and mentor disadvantaged youth, provide companionship for lonely and isolated elders, and build playgrounds and housing for low-income families to revitalize neighborhoods in transition. Oracle Volunteers engages employees in a variety of volunteer opportunities throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and worldwide. This year, Oracle employees at the company’s headquarters participated in over 85 projects, logging over 3,400 volunteer hours to support Bay Area organizations. During Oracle Global Volunteer Days, a company-wide service initiative to further Oracle’s commitment to social responsibility, more than 2,400 volunteers in 28 countries contributed more than 14,700 volunteer hours to benefit local communities around the world. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Oracle offers a complete set of CRM applications that manage all of the business processes and associated systems that touch a customer, including: billing and delivery; sales solutions that provide a single repository for customer and supply chain information; and service solutions that 14
  15. 15. increase customer satisfaction by providing visibility into customer billing and order information. Oracle Volunteers Rebuild a School Devastated by the Tsunami As the world watched in horror during the days following the tsunami in South Asia on December 26, 2004, people everywhere thought: “What can I do to help?” For Oracle employees living and working near the devastated areas, as well as those living half way around the world, the answer was simple enough. With Oracle’s help, the employees organized funds and relief efforts within hours of a disaster that had left more than a million people homeless. The donations helped fund initial relief efforts by specially trained disaster relief workers focused on providing critical aid to survivors. In addition to monetary contributions, Oracle employees in the Asia Pacific region were able to volunteer to help rebuild some of the more devastated areas. One in particular is the Ban Bang Bane School in Thailand. The school was severely damaged, and Oracle staff in Thailand visited the Ranong Province to help rebuild the school. Fifty-five volunteers worked for several days to rebuild the school, which opened to 120 children and 20 teachers and staff in the new school year. “We are glad that Oracle selected Ban Bang Bane School to repair after the tsunami,” says Manut Chansakul, principal. In March 2005, Oracle rebuilt two teacher housing units on school grounds. Most of the teachers are from other provinces, and traveling to and from the school is difficult. “Before the living quarters were rebuilt, teachers had to travel 15 kilometers between the school and town each day,” Chansakul says. “They are very appreciative and grateful to the Oracle volunteers who dedicated their time and efforts to help us out following the disaster.” Volunteers’ efforts in March made it possible for the school to open for the second semester in May 2005. “Oracle Thailand employees were pleased we had the opportunity to help reconstruct the school,” says Khun Natasak Rodjanapiches, managing director for Oracle in Thailand. “This effort will help ensure a brighter future for these students,” he said. Oracle sponsors five brilliant Romanian PhD students Funding from Oracle Romania is enabling five outstanding students at the University Politehnica of Bucharest to complete PhD research projects into aspects of Grid computing technology. The 15
  16. 16. research projects not only highlight Romania's advanced IT skills, but will also help to establish Bucharest as a centre of R&D excellence in the area of large-scale computing for the academic, scientific and enterprise sectors. Founded 180 years ago, the University Politehnica of Bucharest (UPB) is the most important technical university in Romania. It has 14 engineering, biotechnical and chemistry faculties and more than 30 research centers. Historically, local and international companies operating in Romania have not sought to forge partnerships with the country's academic and research sector. In 2006 Oracle bridged this divide by becoming one of the first companies to offer sponsored PhD grants for five brilliant UPB students. The partnership was made possible due to the strength of the collaboration between Oracle and the University, and because of the talent showed by the young Romanian researchers. Under the terms of the collaboration, Oracle will fund grants for the next three years to enable five promising young Romanian researchers at the Faculty of Automatic Control and Computer Science to complete their PhD research projects. The five researchers represent Romania's technological and academic elite, and will be key assets for the future of the country as an EU Member State. The research topics for each PhD were agreed by Oracle and UPB. Each will focus on a different aspect of Grid technology and related issues. Building on UPB's existing extensive experience in the areas of scientific and academic Grids, students will investigate deeper Grid systems optimization and resource monitoring in their R&D environment. At the same time they will develop more experience with Enterprise Grids, which differ from scientific and academic grids in terms of their drivers, focus and implementation. In the medium and long term, the Oracle-UPB collaboration aims to address the gap between the two Grid approaches and exploit areas of convergence for mutual benefit. 16
  17. 17. CHAPTER 6 : ORACLE FOR EMPLOYEES In an increasingly global economy, it is not surprising that a company that serves customers around the world would need staff to support those customers—wherever they are. Oracle uses resources to develop and deliver quality products and services to the global market. Oracle employs people around the world in global development, sales, and services in order to meet the needs of our customers. Using a geographically dispersed workforce allows Oracle and other global companies to continue to drive innovation, improve the economic status of workers around the world, and build the global economy. Additionally, customers running Oracle-based enterprise systems require access to technical support 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year—often delivered in the customer’s native language. Employing a global workforce allows Oracle to address these demands and ensure that our clients receive the level of attention they require to keep their mission critical computing systems online. The number of employees by region and the revenue generated in those regions remain in balance. Oracle seeks to build an inclusive workforce and work environment. It make every effort to attract, invest in, and develop the talents of a diverse group of people who reflect the society and community in which we live. We welcome and support people of all races, ethnicities, cultures, and religions, and seek to foster teamwork and effective partnerships among our employees. Oracle seeks to build an inclusive workforce and work environment. We make every effort to attract, invest in, and develop the talents of a diverse group of people who reflect the society and community in which we live. ORACLE ’S GLOBAL WORKFORCE Oracle at Work Oracle provides an official Code of Ethics and Business Conduct to its employees worldwide for their guidance in addressing the legal and ethical issues they encounter when conducting Oracle business. Although employment by Oracle is subject to terms and conditions established by local organizations, employees are required to abide by the standards set forth in this Code. These standards cannot anticipate every situation that may pose an ethical or moral issue, but Oracle expects each employee to exercise sound judgment when evaluating an issue of conduct. When in doubt, employees are encouraged to seek counseling prior to taking any action that may 17
  18. 18. compromise either personal ethical standards or those of Oracle. To support employees in the pursuit of superior business ethics and conduct. Oracle has designed global courses, based on the Code, which new employees are required to take within the first 30 days of employment. Both the Code and the courses have been translated into many languages. These courses include the following: • Ethics and Business Conduct – A required online self-study course that provides employees with information to aid them in understanding and abiding by the Code. It is offered in eight languages. • Ethics and Business Conduct- Supplemental – A required course for employees involved with government and higher education. The standards set forth in the Oracle Code of Ethics and Business Conduct are governed by the following business values: Integrity — Oracle employees demonstrate honesty and sound ethical behavior in all business transactions and personal integrity in all dealings with others. Mutual Respect — Oracle employees consistently treat individuals with respect and dignity. Teamwork — Oracle employees work together as a team for the collective interests of Oracle. Communication — Oracle employees share information widely and effectively with one another, except when confidentiality is required. Innovation — Oracle employees seek innovative and creative approaches to problem solving. Customer Satisfaction — Oracle employees consistently treat customer satisfaction as a top priority. Quality — Oracle employees make excellence and qualities a part of their day-to-day work processes and seek continuous improvement in all that they do. Fairness — Oracle employees are committed to dealing fairly with customers, suppliers, and one another. Compliance — Oracle employees comply with all laws and regulations that govern Oracle’s business. Business Conduct — Oracle employees observe the standards that have been established by Oracle and act ethically in their approach to business decisions. 18
  19. 19. CHAPTER 7: RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT AT ORACLE It is innovation that drives Oracle's success. Oracle was one of the first companies to make its business applications available through the internet—an idea that is now pervasive. With the release of Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle has begun debuting new products and functionality that reflect the company's goal: connecting all levels of enterprise technology to help customers access the knowledge they need to respond to market conditions with speed and agility. Today, Oracle Real Application Clusters, Oracle E-Business Suite, Oracle Grid Computing, support for enterprise Linux, and Oracle Fusion all fuel a commitment to innovation and results that has defined Oracle for thirty years. What's in store for tomorrow? We will strive to become No. 1 in middleware and No. 1 in applications, just as we've done in database. Our goal is to continue to innovate and to lead the industry—while always making sure that we're focused on solving the problems of the customers who rely on our software. Today, Oracle is the largest business software company in the world, with more than 320,000 customers—including 98 of the Fortune 100—and supports these customer in more than 145 countries. Oracle spends 1.8 billion on research & development in 2006 Oracle spent nearly two billion dollars in 2006, ranking Oracle #6 in the top IT spenders on research and development, ahead of Google. This demonstrates Oracle's commitment to hang-on in the competitive relational database market and to expand their presence in the ERP space, some money being spend on "project fusion" to integrate their diverse family of acquired ERP products like Peoplesoft and J. D. Edwards. The highly anticipated Oracle 11g software promises to be revolutionary, building the foundation for a self tuning database and accommodating the new movement toward massive database consolidation onto large monolithic servers. Oracle 11g also has features for predictive modeling, using historical workload data to predict future performance trends. 19
  20. 20. RANK COMPANY BUSINESS R&D SPENDING IN 2006 (millions) 1 MICROSOFT Software $6,584 2 IBM Computers $6,107 3 INTEL CORP Semiconductors $5,873 4 HEWLETT PACKARD Computers $3,591 5 TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INC Semiconductors $2,195 6 SUN MICROSYSTEMS INC Computers $2,046 7 ORACLE CORP Software $1,872 8 SAP Software $1,781 9 GOOGLE INC Software $1,228 10 ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES Semiconductors $1,205 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 $3,000 $2,000 $1,000 $0 Oracle Playing Key Role in EC-Funded Data Privacy Research Funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7), the PRECIOSA research project aims to demonstrate that data privacy is possible even in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), specifically Co-operative Systems. In line with its commitment to supporting innovation in Europe, Oracle is playing a key role in its development 20
  21. 21. Oracle and CERN Celebrate 25 Years of Partnership and Innovation Oracle has been collaborating with the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) for the past 25 years. A celebratory event held in February looked back at the past successes arising from the partnership, and looked forward to new challenges that can be addressed through continued successful co-operation between academia, industry, governments and the scientific community. For 25 years of its 30-year history, Oracle has been providing technological support, expertise and advice to CERN, the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web. In that time, Oracle has furnished CERN with solutions to its massive processing power and database needs and CERN has provided Oracle with a challenging environment in which to innovate and push its technologies to the limit. The main event to celebrate this continuing partnership, "From R&D to Innovation: Future Business Opportunities", was held on 6th February 2008 inside the CERN Globe of Innovation. Inspired by the benefits and breakthroughs that long-term collaboration has generated for both Oracle and CERN, the event brought together around 50 senior leaders from public policy, academia, research, and industry to discuss how open collaboration between all these sectors can accelerate innovation and shape the technologies, markets and societies of the future. Introducing the event, CERN's Chief Information Officer, Wolfgang von Rueden, outlined the importance that collaboration with industry, and with Oracle in particular, has had for CERN: “In summer 2008,” he said, “CERN’s Large Hadron Collider [the world’s largest particle accelerator and collider, expected to help us better understand the origins of the universe] will go into operation. Oracle's expertise in data management technologies and its track record of innovation in computing have been invaluable to CERN and its collaborating institutes around the world. Oracle’s solutions help to support the deployment and operation of the immense 21
  22. 22. processing power, scalability, and system reliability needed to collect, distribute, and analyze the huge volumes of data that will be produced by LHC experiments.” CHAPTER 8 : ORACLE’S CORPORATE GOVERNANCE In today’s digital age, where information is the new currency, the protection of personal data and assurance of identity on the internet are important elements of corporate policy. These protections need to be deployed in the policies and practices of the company as well as in the technologies that support them. Oracle has implemented corporate privacy polices and practices 22
  23. 23. to protect the personal information of its customers and employees. As part of the company’s international policy advocacy, we are active participants in intergovernmental initiatives to improve the state of privacy protection and develop workable policy solutions and best practices. There is an emerging understanding that workable solutions need to provide effective privacy protections to consumers and citizens while enabling the necessary and responsible information flows that are the basis of today’s digital economy. They are working with other industry participants as well as governments and nongovernmental organizations to develop solutions that help us reach both of these objectives. Oracle technology also plays a role in privacy protection. Privacy, by its very nature, is subjective. A doctor will have more personal information that will be used, and possibly shared with other medical practitioners, than will an auto mechanic. The nature of the job and the information processes associated with that job dictate what is reasonable and necessary. In light of this need for tailoring technology to support a variety of business practices and information preferences, Oracle provides tools that our customers can configure to help support their own privacy policies and practices. Because both privacy and security are focused on access control and protection of systems and information, technology solutions for each are closely related and often depend upon similar technological functions. Thus, many of Oracle’s privacy tools and functions are derived from some of the security functionality that has been designed into the products. Although security and privacy tools share similar technological roots, they are separate priorities that must be considered when configuring software functions, permissions, and roles. In order to help our customers address these issues, Oracle has begun to develop guidance documents to help customers understand which parts of our technology may have privacy applications. We highlight considerations in configuration and application, but we leave it to customers to make the final decisions, because those decisions must be rooted in intimate knowledge of business priorities and practices. CHAPTER 9 : CONTROVERSIES "Can't break it, can't break in" Oracle Corporation markets many of its products using the slogan "Can't break it, can't break in", or "Unbreakable". This signifies the increasing demands on information safety. Oracle Corporation also stresses the reliability of networked databases and network access to databases 23
  24. 24. as major selling points. However, two weeks after its introduction in 2002, David Litchfield, Alexander Kornbrust, Cesar Cerrudo and others demonstrated a whole suite of successful attacks against Oracle products. Commentators criticized the slogan as unrealistic, and as an invitation to crackers. But Oracle Corporation's chief security officer Mary Ann Davidson portrayed the criticism as unfair. Rather than representing a literal claim of Oracle's products' impregnability, she saw the campaign in the context of fourteen independent security evaluations that Oracle Corporation's database server passed. Relationship with John Ashcroft In 2004, then- United States Attorney General John Ashcroft sued Oracle Corporation to prevent a contract acquisition. Then, in 2005, Oracle hired Ashcroft's recently-founded lobbying firm, The Ashcroft Group, LLC. Oracle, with Ashcroft's lobbying, then went on to acquire the contract, a multi-billion dollar intelligence application. Trashgate In 2000 Oracle gained attention from the computer industry and the press after hiring private investigators to dig through the trash of organizations involved in a antitrust trial involving Microsoft. The Chairman of Oracle Corporation, Larry Ellison, staunchly defended his company's hiring of an East Coast detective agency to investigate groups that supported rival Microsoft Corporation during its antitrust trial, calling the snooping a "public service". The investigation reportedly included a $1,200 offer to janitors at the Association for Competitive Technology to look through Microsoft's trash. Asked how he'd feel if others were looking into Oracle's business activities, Ellison said: "We will ship our garbage to Redmond, and they can go through it. We believe in full disclosure." CONCLUSION Oracle is the world’s largest enterprise software company. It develops, manufacture, market, distribute and service database and middleware software as well as applications software designed to help its customers manage and grow their business operations. Its goal is to offer customers scalable, reliable, secure and integrated software systems that provide transactional 24
  25. 25. efficiencies, adapt to an organization’s unique needs and allow better ways to access and manage information at a lower total cost of ownership. Oracle provides an official Code of Ethics and Business Conduct to its employees worldwide for their guidance in addressing the legal and ethical issues they encounter when conducting Oracle business. To support employees in the pursuit of superior business ethics and conduct. Oracle has designed global courses, based on the Code, which new employees are required to take within the first 30 days of employment. Oracle Corporation also stresses the reliability of networked databases and network access to databases as major selling points. Thus , despite some controversies involving Oracle the increasing involvement of Oracle in ethical practices like the employee volunteerism , green minded business policies , societiel involvement and corporate governance are very good examples of its ethical business practices for the betterment of society as a whole. Oracle want to continually involve in innovative practices so as to improve the operations of the firms , who are its clients . That’s why the 98 companies out of Fortune top hundred use the database software supplied by Oracle. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 2. 3. 25
  26. 26. 4. 26