Aetna Presentation Final Overview

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UNF Hispanic Health Issues Seminars: Brief Review

Dr. Judith Rodriguez, RD and Daniel Santibanez, MPH, RD, Department of Public Health, University of North Florida

September 23, 2005 - UNF Hispanic Health Issues Seminars

This is part 8 of an 8 part series of seminars on Hispanic Health Issues brought to you by the University of North Florida’s Dept. of Public Health, College of Health, a grant from AETNA, and the cooperation of the Duval County Health Department.

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Aetna Presentation Final Overview

  1. 1. UNF Hispanic Health Issues Seminars: Brief Review Dr. Judith Rodriguez, RD Daniel Santibanez, MPH, RD University of North Florida Department of Public Health This is part 8 of an 8 part series of seminars on Hispanic Health Issues brought to you by the University of North Florida’s Dept. of Public Health, College of Health, a grant from AETNA, and the cooperation of the Duval County Health Department.
  2. 2. Regional Distribution <ul><li>Puerto Rican </li></ul><ul><li>Dominican </li></ul><ul><li>Central American </li></ul><ul><li>South American </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban </li></ul><ul><li>Central American </li></ul><ul><li>South American </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rican </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican </li></ul><ul><li>Central American </li></ul><ul><li>South American </li></ul>US Census Bureau 2003 14% 33% 45% 8%
  3. 3. Hispanic Demographics <ul><li>The largest minority group </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics are a young, fast growing population </li></ul><ul><li>Larger families </li></ul><ul><li>Lower high school graduation rates </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Self identity differs </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination: One in three (31%) Latinos report they or someone close to them has suffered discrimination in the past five years; more (45%) report experiencing more subtle forms </li></ul>Hispanic Demographics (cont.)
  5. 5. Hispanic Behaviors and Diversity <ul><li>Demographic Complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nativity status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Born vs. Foreign Born </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hot – cold theory of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritualism, Santeria and Fatalism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hispanic Behaviors and Diversity (cont.) <ul><li>Problems spiritual in nature are treated with prayer and ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of luck and God </li></ul>
  7. 7. Discussion <ul><li>What information about demographics and/or regional distribution was new to you? </li></ul><ul><li>What information have you used/has been especially helpful? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lifespan <ul><li>Latino children in the U.S. are at extremely high risk for adverse health effects </li></ul><ul><li>Latino women have the highest birth and fertility rates of any other group in the U.S. and are faced with many challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Latino elders are more likely to report being in poor health, experience more restricted activity, and have more difficulty performing ADLs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Obesity <ul><li>Obesity prevalence is higher among: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African-American Females, Hispanic Americans (esp. Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans), Native Americans and Asians/Pacific Islanders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The associations of poverty, acculturation, exercise, and diet to BMI implicate societal as well as individual contributors to obesity among U.S. Latinos. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Obesity (cont.) <ul><li>Hispanics in Florida: </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of Overweight 58.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of Obesity17.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Longer duration of residence in U.S. is associated with higher BMI </li></ul>
  11. 11. Diabetes <ul><li>Complications (heart disease, stroke, hypertension, blindness, kidney disease, nervous system, amputation, dental disease, pregnancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 1.5 times higher in Latinos than non-Latino whites </li></ul><ul><li>Two million or 8.2% of all Latino Americans aged 20 years or older have diabetes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Diabetes (cont.) <ul><li>In the United states among those between ages 45 – 74: </li></ul><ul><li>24% of Mexican Americans have diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>26% of Puerto Ricans have diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>16% of Cuban Americans have diabetes </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cardiovascular Disease <ul><li>Heart disease the primary cause of mortality/death among Latinos </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease and stroke claims the lives of 30% or more Latinos each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Total deaths rates for Mex Am: </li></ul><ul><li>about 29% for men </li></ul><ul><li>about 27% of women </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cardiovascular Disease (cont.) <ul><li>Risk factors and facts </li></ul><ul><li>MA men have higher TG & lower HDL </li></ul><ul><li>Genes account for 30-45% of difference in lipid profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary lifestyles (exercise & diet) </li></ul><ul><li>More years of immigration = more obesity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cancer <ul><li>Hispanics’ risk of cancer can differ based on whether they are U.S. born or foreign-born, country of origin or heritage, degree of acculturation, and socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics/Latinos tend to underutilize cancer screening procedure for several reasons </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cancer (cont.) <ul><li>Compared to rates in the U.S: </li></ul><ul><li>Lower incidence rates of breast, colon and rectum, lung, and prostate cancers in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Central and South American countries than in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher incidence rates of cervical, liver, and stomach cancers </li></ul>
  17. 17. Discussion <ul><li>What interrelationships do you see among obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there one “take home message” about these conditions that you think you can use in your work with Hispanics? </li></ul>
  18. 18. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>20% cases of AIDS cases are Latinos (8,000+) This percentage has increased from 18% in 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>19% of deaths within Latinos are due to AIDS </li></ul>
  19. 19. HIV/AIDS (cont.) <ul><li>HIV is the 2 nd cause of death for Latino males 35-44 (5 th for White men) </li></ul><ul><li>Latino teens account for 21% of new AIDS cases </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS rate is five times more for Latinas than for White women </li></ul>
  20. 20. HIV/AIDS (cont.) <ul><li>Transmission in Latinos </li></ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>42% men who have sex with men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>34% contaminated syringes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8% heterosexually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>38% contaminated syringes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>47% sex with HIV positive male </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Environmental Health <ul><li>Latino children disproportionately exposed to toxins, air pollutants, hazardous chemical waste, pesticides, and lead </li></ul><ul><li>In 2002, over 1.7 million Latinos reported that they currently have asthma </li></ul><ul><li>High risk due to overrepresentation of Latino workers in the more hazardous occupations and industries </li></ul>
  22. 22. Substance Abuse <ul><li>Smoking and Hispanics/Latinos </li></ul><ul><li>Lower rates of smoking than other groups, but Asian Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic women: Smoking rates were much lower than those among females of other races </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking by gender In 2002: 10.8 % women / 22.7 % men </li></ul>
  23. 23. Substance Abuse (cont.) <ul><li>Smoking and Hispanics/Latinos </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in smoking rates among Hispanic subgroups. In 2002: 27.2 % Puerto Ricans (highest), 10.7 % of Central-South Americans (lowest) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2002, 9.1 percent of Hispanic middle school students smoked.  Relatively equal to other racial/ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics were less likely to attempt to quit </li></ul>
  24. 24. Substance Abuse (cont.) <ul><li>Alcohol and Hispanics/Latinos </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic young people are more likely to drink and to get drunk at an earlier age </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol use contributes to the three leading causes of death among Hispanic 12-20-year-olds: unintentional injuries, homicide and suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic high school students are more likely to report riding in a car with a driver who had been drinking </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mental and Emotional Health <ul><li>Latinos living in their countries of origin have less rates of mental disorders than those that migrate to the US (due to strong social networks) </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturative stress a factor for immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to care include stigma, language, and access to mental health services </li></ul>
  26. 26. Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Latinos are twice as likely to have gonorrhea or syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>Among minorities, Latinas report the second highest number of cases of gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Latinos are at High-Risk of contracting the hepatitis C virus </li></ul>
  27. 27. Discussion <ul><li>Which of these issues (environmental health, substance abuse, mental and emotional health, infectious diseases) is most relevant to your work? </li></ul><ul><li>What information about any of those presentations did you find most useful? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Next Steps <ul><li>What do you think would be most helpful now for you – in terms of seminars, information, programmatic approaches? </li></ul><ul><li>If we were to develop a follow up to this project (seminars) what do you think it should include? </li></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>The references for the information provided on this summary is in the earlier presentation packets. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Thank you! <ul><li>Aetna </li></ul><ul><li>University of North Florida, Dept. of Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>Duval County Health Department </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast Florida AHEC </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Daniel Santibanez </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Juan C. Henao </li></ul><ul><li>You – the attendees! </li></ul>

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