Hardware & softwares


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Hardware & softwares

  1. 1. Hardware and Software Chapter 2
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><ul><li>Identify and discuss the role of the essential hardware components of a computer system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List and describe popular classes of computer systems and discuss the role of each. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline the role of the operating system and discuss how operating systems have evolved over time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and briefly describe the functions of the two basic kinds of software. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Computer System Components Math calculations Access, decode, coordinate instructions Hold program instructions and data
  4. 4. Hardware Components in Action <ul><li>Instruction phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Fetch instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Decode instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Execution phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Execute the instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4: Store the results </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Execution of an Instruction
  6. 6. Processing and Memory Devices
  7. 7. Processing Characteristics and Functions <ul><li>Machine cycle time: Time to execute the instruction phase </li></ul><ul><li>Clock speed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate at which electronic pulses are produces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wordlength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit (Binary digiT): 0 or 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit for moving data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wordlength: The number of bits a CPU can process in a unit time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32-64 bit processors </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Moore’s Law <ul><li>Number of transistors doubles every 18 months </li></ul>
  9. 9. Number of Bytes
  10. 10. Types of Memory (1) <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended Data Out (EDO) RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Ram (DRAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous DRAM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster transfer speed between memory and processor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Memory (2) <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent data and instructions from manufacturer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROM: Programmable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPROM: Erasable programmable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Basic Types of Memory Chips
  13. 13. Secondary Storage and Output Devices
  14. 14. Cost Comparisons for Various Forms of Data Storage
  15. 15. Secondary Storage Access Methods <ul><li>Sequential access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access in the same order it was written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Need to access memory location 5. Then, you need to go through 1, 2, 3, and 4 first. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly access the location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster than sequential access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequential access storage devices (SASD) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct access storage devices (DASD) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Secondary Storage Devices (1) <ul><li>Magnetic tapes: Similar to audio tapes, SASD </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic discs: Hard disk, DASD </li></ul><ul><li>RAID: Redundant array of independent inexpensive disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data stored more than once in one of the disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if one disk fails, data can still be retrieved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SAN: Storage area network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of many storage devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optical discs, DASD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Secondary Storage Devices (2) <ul><li>Magneto-optical discs </li></ul><ul><li>Digital versatile discs (DVD): Up to 17 GB storage </li></ul><ul><li>Memory cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed in a slot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expandable storage: Removable disk cartridges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip drives </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Secondary Storage
  19. 19. Hard Disc
  20. 20. Storage Area Network
  21. 21. Digital Versatile Disc Player
  22. 22. Expandable Storage
  23. 23. Comparison of Secondary Storage Devices
  24. 24. Input Devices <ul><li>Personal computer input devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice-recognition devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software to convert voice into bits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital computer cameras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record images and video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects to a powerful server for computations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scanning devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch-sensitive Screens </li></ul>
  25. 25. A PC Equipped with a Computer Camera
  26. 26. Output Devices <ul><li>Display Monitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lights up pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat panel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Printers and Plotters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed measured in pages (page printed per minute) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 Players </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Laser Printer
  28. 28. Types of Computer Systems
  29. 29. Overview of Software
  30. 30. Overview of Software <ul><li>Computer programs: Sequences of instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation: Describe program functions </li></ul><ul><li>Systems software: Coordinate the activities of the hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Computer system platform: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware configuration + systems software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application software: Programs that help users with certain tasks </li></ul>
  31. 31. Classifying Software by Type and Sphere of Influence
  32. 32. Systems Software
  33. 33. Operating Systems <ul><li>Perform common computer hardware functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Get input from keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide a user interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command-based user interface (ms-dos) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical-user interface (windows) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide a degree of hardware independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application program interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage system memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert logical view to physical view </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Operating Systems <ul><li>Manage processing tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate computer resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking (run more than once application at a time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-sharing (allow multiple access to a system) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide networking capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable connection to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control access to system resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to files </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Role of the Operating System
  36. 36. Application Program Interface
  37. 37. An Example of the Operating System Controlling Physical Access to Data
  38. 38. Popular Operating Systems
  39. 39. Workgroup Operating Systems <ul><li>Windows 2000 Server </li></ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Netware </li></ul><ul><li>Red Hat Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X Server </li></ul>
  40. 40. Consumer Appliance Operating Systems <ul><li>Windows CE .NET </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP Embedded </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld PC </li></ul><ul><li>Pocket PC </li></ul><ul><li>Palm OS </li></ul>
  41. 41. Application Software
  42. 42. Sources of Software
  43. 43. Proprietary and Off-the-Shelf Software
  44. 44. Examples of Personal Productivity Software
  45. 45. TurboTax
  46. 46. Quicken
  47. 47. Word Processing Program
  48. 48. Spreadsheet Program
  49. 49. Database Program
  50. 50. Graphics Program
  51. 51. Software Suites
  52. 52. Enterprise Application Software
  53. 53. Use of Integrated Supply Chain Management Software
  54. 54. Selected Enterprise Resource Planning Vendors
  55. 55. Summary of Programming Languages <ul><li>First: Computer interactions written in machine code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbreviations for common operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembler converts code to machine language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions are English-like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliers convert code to machine language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortran: Good for scientific computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cobol: Good file handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Java: Good for Web applications </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Summary of Programming Languages <ul><li>Fourth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even easy for non-programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell what to do, not how to do it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus, Powerhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual Programming Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-and-click </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for user interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Basic, Visual C++ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object-oriented Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects contain data, methods to operate data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C++, Java </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Summary <ul><li>Hardware devices work together to perform input, processing, data storage, and output. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main categories of software: systems software and application software. </li></ul><ul><li>An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware to support users’ computing needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Application software may be proprietary or off-the-shelf. </li></ul><ul><li>There are five generations of programming languages, plus object-oriented programming languages. </li></ul>