Em mag aug07

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Em mag aug07

  1. 1. inside: Assessing our warming world | Colleges heighten security | Educating displaced kids Summer 2007 BIOHAZARD Issue 3 — Vol. 2 WITH ATTENTION FOCUSED ON NATURAL DISASTERS, CRITICS SAY PREPARATION FOR A BIOTERRORISM ATTACK HAS BEEN MISHANDLED. EM08_01.indd 1 8/14/07 3:20:19 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  2. 2. Solutions for the Public Sector Ask a public sector professional why he loves his BlackBerry. Whether I’m dealing with emergencies or everyday issues involving citizens and constituents, communicating wirelessly – and securely – at virtually all times is critical. With my BlackBerry® smartphone, I can deal with situations as they arise, by accessing the most up-to-date information at my fingertips. Favorite Features*: • Automatically receive emails • Access emergency contacts and procedures • GPS navigation and tracking • Dispatch information and incident reports Exclusive Offer. Visit www.blackberry.com/firstresponse © 2007 Research In Motion Limited. All rights reserved. Research in Motion, the RIM logo, BlackBerry and the BlackBerry logo are registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and may be pending or registered in other countries. These marks, images and symbols are owned by Research in Motion Limited. All other brands, product names, company names and trademarks are the properties of their respective owners. Screen images are simulated. * Certain features are available on select devices only. Check with your wireless-service provider for service plans, supported features and services before purchasing. EM_AugTemp.indd 11 7/20/07 4:27:43 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  3. 3. ON THE COVER 20 Blind Preparation Public health experts say lack of a national vision for disaster preparedness cripples biological and chemical readiness in government. Contents FEATURES 30 A Changing Reality What does global warming mean to emergency managers? 36 Cracking the Books Education programs for emergency management professionals are growing nationally and internationally. 40 Educating the Uprooted Supporting children displaced from Hurricane Katrina — another lesson learned. PHOTO BY JON ANDROWSKI Emergency Management 3 EM08_03.indd 3 8/13/07 12:40:57 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  4. 4. Publisher: Contents Tim Karney tkarney@govtech.com Executive Editor: Steve Towns stowns@govtech.com EDITORIAL Editor: Jessica Jones jjones@govtech.com Associate Editor: Jim McKay jmckay@govtech.com Managing Editor: Staff Writers: Karen Stewartson kstewartson@govtech.com Andy Opsahl, Chad Vander Veen Chief Copy Editor: Miriam Jones mjones@govtech.com DESIGN Creative Director: Graphic Designers: Illustrator: Production Director: Production Manager: Internet Director: Kelly Martinelli kmartinelli@erepublic.com Crystal Hopson chopson@erepublic.com Michelle Hamm mhamm@erepublic.com Joe Colombo jcolombo@erepublic.com Tom McKeith tmckeith@erepublic.com Stephan Widmaier swidm@govtech.com Joei Heart jheart@govtech.com Jude Hansen jhansen@govtech.com PUBLISHING VP of Strategic Accounts: Sr. Director of Sales: Jon Fyffe jfyffe@govtech.com Pam Fyffe pfyffe@govtech.com Midwest, Central Regional Sales Directors: Leslie Hunter lhunter@govtech.com Shelley Ballard sballard@govtech.com Melissa Cano mcano@govtech.com Krista O’Sullivan kosullivan@govtech.com Erin Hux ehux@govtech.com Andrea Kleinbardt akleinbardt@govtech.com East West, Central Account Managers: FEATURES REST OF THE BOOK 44 6 14 Safe Haven No Longer Contributors Major Player 8 Aaron Kenneston, Washoe County, Nev., Emergency Manager College campuses seek increased security in the wake of shootings. Editor’s Letter 48 16 Tragic Disconnect Safely Out Preparation is key to evacuating special-needs populations. Director of Marketing: Director of National Sales Administration and Organization: Tracey Simek tsimek@govtech.com Regional Sales Administrators: Nancy Glass nglass@govtech.com Sabrina Shewmake sshewmake@govtech.com Dir. of Custom Events: Whitney Sweet wsweet@govtech.com Custom Events Manager: Lana Herrera lherrera@govtech.com Custom Events Coordinator: Karin Prado kprado@govtech.com Dir. of Custom Publications: Stacey Toles stoles@govtech.com Custom Publications Associate Editor: Emily Montandon emontandon@govtech.com Business Development Director: Glenn Swenson gswenson@govtech.com Publisher’s Executive Sarah Lix slix@govtech.com Coordinator: Director of Web Products and Services: Vikki Palazzari vpalazzari@govtech.com Project Coordinator, Michelle Mrotek mmrotek@govtech.com Web Products and Services: Web Services Manager: Peter Simek psimek@govtech.com Creative Web Administrator: Julie Dedeaux jdedeaux@govtech.com Subscription Coordinator: Gosia Ustaszewska gustaszewska@govtech.com EM Bulletin 10 In the Field 18 In the News 12 Seismic Explosions Fifty years ago, two gas-fueled explosions ripped through Reno, Nev., but new technologies make a similar scenario today unlikely. CORPORATE CEO: Executive VP: Executive VP: CAO: CFO: VP of Events: 56 Products 58 Last Word Dennis McKenna dmckenna@govtech.com Don Pearson dpearson@govtech.com Cathilea Robinett crobinet@centerdigitalgov.com Lisa Bernard lbernard@govtech.com Paul Harney pharney@govtech.com Alan Cox acox@govtech.com Government Technology’s Emergency Management is published by e.Republic Inc. © 2007 by e.Republic Inc. All rights reserved. Opinions expressed by writers are not necessarily those of the publisher or editors. Emergency Exit Article submissions should be sent to the attention of the Managing Editor. Reprints of all articles in this issue and past issues are available (500 minimum). Please direct inquiries to Reprint Management Services (RMS): Attn. Tonya Martin at (800)360-5549 ext.157 or <governmenttechnology@reprintbuyer.com>. ONLINE EXCLUSIVES Subscription Information: Requests for subscriptions may be directed to subscription coordinator by phone or fax to the numbers below. You can also subscribe online at <www.emergencymgmt.com>. <www.emergencymgmt.com> Canada Post Publication Mail Agreement 40048640 , undeliverables 2-7496 Bath Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4T 1L2 100 Blue Ravine Road, Folsom, CA 95630 Phone: (916)932-1300 Fax: (916)932-1470 <www.emergencymgmt.com> Bulking Up The Human Disaster A Florida county goes above and beyond code in raising one firehouse from the rubble. Workplace violence is growing — and should be mitigated and prepared for as its own kind of disaster. A publication of 4 EM08_03.indd 4 8/14/07 1:40:05 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  5. 5. Dell recommends Windows Vista™ Business. Technology for a community in action. Dell Latitude™ D630 Notebook • Intel® Core™2 Duo Processor • Genuine Windows Vista Business* • 60GB* Hard Drive • 512MB DDR2 667MHZ Memory* • 3-Yr Next Business Day On-Site Service* • 3-Year Limited Warranty* • Quote #371168180 • Limit 5 Per Customer • Expiration 9.14.07 • Reg. Price $1348 Now 1109 $ Computrace Professional Help protect your technology investment by minimizing out-of-pocket expenses to repair unplanned damage and assist with the recovery of a stolen computer. You can rest assured your equipment is covered. IT solutions designed to enhance the way you work for your community. With more than 20 years’ experience working closely with your state and local government agencies, Dell understands the ever-changing demands you face. We offer IT solutions designed to aid mobility, ensure security, improve business continuity and disaster preparedness, and enhance integration and interoperability. Technology solutions designed with one goal in mind. Yours. Technology for a community in action. 1.866.401.0148 www.dell.com/slg/emergmgmtQ3 *Pricing/Availability: Pricing, specifications, availability and terms of offers may change without notice. Taxes, fees, shipping, handling and any applicable restocking charges are extra, and vary. Cannot be combined with other offers or discounts. U.S. only. Offers available only to qualified government customers, are not valid in all states or under all contracts and are subject to restrictions in your applicable contract. Dell cannot be responsible for pricing or other errors, and reserves the right to cancel orders arising from such errors. Service Offers: Not all services are available in all states or under all contracts. Services may be provided by a third party. Please refer to your applicable contract or your Dell representative for availability. Internal Hard Drives for Dell Latitude Systems: For hard drives GB means 1 billion bytes and TB equals 1 trillion bytes; actual capacity varies with preloaded material and operating environment and will be less. With Dell Factory Image Restore installed, Windows Vista users will have 10GB of their hard drive capacity set aside for a recovery image. System Memory (SDRAM): Your graphics solution may use a portion of your system memory to support graphics, depending on operating system, system memory size and other factors. Limited Warranty: For a copy of our guarantees or limited warranties, please write Dell USA L.P., Attn: Warranties, One Dell Way, Round Rock, TX 78682. For more information, visit www.dell.com/warranty. Windows Vista: Windows Vista has not been tested on all user configurations, and drivers may not be available for some hardware devices and software applications. Check www.support.dell.com for latest driver availability. Some OS features – like the Aero interface – are only available in premium editions of Windows Vista and may require advanced hardware. Check www.windowsvista. com for details. Trademarks: Dell, the Dell logo and Latitude are trademarks of Dell Inc. Intel, Intel logo, Intel Inside, Intel Inside logo, Intel Core 2 Duo and Intel Core 2 Duo logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. Microsoft, Windows and Windows Vista are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this piece to refer to either the entities claiming the marks and names or their products. Dell Inc. disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and names other than its own. ©2007 Dell Inc. All rights reserved. 79989021 EM_AugTemp.indd 8 7/9/07 11:37:40 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  6. 6. Contributors Chandler Harris Amy Yannello Contributing Writer Contributing Writer Harris is a regular contributor to Emergency Management magazine, and has written for Adventure Sports Journal, Surfer’s Journal, Information Week, Government Technology and Digital Communities magazines. He is the former editor of Shout Out newspaper. Yannello is a journalist based in Sacramento, Calif., where she writes for several publications. She has spent nearly 20 years covering California politics, health care and healthcare reform, issues of homelessness, and the public policy and treatment issues surrounding mental illness. Andy Opsahl Staff Writer Opsahl joined Government Technology as a staff writer in October 2005. He has written extensively on government IT outsourcing and private-sector solutions in government. Opsahl also writes for Government Technology’s Public CIO and Texas Technology. Jessica Weidling Contributing Writer Weidling is a writer living in Sacramento, Calif., and has written for Capitol Weekly, a newspaper covering California politics. Jessica Jones Editor Jones is also the assistant editor of Public CIO, a bimonthly journal, and Government Technology magazine. She was the education reporter for the Hollister (Calif.) Freelance. Jim McKay Associate Editor McKay is also the justice editor of Government Technology magazine. He has spent more than a decade as a writer, editor and contributing writer for publications including The Fresno (Calif.) Bee, The Vacaville (Calif.) Reporter and The Ring magazine. 6 EM08_06.indd 6 8/14/07 4:44:22 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  7. 7. the video is being televised when it’s everything you need to strikes video in an instant between responders its used to with departments to to increase situational it’s and it’s See how CBS News uses VBxStream to respond to Breaking News www.VBrick.com/CBS EM_AugTemp.indd 18 8/6/07 9:46:38 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  8. 8. Editor’s Letter Tragic Disconnect Guns are far too easy to get in this country — legally I It’s a common theme throughout law enforcement: the vital need to share information, to connect the dots — some call it intelligence-led policing. and illegally — and too many in Congress lack the fortitude to stand up to the National Rifle Association in the name of the public good. The rationale that a viable solution to the plague of The idea is that the more information available and handgun violence is to allow every citizen to pack a piece circulated among law enforcement, the better the is asinine and will simply lead to more bloodshed — and chances of protecting the public from bad guys. maybe more tragedies like the Virginia Tech shootings. We When it comes to law enforcement’s ability to track guns used in crimes, however, the only protection can protect the rights of legitimate hunters and still make it more difficult to obtain handguns. And we should. afforded is to gun dealers, thanks to the Tiahrt One way is to demand automated criminal history Amendment, which has been tucked into a spending records by state so background checks on gun buyers are bill since 2003 and become increasingly restrictive. more complete. According to reports after the Virginia Chiefly the bill prevents the federal government Tech tragedies, Seung-Hui Cho, the shooter of 32, should from releasing data about guns used in crimes to local never have been allowed to buy a gun under federal law police and prosecutors. According to the Mayors because he had been declared mentally ill by a judge. Against Illegal Guns Web site, the provisions of the Another way to limit handgun circulation and save current 2006 amendment: · prevent the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms P U B L I C AT I O N Repealing the Tiahrt Amendment, or at least parts of it, use trace data to analyze the flow of guns nationally; N E W back to the dealers who funnel guns to criminals. and Explosives (ATF) from publishing reports that B E S T lives is to allow law enforcement to track gun sales would allow law enforcement to find illegal gun dealers. · limit local governments’ access to ATF trace data; · prevent law enforcement from accessing trace data New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly recently wrote in The New York Times that his department has been successful in using crime data to identify outside the agency’s jurisdiction; · generally prevent law enforcement agencies from sharing trace data with one another; and patterns and detect trends in criminal activity. It’s commonly referred to in law enforcement as intelligence-led · prevent trace data from being used as evidence in any state license revocation, civil law suit or other Associate Editor Emergency Management obtain gun data from the federal government to find out administrative proceeding. Jim McKay policing. Yet, Kelly said, when law enforcement tries to where the illegal guns are coming from, they are blocked It’s pretty clear when you look at those provisions by the Tiahrt Amendment. just who they’re designed to protect. And it’s a disgrace. There’s nothing intelligent about that. k Questions or comments? Please give us your input by contacting our editorial department at <editorial@govtech.com>, or visit our Web site at <www.govtech.com/EM>. 8 L E A D , F O L L O W O R G E T O U T O F T H E W AY. EM08_08.indd 8 8/10/07 3:06:04 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  9. 9. Your network’s covered. No matter what. With a Continuity of Operations solution from HUGHES, your network will be fully operational, rain or shine. Government needs to stay up and running no matter what. That’s why we offer HughesNet® Access Continuity Service—the satellite-based backup solution you can rely on. If terrestrial systems fail, critical applications won’t. Only HughesNet Access Continuity Service can ensure media and path diversity, whether set up as an overlay to your existing terrestrial system or as part of the HughesNet Managed Network Services portfolio, yielding the highest network availability. So you can keep on serving the people who count on you. Call 1-800-416-8679 for more information on Continuity of Operations or high-availability Managed Network Services. gov.hughesnet.com Available through GSA Schedule GS-35F--0907P or your preferred integrator. © 2007 Hughes Network Systems, LLC. All rights reserved. HUGHES and HughesNet are registered trademarks of Hughes Network Systems, LLC. EM_AugTemp.indd 5 6/29/07 11:57:55 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  10. 10. In the Field Global warming is causing an increase in heavy precipitation, violent storms and intense droughts. Though scientists may not agree on some of global warming’s possible effects, they agree it’s happening. Officials say emergency managers should start looking at how climate changes might affect their region and prepare for those effects. To read the full story, turn to page 28. 10 EM08_10b.indd 10 8/15/07 12:13:06 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  11. 11. 11 EM08_10b.indd 11 8/15/07 12:08:33 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  12. 12. Rebounding Rebounding COLLECTION OF NEAL COBB This close-up of the area where the explosion occurred shows the twisted steel framework of the brick building that resulted from the explosion’s force and the fire’s heat. The explosion occurred in the Nevada Shoe Factory, which is the collapsed burning building on the left. COLLECTION OF NEAL COBB by Seismic Explosions Chandler Harris Fifty years ago, two gas-fueled explosions ripped through Reno, Nev., but new technologies make a similar scenario today unlikely. Feb. 5, 1957, began like every other day for Jerry Fenwick, who worked at his family’s paint and art supply store in downtown Reno, Nev. Yet on this day, Fenwick decided not to check on his prize 1957 Dodge Custom Royal Lancer, which was being modified at the local repair shop a few blocks away, as he usually did on his lunch break. The decision most likely saved his life. Fenwick’s usual stroll would have put him at the corner of First and Sierra streets right around the time of a deadly blast. Alerted by complaints of strong gas odor, a crew of five firefighters had converged on the intersection, evacuating surrounding buildings. Moments later, at 1:03 p.m., two gas-fueled explosions 30 seconds apart shook downtown Reno, completely destroying two buildings, killing two people and injuring dozens. Fenwick, still at work two blocks away, said he had no injuries, and that most of those harmed were on the same block as the blast. Though the explosions were at ground level, they were strong enough to register seismic reverberations equivalent to a 1.5-magnitude earthquake, according to the University of Nevada’s Mackay School of Mines. “I felt a terrible loud thump like something had been dropped,” Fenwick said. “I turned around and saw the old-fashioned door jam lifted off the post three inches. That’s when I knew something radically was wrong. I looked down the street and saw huge pieces of roof drifting down.” The blast was so strong it shattered windows in a block-and-a-half radius, said Jim Paterson, who at the time of the blast worked at Paterson’s — one of the buildings that was completely demolished. “The blast took the roof off the building where I worked and dumped it on the street,” Paterson said. Reno firefighter Bill Shinners was outside Paterson’s when the blast hit; when he looked up, the sky was red. Shinners and other firefighters fought the fire for about 36 hours without any sleep. After the first seven hours, Shinners stole a needed break on top of the aerial fire ladder. “I got up there to relax and started to shake uncontrollably,” Shinners said. “I think I was in a state of shock.” The explosion was caused by a ruptured gas main that filled an undetermined area with gas before igniting. Damage from the blast was estimated to be more than $7 million, according to the Reno Gazette-Journal. Fast-Forward Fifty years later, new technologies, added safety precautions for emergency responders, more stringent building codes and stricter gas line controls imposed by energy companies have lessened the chances for another gas-fueled explosion in Reno, said Marty Scheuerman, division chief of the Reno Fire Department and emergency manager of the city. 12 EM08_12.indd 12 8/7/07 9:32:55 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  13. 13. sion k of on’s COLLECTION OF NEAL COBB Today, firefighters’ technological arsenal includes devices that detect the presence of flammable vapor in the air and lower and upper explosion limits of gases, which determine if a structure or area is safe from potential explosions, Scheuerman said. Firefighters also carry an assortment of equipment for plugging gas line leaks, and are trained on how to approach and contain pressure leaks. Gas line maps and computerized building schematics have improved firefighters’ ability to shut off potentially deadly gas lines if a leak is detected or before approaching a fire, Scheuerman said. Sierra Pacific Power, the local gas and electric company, also has extensive mapping systems of gas lines and excess flow valves that automatically shut gas flow off when a leak is detected. Reno now has a large natural gas pipeline that flows from Canada, which is equipped with infrared monitors that detect the presence or leakage of flammable vapor. Even with more advanced technology and mapping, however, another gas-fueled explosion isn’t entirely improbable, especially in mountainous areas, like Reno where the use of propane gas is prevalent. “There’s always a chance when there is a structure fire with a potential for gas leak, that it could ignite,” Scheuerman said. “There’s always potential, but I don’t think the potential is as high as it was in 1957.” This fire truck was damaged from the explosion’s heat and debris. It was out of service for some time, but eventually was returned to service. COLLECTION OF NEAL COBB Forming Partnerships About 30 miles west of Reno, the town of Truckee, Calif., has experienced its share of gas problems. In 1989, a three-story building was leveled in downtown Truckee because a propane leak ignited, and in 2003, a largescale propane gas leak lasted for several months, with an estimated 22,000 gallons of propane seeping into the ground. The gas didn’t ignite, but a school, businesses and homes in the area were evacuated for weeks at a time. Donner Pass Road, a major thoroughfare, was also closed while firefighters and energy officials attempted to locate the leak. The gas leak was finally pinpointed to Amerigas, a company that provides propane gas to the area. The leak was caused by a damaged gas line whose coating had been scraped off and was weakened by corrosion, said Gene Welch, public safety and information officer for the Truckee Fire Department. The area of the leak was covered by asphalt, Welch said, so the gas traveled a longer distance before being diffused in the air. “It’s not uncommon he said, because of the territory we live in and conditions of the area for snow to build up and damage gas lines,” When a leak is detected, fire crews first evacuate a home or building, and then shut off all power to reduce the number of ignition sources, Welch said, adding that the safest and fastest way to handle a propane leak is to cut off the source and let the propane dissipate naturally. Homes in Truckee powered by natural gas are required to have a “two-state regulator” that helps prevent gas leaks. In areas with freezing temperatures, regulators often freeze, requiring two regulators in propane valves. Homes are also required to have two propane shut-off valves: one inside the house and one outside, near the propane tank. Strong partnerships between gas companies and emergency responders can help avoid such disasters. Both the Reno and Truckee fire departments work closely with gas companies when gas leaks occur and share information about gas lines. When a leak occurs, agencies work together to find the leak and prevent another devastating blast like the one that occurred 50 years ago in Reno. “Our techniques are better, our equipment is better, our ability to detect gas is better,” Scheuerman said, “and quality of gas mains is a lot better.” k 13 EM08_12.indd 13 8/7/07 9:33:08 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  14. 14. Major Player Aaron Kenneston Emergency manager of Washoe County, Nev. Could you outline the different planning phases for an emergency response and discuss why it’s important to break down training into phases? I Aaron Kenneston is responsible for all-hazards training, response and recovery. He served in the Army National Guard for nearly 25 years, retiring as a colonel. During his career, Kenneston ran a military emergency operations center, and responded to floods, civil unrest, state-level security events, and search and rescue missions. Kenneston has served during major emergencies, including a local flood, a snow emergency, a fire and the Hurricane Katrina evacuation. He holds two master’s degrees. describe the four phases of emergency management as mitigation, planning, training, and response and recovery. There are some variations on the names of these phases and actions, for example the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) often replaces the term mitigation with “prevention.” I use mitigation because FEMA [the Federal Emergency Management Agency] requires every jurisdiction to prepare a hazard mitigation plan. This is the basis of all actions, identifying and ranking hazards in the community and collaboratively developing strategies to reduce the impact or eliminate these hazards. Planning and training are the ways we test our written emergency plans for validity, identify areas for improvement, and ensure that our procedures are practiced and fresh in the minds of public safety officials and first responders. The response phase involves coordinating the actions of the various response agencies and disciplines, providing strategic guidance and material support to incident commanders, as well as coordinating resources from the state and federal government. Recovery takes the longest period of time and begins with preliminary damage assessment, includes individual and public assistance, and continues until every mitigation project approved as a result of the disaster is complete. Of course, these phases can be concurrent and are a continuous process. During your tenure as emergency manager for Washoe County, which disaster made you the most nervous or was the most difficult to manage? In the PHOTO BY: SCOTT SADY few short years I’ve been a civilian emergency manager, our county has experienced about a half-dozen local, state and federally declared disasters. We had a major winter storm on New Year’s Eve 2004-2005, and the very next New Year’s Eve we experienced a 50-year flood. Both events had federal disaster declarations, and taxed state and local resources to the maximum. But it also brought out the best in our region and caused our response community to work together even more closely on emergency preparedness. k by To read more on Kenneston’s experiences, visit <www.govtech.com/em>. Jim McKay 14 EM08_14.indd 14 8/6/07 3:25:55 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  15. 15. s e: er lin ap ad 7 r P e 00 fo D 2 ll ion 5, Ca iss st 1 bm gu Su Au ESRI Homeland Security GIS Summit The Geographic Advantage: Turning Knowledge into Actionable Information Plan now to attend the 2007 ESRI Homeland Security GIS Summit in Denver, Colorado, and see how government, business, utilities, and other organizations are deploying geographic information system (GIS) technology for homeland security. Learn from leaders who set priorities for their organizations and use GIS to collect, analyze, and communicate complex data for the protection of people and critical infrastructure. The ESRI Homeland Security GIS Summit is a forum for management teams to evaluate levels of readiness in collaborative partnerships, technology strategies, and geographic information management for Identify critical infrastructures and calculate risks using buffer zone analysis The ESRI Homeland Security GIS Summit offers an opportunity to discuss methods to integrate disparate data and serve geographic analysis and content in real time to create a common operating picture. Participants will also be able to share information on current projects, information networks, and collaborative opportunities that extend the GIS framework for situational awareness. For speaker, panel discussion, and session information, visit www.esri.com/hssummit. ESRI Homeland Security GIS Summit 3D Visualization of Social and Critical Infrastructure November 5–7, 2007 Adam’s Mark Hotel Denver, Colorado 1-800-447-9778 Register now and save! Early bird registration ends October 6, 2007. Copyright © 2007 ESRI. All rights reserved. ESRI, the ESRI globe logo, @esri.com, and www.esri.com are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of ESRI in the United States, the European Community, or certain other jurisdictions. Other companies and products mentioned herein may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective trademark owners. G EM_AugTemp.indd 10 / / 7/18/07 1:02:17 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  16. 16. EM Bulletin Disaster Funding THE U.S. GOVERNMENT is offering $968 million in grants to help state and local public-safety agencies buy sophisticated radios and technology for communications during disasters, according to the Department of Commerce. The program aims to equip police and fire departments, and other emergency agencies in all 50 states, with more dependable and interoperable communications. Funding for the grants will come from expected proceeds of the Federal Communications Commission’s 700-megahertz spectrum auction, scheduled for later this year. — Reuters Campus Warning THE UNIVERSITY of Mary Washington in Fredericksburg, Va., can notify students, staff, faculty, campus security and university officials across its 175-acre campus — and a nearby graduate and professional studies campus — during a crisis or routine incident in seconds using the Roam Secure Alert Network, deployed in late June. The system can reach any text-enabled device, and was procured via the Virginia Department of Homeland Security’s Statewide Alerting Network contract. To read more about how other universities are focusing on campuswide communication, turn to page 46. 16 EM08_16.indd 16 8/7/07 1:32:27 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  17. 17. PHOTO BY DAVID ILIFF International Waters Lifetime Sentence Foiled Attempt POURING RAINS BATTERED China, killing 94 people and displacing more than half a million in early July. As of July 10, floods and landslides left at least 25 people missing, ruined crops, destroyed 49,000 houses and caused economic losses of 3.8 billion yuan ($500 million) in seven provinces, according to the People’s Daily. The paper also reported that downpours in the central province of Henan and the eastern provinces of Anhui and Jiangsu have left the huge Huai River overflowing at alarming levels. More than 326,000 people were mobilized to monitor embankments along the river. — Reuters FOUR MEN WERE EACH given life sentences for taking part in a botched suicide attack on London’s public transport system on July 21, 2005, two weeks after bombers murdered 52 commuters. Muktar Said Ibrahim, Yassin Hassin Omar, Hussein Osman and Ramzi Mohammed were convicted by a jury in London on July 9 of conspiracy to murder. The men were charged with attacks on three trains and a bus. No one was hurt when the explosives failed to detonate completely. The July 21 attack came as Londoners were recovering from the deadliest attacks on the city since World War II and the first suicide bombings in Western Europe. On July 7, 2005, four others blew themselves up, killing commuters in attacks also aimed at three trains and a bus. — Bloomberg News IN THE EARLY HOURS of June 29, UK police dismantled a car bomb found outside a nightclub packed with hundreds of people near London’s Piccadilly Circus. The incident prompted a manhunt for the driver of the green four-door Mercedes, abandoned about 1 a.m. local time. The car held a large bomb made from gas canisters, containers of gasoline and nails, and was likely to be set off by mobile phone, according to police, who manually defused it. Explosive material was also found in a second car in London near Trafalgar Square, which officials say was linked to the first car. Though early investigations showed no link between the first car bomb and any terrorist group, further investigation showed the opposite, according to officials, who also said their initial inquiries yielded no suspects and no definitive description of anyone leaving either vehicle. The second car had been towed because it was illegally parked, and was later found to contain the explosives, officials said. So far, eight suspects have been detained in connection with the two bombs. — Bloomberg News Lake Tahoe Troubles IN JUNE, severe wildfires destroyed 3,100 acres of land and more than 250 buildings in South Lake Tahoe, Calif. As of July 2, firefighters had the blaze fully contained, and allowed the 2,000 evacuees back into their homes. More than 2,100 Forest Service personnel worked the Lake Tahoe Basin fire, but with new fires breaking out in other parts of the county, 500 were deployed elsewhere. Emergency Management 17 EM08_16.indd 17 8/7/07 1:35:11 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  18. 18. In the News PHOTO BY JILL PALMER The U.S. Geological Survey estimates there’s a 62 percent chance a major earthquake will hit the San Francisco Bay Area in the next 26 years — but only about 17 percent of local residents say they are prepared for such an emergency. So earlier this year, the American Red Cross Bay Area Chapter designed a campaign to “shock, force people to think, and then take action to get prepared.” The campaign consisted of images on mobile billboards — as well as on TV and in print publications — of destruction from an earthquake that toppled downtown highrises and reduced buildings to hollow shells and clouds of ash. “The only thing that seems to get people’s attention is when a catastrophic event takes place somewhere in the world,” said Harold Brooks, chief executive officer of the Bay Area Chapter, in a press release. “So we wanted to do something that would stimulate people to get prepared even during peacetime.” k — Stuart Hales, manager, Redcross.org 18 EM08_18.indd 18 7/30/07 3:46:46 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  19. 19. 19 EM08_18.indd 19 7/30/07 3:47:05 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  20. 20. L S AH OP DY AN BY IR G THE VERIN CO FA SIONS MS O ED LE MPTO SY LAM TO H INF WHO ESS — NOW M WIT EAKN ROO LD K GW SHOU ENCY ITATIN PITAL MERG DEBIL NE HOS ND — ERS A ERS A 9/11 TTING TER ADMI Y ENT Y FEV HE DB S AF AMIL MANY K—T . YEAR IF A F PANIE ATTAC MBER T SIX ESS — CCOM ME S, A ICAL K, EDN MOS AMILY OLOG EPAR R. AL BODIE ATTAC OR BI R PR ACH F ICAL WEVE ASTE ICAL , HO EAT E HEM OR C N DIS TO TR CHEM PPEN ICAL S HA HOW ARS O . LOG OLL AND LWAY NS UNITY A BIO TAX D N’T A CALL EAPO D TO COMM S OF OULD AL W W ON IC TH LION L, RESP THAT HEAL CHEM LEVE G BIL UBLIC ED TO NDIN L AND OCAL PAR EL HE P GICA R SPE ARE AT TH NPRE S IN T BIOLO AFTE NTLY AIN U ADER TIVES Y ON EQUE ITIA LIC L LE REM S PO F IN ERA S FR CITIE IONAL DGE O O SEV DARD T NAT ING T GEPO STAN RD AL HOD REN ACCO ATION COHE CED A SAY N RODU CK OF RS SP A LA OTHE SS HA S. EDNE . YET S AR ISSUE RITIC PREP TO C OCAL G ING L RDIN ICTAT ACCO E AT D ECTIV INEFF ER ISA STENT. RD N FOOVERNM S IO AL VIES S IN G ION A NAT RE ADIN F ACK OEMIC AL YL TS S A AND CH PER H E X OLOGIC AL ALT C HE PLES BI I PUBL S CRIP ES REDN A PREP D AR IN P LE BR P 20 EM08_20.indd 20 8/14/07 11:28:26 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  21. 21. N IO T A R A EM08_20.indd 21 8/10/07 1:57:45 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  22. 22. “When you talk about emergency preparedness and disaster response, the important thing to keep in mind is that most of that work is done at the state and local level,” said David Quam, director of federal relations for the National Governors Association (NGA). “National solutions sound easy and important, but it is their implementation and their respect for the different roles at the different levels of government that really become the most important.” A lack of a clearly defined, long-term, national consensus on what a prepared America is, he said, cripples the nation’s biological and chemical preparedness efforts. RHYME AND REASON The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) handles most biological and chemical preparedness initiatives for the federal government, which in turn spends hundreds of millions on such initiatives for state and local government. The HHS currently funds activities the public health community typically advocates, like state and local pandemic influenza preparedness, hospital equipment upgrades and similar initiatives. The problem, according to some public health officials, is that the type of preparedness funding Congress allows seems to shift with whatever preparedness priorities are politically chic at the time. “There is no long-term plan. There’s not even a five-year vision. Everything is just reacting to the political issue of the moment,” said Tara O’Toole, who was assistant energy secretary for Environment, Safety A Los Angeles County Sheriff’s HAZMAT deputy dons protective gear during a Southern California weapons of mass destruction exercise. Photo by Jon Androwski 22 and Health during the Clinton administration, and currently is the CEO of the Center for Biosecurity at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. “After Katrina, it was, ‘What happened to FEMA? Let’s elevate FEMA in the hierarchy so it can report to the Homeland Security secretary during a crisis.’” The federal government began ramping up disaster preparedness during the Clinton administration, said O’Toole. “Congress first started putting money on the streets to train first responders,” she said. “But they didn’t really think through what we were responding to, or who the first responders were, so all police and fire got a piece of the pie.” That money, she said, was used to purchase a lot of equipment that is largely useless. “There were constraints against spending it on people,” O’Toole added. “You had to buy equipment. They bought a lot of test kits to diagnose whether a powder was anthrax, which didn’t work very well. They bought suits to protect against chemical attacks, some of which were OK, some of which were just kind of sitting in lockers moldering away.” ra tion fo forma ring a t up in ding du lice se il ear, po ccupied bu g tective errorist-o in pro l. t Suited entry into a truction dril ctical f mass des ta ki ons o weapby Jon Androws Photo EM08_20.indd 22 8/10/07 1:59:12 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  23. 23. “WHEN YO YOU HAVE U START TALKING AB TO BE VER O — David Qu Y CAREFUL UT NATIONAL SOLU am, direct or of fede TION BECAUSE A ral relatio ns, Nationa l Governor LMOST ALW S TO WHAT ARE RE s Associat ion AL AYS, ONE S IZE WILL N LY LOCAL ISSUES, There was no rhyme or reason to what people OT FIT ALL bought, she said, and there weren’t any standards .” to guide agencies on what type of equipment to purchase. “Some people bought good stuff,” she said. “Other people bought low-quality or unreliable stuff. It was all over the place.” Lack of a cohesive plan for those involved in incident response may have cost the nation an opportunity, said Elin Gursky, principal deputy for biodefense in the National Strategies Support Directorate of ANSER, because future funding availability is difficult to forecast. “We’ve wasted a lot of money that we may not see again because of competing fiscal priorities,” she said. What would help local governments receive federal medical equipment funding on a more systematic basis, Gursky said, is a clearly defined national vision for disaster preparedness. “Do I expect every local community to have biological containment and negative pressure medical facilities?” she asked. “Probably not, but they don’t need to.” They may not need a negative pressure facility, which uses a ventilation system to keep contaminated air from escaping to other parts of a medical facility, but they need a systematic process for routing patients to nearby hospitals that have those facilities. “We have 5,000 acute care hospitals that are stretched to the limit. We need to recognize where we can stretch further, or what reasonable expectations are that we build greater capacity at a regional level, and not a community level,” Gursky said, adding that a national During a weapons of mass destruction drill, a Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department HAZMAT deputy leads Los Angeles Fire Department HAZMAT deputies into a building where in the staged scenario, occupants registered as a fumigation company are a front for a terrorist cell producing sarin nerve gas. Photo by Jon Androwski vision would also ensure better use of preparedness equipment funding. Immediately after 9/11, local governments received such funding on a somewhat equal basis, she said, adding that Congress began funding more strategically since then, but needs to make more progress. “Two-thirds of our local public heath departments treat populations of 50,000 or less. That’s not the best distribution of resources,” Gursky said. “Let’s look at vulnerabilities, population densities, and plan accordingly.” In addition, Congress funds parts of biodefense preparedness on a year-to-year basis, so the HHS is unable to develop sturdy, mature programs capable of growth, O’Toole said, and public health departments don’t know if they can rely on future funding. NUCLEAR ATTACK In addition to a biological attack, the 2005 National Intelligence Estimate also identified a nuclear attack as one of the gravest threats to the United States. Such an attack lacks federal attention, said Tara O’Toole, CEO, Center for Biosecurity, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. She added that emphasis on nuclear weapons should favor prevention, rather than response. “The appropriate strategic approach to a nuclear attack, in my opinion, and virtually everybody else’s, is to prevent it from happening,” she said. “By the time you get a nuke in a city, there’s not a lot you can do because it’s so devastating.” The consequences of a nuclear detonation would be so overwhelming that devising a response plan would be virtually unrealistic, O’Toole said, and the focus should be on securing loose fissile materials in other countries, which are essential to activating a nuclear bomb. Many of these fissile materials originated in the former Soviet Union. “I’ve been in Russia at a nuclear weapons site,” she said. “Their sites and our sites have got a lot of stuff in them. I’m pretty well persuaded that our stuff is tied down. Their stuff is a lot less assuredly secure, to put it mildly.” Emergency Management 23 EM08_20.indd 23 8/14/07 11:27:33 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  24. 24. MOBILE BROADBAND FOR STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Whether you need to access critical information in an emergency, check live camera feeds or COG plans or just update your calendar, you can do it faster and in more places with Sprint. Sprint Mobile Broadband is the fastest and largest Mobile Broadband network, which means you have the ability to make just about any place a workplace, fast. That’s getting it done at SprintSpeed.™ Winner of the multiple award Networx Enterprise Contract. You freed yourself from the office. Don’t let a slow network tie you down. Nationwide Sprint PCS and Nextel National Networks reach over 262 and 274 million people, respectively. Sprint Mobile Broadband Network reaches over 200 million people. Coverage not available everywhere—see sprint.com/coverage for details. Not available in all markets/retail locations. ©2007 Sprint Nextel. All rights reserved. Sprint, the “Going Forward” logo and other trademarks are trademarks of Sprint Nextel. EM_AugTemp.indd 3 7/25/07 4:51:16 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  25. 25. 1-800-SPRINT-1 sprint.com/government EM_AugTemp.indd 4 7/25/07 4:51:42 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  26. 26. AGAIN T SEE AY NO WE M.” HAT NEY T RIORITIES F MO LOT O G FISCAL Port Directorate, ANSER TED A pp N E WASF COMPETIe, National Strategies Su E’V E O “W US fens CA rincipal deputy for biode BE sky, p Photo courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory — Elin Gur Because it’s so easy to attain, anthrax — a close-up of which is shown here — poses the most likely biological threat to the United States, according to officials. Congress should commit to multiyear funding for all biodefense activity, she said, the way it funds Department of Defense (DoD) projects. When the DoD decides it’s ready to deal with a new threat, O’Toole said, it has a specific planning process that assesses what its budget will look like for the next few years, so it can commit to training more special forces troops, for example. “Nothing like that is happening in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), or in the HHS, for biodefense,” she said. “And HHS is where most of the bio stuff lives.” Biological and chemical response is not intended as a primary issue for the department, according to Larry Orluskie, a spokesman for the DHS. Marc Wolfson, HHS public affairs specialist, said the agency gets some multiyear funding for preparedness and response programs. Specifically Congress set up a special reserve fund for Project BioShield, the program to identify and acquire medical countermeasures against chemical and biological threats identified by the DHS. The special reserve fund for BioShield is available for 10 years — from 2003 to 2013. Also, funding for the strategic national stockpile (SNS) can be carried over from one fiscal year to the next. The HHS uses the SNS to store and deliver medical supplies, equipment, vaccines and other drugs during a public health emergency. The United States, O’Toole said, needs to rethink some of its national security funding priorities. “Why are we spending more than $10 billion per year — and have been doing so for decades — on missile defense, when a covert bioattack would be more devastating, and is thought by the National Intelligence Council to be more likely?” ASSESSING THREATS Because Mother Nature strikes the United States more often than terrorists, some think preparedness for natural disasters should receive more funding than biological and chemical preparedness. Though O’Toole said she agrees natural disaster preparedness needs attention, it shouldn’t receive more consideration than chemical and biological weapons. “Unless it’s California falling into the Pacific, a natural disaster is not going to take down the country,” she said. “A thinking enemy, and in particular, our current adversary, al Qaeda, is determined to take down the country. I think a bioterrorist attack could do it. I also think a nuke going off in an American city could totally transform people’s willingness to live in cities.” Though the NGA and U.S. Conference of Mayors are working to solve the lack of preparedness issue, Gursky said, state and local governments need to establish preparedness benchmarks to enable effective congressional oversight. “Congress needs to know its investment is paying off,” Gursky said. “We have to put some metrics in place and figure out if people are meeting these — and, if not, why.” This lack of a national vision for preparedness makes any catastrophe — natural or manmade — more feasible, Gursky said, and groups like the U.S. Conference of Mayors and the NGA should initiate collaboration involving federal agencies to create standards. There also needs to be strong leadership that articulates what a prepared America is, she said, adding that the executive branch and Congress must encourage state and local governments to develop that national vision. The problem, Gursky said, ultimately stems from a foggy definition of homeland security — the DHS needs to shift more of its emphasis toward disaster response. “There has been so much attention paid to borders, issues of watch lists, tracking terrorists and connecting the dots that the response issues have gotten much less attention,” O’Toole said. “[The DHS is] mostly a giant police organization, focused on borders, the Coast Guard and that kind of thing, with a tiny little directorate of science and technology stuck on the side.” Establishing national standards would likely be difficult for the United States, Gursky noted, given that the Constitution lets states plan independently of their neighbors. But that doesn’t mean national standards shouldn’t be created. “Diseases do not respect borders. Hurricanes do not respect borders,” she said. “We have to develop a focused effort to harmonize our capabilities across geopolitical boundaries.” If an anthrax attack occurred in Sacramento, Calif., O’Toole said, the governor would have difficulty evaluating the number of attacks, their size and who was infected. Some of those who 26 EM08_20.indd 26 8/10/07 2:00:32 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  27. 27. EM_AugTemp.indd 12 7/24/07 10:40:24 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  28. 28. were in Sacramento when it happened might travel post-exposure to other places. And the lack of good diagnostic techniques and data sharing makes it difficult for public health officials to react quickly and effectively to biological threats. “We don’t have good diagnostic techniques, so a guy who gets sick in San Francisco may not even be recognized as [having] anthrax for a while,” O’Toole said. “Getting a count of how many people are ill, given the incubation period, could be a day, or many days. It’s not going to happen right away. That’s going to cause a lot of consternation.” A lack of that data would severely handicap the response planning. “If it was the beginning of a campaign of attacks, you wouldn’t want to take all of your best CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] people and park them in Sacramento,” O’Toole said. “None of this has been thought through. This is why a conduct of operations plan — exactly what actions we are going to take if this happens — is important. The fact that it’s missing, even for an anthrax attack, is another symptom of our lack of any kind of strategic thinking.” In addition, the 2005 National Intelligence Estimate identified a biological attack as one of the gravest threats the country faces, and a lack of a national vision for emergency preparedness has kept federal agencies from developing effective prevention and response programs for biological weapons, O’Toole said. NO CONDUCTOR Though she credits the Bush administration with taking biological threats seriously, O’Toole said the approach needs more specifics. The conceptual categories — threat awareness, prevention and protection, surveillance and detection, and response and recovery — are a pretty good rendering of the necessary facets in the bioterrorism arena, O’Toole said. “But it doesn’t say, ‘In five years, the country is going to have achieved this. And these are our top priorities. And this is how much we think it’s going to cost.’” She said the federal government could more easily produce those specifics if it had an official whose sole responsibility was to direct biodefense for the entire federal government. “There are some people in DHS who have responsibility [over biological threats] — a number of people in HHS headquarters,” she said, adding that some are in the National Institutes of Health, the CDC, the DoD and the State Department. “There’s no conductor of the orchestra. And it’s not clear what sheet of music we’re singing from,” O’Toole said. “They try to coordinate from the White House, from the Homeland Security Council, but there really hasn’t been any clear articulation of our overall strategy.” And that strategy, she said, needs to include state and local governments. Many preparedness obstacles in local government stem from an absence of protocols — how officials should respond after discovering a biological or chemical weapon emergency, Gursky said, adding that officials need established information flows. If a patient with smallpox — which also poses a great danger to the country due to its contagious nature — enters a doctor’s office, for example, the doctor needs a pre-established line of communication to follow. A communication flow starting at the local level and leading up to state and federal agencies must exist in all local governments, Gursky said. “If police don’t know how to reach the public health official, and don’t know how to get the mayor, and how to get Transportation or Sanitation, then there’s a real fundamental problem of information flow.” BUILDING PROTOCOLS To establish such a protocol, local, state and federal agencies need to formally gather to form a consensus as to what preparedness means, said William Yasnoff, managing partner of the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII), an initiative aimed at improving health care in the United States through a network of interoperable information systems. “You can agree on things such as, ‘We want all emergency responders to be able to communicate with each other. We want local, state and federal officials to have real-time situational awareness.’” Continued on p.52 A NEW ROLE FOR TECHNOLOGY William Yasnoff, managing partner of the National Health Information Infrastructure, said local governments should agree on standardized descriptions of disasters and responses, and submit them to all local emergency operations centers. “They can put them together in an information system to give those organized in the response, accurate, real-time situational awareness of what’s happening.” Each local government’s information system would offer responders key data about their area’s resources. “If it’s a medical problem, you need to know what medical facilities and personnel are available; where they are, what capabilities you have to move them to another location, if necessary,” Yasnoff said. “Then you need to know what’s going on at the locations the problems are occurring. How many cases are there? Where are they located? How serious are they? Where are they being treated?” He also advocates a national electronic laboratory reporting system, and said a national system would enable the nation’s medical field to immediately detect and isolate biological and chemical infections. “You can’t have effective early detection of biological attacks, or disease outbreaks, until you have a fully electronic health information infrastructure,” Yasnoff said. “The system needs to produce information that can lead to detection as a byproduct of the ordinary care that people receive.” The theme running through most solutions for biological and chemical preparedness is standardization. Yasnoff said the absence of health infrastructure IT standards deters many local governments from building interoperable systems. “Regardless of what the requirements may be, if the information we’re trying to understand and communicate is not represented in a standardized form,” he said, “then it becomes very difficult to move that information from one place to another.” 28 EM08_20.indd 28 8/14/07 10:56:54 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  29. 29. A D V E R T I S E M E N T Maximize your mobile workforce Visionary company is doing just that… If you’re reading this, chances are you have already made a substantial investment to place computers in the field. As the mobile computing industry matures, many agencies find themselves connected, but not necessarily productive due to excessive downtime, bad ergonomics and substandard hardware. One company in metro Detroit is striving to ensure mobile users achieve maximum productivity through better notebook mounting and docking solutions. As the fastest growing company in their industry, LEDCO is leading the way in optimizing mobile workforce productivity. So exactly how did a business operating under the radar in the Midwest get noticed by the likes of the NYPD, U.S. Customs and the FBI? According to LEDCO President Mike Zani, it had everything to do with their company culture. “We pushed ourselves constantly to go above and beyond the industry standard. We raised the bar and attempted to exceed expectations for every client. We settled for nothing less. “At the end of the day, our clients want to spend less time worrying about how they will get their job done and more time actually doing it,” he adds. LEDCO’s approach is completely dictated by each client’s needs. When a project starts, all aspects of the mobile environment are analyzed: from the vehicle’s make, model and year to the computing platform. A solution is then created that meets the customer’s needs—keeping in mind their key issues of safety, ergonomics and system reliability. Comfortable, ergonomic solutions increase user productivity Designed to position the keyboard and screen at the same height and angle as the traditional office solution, LEDCO’s flexible mounting hardware positions a laptop so that the user can type more efficiently and with less strain. It’s proven that when people are comfortable, they are more productive. High quality solutions maximize device uptime LEDCO’s products are constantly put through rigorous testing to continually improve their performance. This not only ensures the quality of their goods, but substantiates their safety as well. “Quality is only as good as the weakest link. We test every product to failure to weed out the weak links so our clients can be confident that they are protected in the toughest real world situations,” says Jay Shaw, LEDCO’s Director of Engineering. Shaw goes on to explain, “We test and build to extremes because we want our clients to know that we also prepare for the worst.” Safe solutions protect your assets…people and hardware LEDCO’s approach to safety takes into account not only extreme events, but the day-to-day activities of employees and equipment in the mobile environment and ways to reduce or eliminate any harmful impact. Chris Veit, Technical Director of the Hurricane Research Center, shares his personal experience with LEDCO: ”When our computer systems arrived, we were left with a perplexing problem: how do we mount the devices so that they don’t become a projectile during an accident? We had no luck at our vehicle dealership. Then we heard about LEDCO. They mounted the computers in no time flat and got us up and running. “Recently their work was put to the test when I was hit from behind as I was sitting on an off-ramp waiting for the light to change. I was amazed once I shook the cobwebs clear and looked over at my laptop to see it closed, but still firmly in place and still running. These people make some serious mounts.” Agencies will continue to search for better ways to maximize their productivity; LEDCO is leading the way with quality mounting and docking solutions that maximize productivity with the most comfortable, safest and highest quality solutions. The bottom line is, their clients really like their work. LEDCO clients include: I New York Police Department I Federal Bureau of Investigation I Palm Beach Sheriff’s Office I Texas Department of Public Safety I Miami Police Department I U.S. Customs & Border Patrol I Chicago Police Department I New York Fire Department I Detroit Police Department I Washington State Patrol I Hillsborough County Sheriff I Ohio State Highway Patrol I Colorado State Patrol I Fairfax Fire & EMS Department 1.877.88LEDCO For more information about LEDCO, call 1.877.88LEDCO or visit their website at www.ledco.net. www.ledco.net EM_AugTemp.indd 26 8/14/07 11:22:16 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  30. 30. Changin A R What does global warming mean to emergency managers? B Y J E S S I C A W E I D L I N G FOR SEATTLE RESIDENTS, RAIN — and lots of it — is a fact of life. But they’d never seen a month quite like November 2006. With 15.59 inches of rain — including snowfall and hail — it set the record for wettest month, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. In 115 years of record keeping it was the most rain the Emerald City had ever seen in a one-month span. If that weren’t enough, mid-December brought supercharged winds of 60 to 90 mph that cut power to about 1 million people, some of whom lived in the dark for prolonged periods. “It wasn’t just for a couple of hours, a couple of days,” said Eric Holdeman, former director of the King County, Wash., Office of Emergency Management. “There were folks without power for 10 days in isolated areas, or even longer than that.” That same month, drought plagued parts of Minnesota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Texas and Oklahoma; thunderstorms and tornadoes whipped through the South; a cyclone lashed the Eastern coastline from South Carolina to Virginia; and the earliest snowfall on record fell on Charleston, S.C., and Savannah, Ga., according to the National Climatic Data Center. Worldwide patterns show an increase in heavy precipitation and intense droughts caused by a warmer atmosphere, increases in water vapor and a rising sea-surface temperature — all results of global warming. Holdeman, now principal at ICF International’s Emergency Management and Homeland Security team, holds last winter’s unusually hazardous weather events as anecdotal evidence that our weather reality is shifting. “Whatever the cause is, the weather is changing,” Holdeman said. “There’s been any number of extreme weather events happening.” Scientists may not agree on some of the possible effects of global warming, but most do agree that it’s happening, said Gabriel Vecchi, research scientist at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton, N.J. According to a February report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the nation is already seeing warming effects, such as melting snow pack; increased winter flooding and summer warming; pests and wildfires plaguing forest environments; and intensifying heat waves and hurricanes. Unfortunately any changes related to the planet’s increased temperature will be magnified in developing countries, where resources won’t be available to delay or minimize effects. But in richer nations, like the United States, where the resources are forthcoming, it’s time to adapt and plan for changes we might see, or are seeing now. Lemming-Like March The most egregious global warming effects will occur on global warming’s frontlines — at the poles, where there’s damage to ecosystems and thawing of glaciers and ice sheets, and on small islands, where beach erosion and storm surges are expected to further deteriorate coastlines, according to the IPCC. 30 EM08_28.indd 30 8/13/07 12:35:22 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  31. 31. ing Reality Though most scientists agree that global warming is happening, the question of how exactly it will manifest remains. Many believe warming oceans may be contributing to more devastating hurricane seasons. The 2004-2005 period was one of the most active 24 months ever witnessed in the Atlantic basin, setting records for number of hurricanes and tying the 1950-1951 record for most major hurricanes with 13. But hurricanes don’t just endanger lives; they also threaten people’s livelihoods, businesses and homes, and cities’ economies. And because tropical storms tend to hit the United States in its sweet spot — expensive and growing coastal stretches from Texas to Maine — they represent one of the country’s gravest storm challenges. Hurricanes that hit the Gulf Coast region during the 2004 and 2005 storm seasons produced seven of the 13 costliest hurricanes to hit the United States since 1900 (after adjusting for inflation), according to an April 2007 report by the National Hurricane Center in Miami. According to the NOAA, Hurricane Katrina cost approximately $60 billion in insurance losses to the Gulf Coast region — almost triple the $21 billion in insurance losses from Hurricane Andrew, the second costliest hurricane, which struck south Florida in 1992. This year’s hurricane season, from June 1 to Nov. 30, already looks grim. Experts at the NOAA Climate Prediction Center project a 75 percent chance the season will be above normal. They predict a strong La Niña — which favors more Atlantic hurricanes, while El Niño favors fewer hurricanes — will cause three to five major hurricanes. Also a factor is a phenomenon called “the tropical multidecadal signal” — the notion that two or three decades of reduced storm activity are followed by two or three decades of increased activity. Since 1995, conditions have been ripe for more hurricanes. Yet despite signs of a rough hurricane season ahead, a surprising phenomenon is occurring: People are increasingly moving to the Atlantic coast. Census Bureau data shows that in 1950, 10.2 million people were threatened by Atlantic hurricanes; today more than 34.9 million are threatened, according to USA Today. “The areas along the United States Gulf and Atlantic coasts where most of this country’s hurricane-related fatalities have occurred are also experiencing the country’s most significant growth in population,” the National Hurricane Center report confirmed. But since coastal communities won’t stop corralling newcomers, the report concluded that communities themselves should take action. Jim O’Brien, professor emeritus of meteorology and oceanography at Florida State University, said emergency managers and policymakers should address the hurricane issue by enforcing stricter building codes, readdressing evacuation strategies and educating people about the imminent problem. However, more drastic action must be taken to stop people’s risky behavior, according to Kerry Emanuel, an atmospheric scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. Emergency Management 31 EM08_28.indd 31 8/13/07 12:48:19 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  32. 32. Super Storms? Surveys show that when worrying about global warming, people fear hurricanes most, but the scientific community has yet to agree on how climate change really impacts tropical storms. Kerry Emanuel, an atmospheric scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, is one of the scientists who think global warming and hurricanes are connected. “When we looked at the data, we saw a very strong response in the Atlantic Ocean to global warming,” he said. “The new finding was that there’s a strong correlation between hurricane power and ocean temperature.” His study, documented in a 2005 issue of the journal Nature, found no increase in hurricane frequency due to global warming, but he did see that the energy — through wind speed and storm duration — released by the average hurricane increased by 50 percent since the mid-1970s. On the flip side, Jim O’Brien, professor emeritus of meteorology and oceanography at Florida State University, isn’t convinced that global warming is causing hurricane intensity to increase. “There is a climate variability that occurs that has to be considered,” said O’Brien, a past state climatologist for Florida and a widely known El Niño expert. He added that climate change trends can’t be derived from hurricane data that’s limited The coastal migration is made possible, he said, through an unwise mix of state and federal policies, like government regulation of property and flood insurance (which covers storm surges), and federal disaster relief given to flooded regions. While such policies help people in the short term, Emmanuel explained, they also enable the risky behavior to continue. Scientists have long feared America’s vulnerability to hurricanes because its shores are lined with some of the nation’s wealthiest residents. Emanuel, in conjunction with nine scientists, and only recently has been improved by technology. Alternatively Virginia Burkett, global change science coordinator for the U.S. Geological Survey, worries the real danger is the intensification of storms accompanied with the acceleration of sea rise. “Low-lying coastal areas will become more frequently inundated during normal tides and during tropical storm passage,” she said. Though the disagreements about global warming effects can confuse nonscientists looking for answers, said Gabriel Vecchi, research scientist at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton, N.J., challenging of others’ conclusions is an integral part of the scientific process. Vecchi cautions people from reading too much into any one scientific conclusion, including his own. His study found that warming waters might actually decrease the number of hurricanes in the Atlantic because of increased wind shear — the difference in speed and direction of atmospheric winds. Wind shear counteracts hurricanes and disrupts the ones that do form. “In a broad sense, a conclusion from this paper is that the relationship between global warming and hurricanes is certainly complex,” he said. “One can’t just extrapolate out [that] warming temperatures means more hurricanes.” released a July 2006 statement about the U.S. hurricane problem: “We are optimistic that continued research will eventually resolve much of the current debate over the effect of climate change on hurricanes. But the more urgent problem of our lemming-like march to the sea requires immediate and sustained attention.” Preparedness Challenge Paul Milelli, director of public safety for Palm Beach County, Fla., contends that global warming’s effects may inherently force people to change their ways. “If we start having to build homes to meet a 200 mph wind, the cost would probably stifle some growth,” he said, “and then [there’s] the fear factor of people moving in.” Because the county uses an all-hazards approach, emergency planning won’t change much with global warming in the equation, he said. “The economy is just going to be affected tremendously, and that, to me, is going to be the biggest concern. Because we can prepare our people for a hurricane, whether it’s a Category 1 or a Category 5, and how we prepare the people really doesn’t change — except that as the categories get higher, we start asking people to make their plans earlier and earlier.” For a statewide evacuation, Floridians would have to begin leaving days before the hurricane hit — a logistic impracticality. “It’s bigger than me. It’s bigger than what I can plan for as a planner of the county,” said Milelli, whose 31-year emergency management career ends in January when he plans to retire in Wisconsin — far away from hurricanes. To help combat storm destruction, the Gulf Regional Planning Commission in Mississippi focuses on hurricane preparation as well as planning and redevelopment. “We’re certainly well aware of the dramatic impacts of climate change and also the need for looking outside of our localized area when we’re starting to talk about the impacts of climate change,” said Elaine Wilkinson, the commission’s executive director. The commission is working to build bridges that withstand high winds (similar to the effects of an earthquake), and building up seawalls to match the roadbed. After Hurricane Katrina, the commission took an extra year to engineer its long-range transportation to plan for major storms. Transportation planning is important to ensure safe evacuation, she said. Wilkinson was also involved in a U.S. government study on how global warming could affect the nation’s coastal transportation systems. The study, which just released its first phase for scientific review, concluded that with climate change, the sea level is rising and the land is sinking, according to a National Public Radio news report. Listening to scientists provided a good opportunity for Wilkinson, who said scientists 32 EM08_28.indd 32 8/13/07 12:37:08 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  33. 33. ON THE FRONT LINE WE ARE THERE WITH YOU ICF International’s experts have not only worked for the country’s leading emergency management and homeland security agencies, but also have been first responders. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS | DISASTER RECOVERY | IT SOLUTIONS | EXERCISES TRAINING | PROGRAM MANAGEMENT | STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS CLEARINGHOUSES AND CALL CENTERS | REGULATORY SUPPORT | HUMAN CAPITAL STRATEGY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION | PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS Contact Michael Byrne at mbyrne@icfi.com or visit www.icfi.com EM_AugTemp.indd 28 ICF Emergency Mgt Ad FINAL.indd 1 8/14/07 11:24:23 AM 8/10/2007 3:41:51 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  34. 34. must share global warming findings with people who can effect change. “We need to find a way to bring the scientific data into the planning process,” Wilkinson said. “That’s something that’ll challenge us. But we’re very much in need of information to make some good decisions.” Ask the Question Working with science, King County integrated global warming policies into its government. In October 2005, the county sponsored a conference to understand Washington’s climate changes in the coming 20, 50 and 100 years, and identify approaches to adapt to climate change predictions. The Climate Impacts Group (CIG), along with King County, developed conference materials, including Pacific Northwest climate change scenarios. CIG, which is funded by Washington University’s Center for Science in the Earth System in Seattle and by NOAA, explores climate science with an eye to the public interest in the region. The group is one of eight NOAA teams that assess regional climate change in the United States. From the conference, CIG and King County established a relationship and jointly wrote Adapting to Global Warming — a Guidebook, to be released this November following a peer review process. As a resource for regional leaders, the guidebook outlines King County’s global warming approach, addressing its water supply, wastewater and floodplain management, agriculture, forestry and biodiversity. The county approved an aggressive levee improvement plan and adopted a climate plan in February that includes a two-page outline for the King County Office of Emergency Management to revise its strategies given projected climate changes. In the guidebook, CIG tells how scientists can communicate climate change information to emergency managers and policy leaders. But government officials are also responsible for opening the dialog. Elizabeth Willmott, global warming coordinator for King County, stepped into her position upon its creation in January 2007, and works to coordinate projects, ideas and information related to the county’s climate change mitigation and preparedness plans. “What we suggest simply,” Willmott said, “is that regional leaders ask the climate question, ‘How is climate change going to affect my region?’” Just asking, she said, can plant the issue in people’s minds. Though weather seems to be telling us something about how climate change will impact our future, there’s uncertainty in many circles about what to do to prepare and how to mitigate its consequences. ICF’s Holdeman said we must focus on finding global warming’s regional effects and work to lessen them now. “We end up being so reactive as a society, and certainly the United States is,” he said. “We don’t address issues — like Social Security or Medicaid. Everybody knows it’s a problem, but we’re not going to do anything about it until it’s staring us in the face, and there’s a trillion dollar deficit.” It’s up to emergency managers, he said, to spread the word and ensure global warming consequences are known. “For emergency managers themselves,” Holdeman said, “if we’re not talking about it generally and trying to educate elected officials about it and the hazards, then you’re counting on them to stumble on it as an issue.” k The Likely Culprit Evidence of a progressively warmer planet is “unequivocal,” according to a Feb. 2, 2007, report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a United Nations and World Meteorological Organization effort established to recognize the potential problems of climate change. This report, the IPCC’s fourth since 1990, also states that human activity — from burning fossil fuels and large-scale deforestation — is “very likely” the culprit of the warming trend over the past 50 years. Though the warming from trapped carbon dioxide and methane gasses in the atmosphere is a natural and necessary occurrence, the accelerated release of these gasses from humans helped temperatures creep up nearly three times the average in the 20th century — the Earth’s surface temperature has increased by more than 1 degree Fahrenheit since 1900. Though most scientists agree coastlines will shrink in coming centuries — from melting ice caps and sea-water expansion — the pace of sea-level rise is still under debate. If the IPCC is correct, the sea level will rise 7 to 23 inches by 2100, and the climate will continue to rise between 3.5 and 8 degrees Fahrenheit as carbon dioxide reaches twice the amount of its preindustrial levels. 34 EM08_28.indd 34 8/13/07 12:37:32 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  35. 35. Tape Drive Replacement Remote/Branch Office DR Secure & Simple Compliance Call Sales at 888.984.6723 x410 for more information EM_AugTemp.indd 22 8/13/07 4:38:52 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  36. 36. Cracking Books the BY JESSI C A JONES AND JIM McK AY Education programs for emergency management professionals are growing nationally and internationally. I n today’s world of emergency management, a four-year degree is a must, said Aaron Kenneston, emergency manager of Washoe County, Nev., though it’s not necessarily critical the degree relate specifically to emergency management. “The idea is to gain a body of knowledge on common core subjects, undergo the rigors and discipline of academic study, and learn perseverance,” he said. “Certainly it is a bonus if you can attend an emergency management or homeland security degree program.” B. Wayne Blanchard, project manager of the Higher Education Project at the Emergency Management Institute, part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Md., agrees that it’s important for emergency managers — or future emergency managers — to get a college education. “Dealing with hazards, disasters and what you do about them is a very difficult task to perform,” he said. “Having the skills one picks up in college puts one on the right track forward in dealing with administrators and policymakers, and the political context within which hazards, disasters and what you do about them are placed.” Also, Blanchard said, an education in emergency management means students start a job with a background understanding of the complexities surrounding hazards, disasters and emergency management. Learning Lessons When the Higher Education Project started in 1994, Blanchard said, most emergency managers didn’t have a college degree in any subject. “And most had only, at best, a passing acquaintance with the social science research literature on hazards, disasters and what to do about them.” The goal of the Higher Education Project, according to Blanchard, is to increase collegiate study of hazards, disasters and emergency management; enhance emergency management professionalism; support development of an emergency management academic discipline; make a long-term contribution to enhanced hazards footing; and support a long-term, greater collegiate role in emergency management and disaster reduction. Since 1960, monetary losses from natural disasters in the United States have doubled or tripled per decade, wrote Harvey Ryland, president of the Institute for Business and Home Safety, in 1999. 36 EM08_36.indd 36 8/13/07 12:52:16 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  37. 37. WHEN PLANNING FOR COOP, THERE ARE THREE KEY CONSIDERATIONS: RELIABILITY. RELIABILITY. AND RELIABLITY. It’s the NetworkSM for Government Reliable network. Reliable partners. Reliable support. Each are critical when addressing the wireless network requirements inside your agency’s COOP plan. Verizon Wireless delivers them all, with an integrated family of handsets, smartphones and broadband devices that you can rely on to work during times of crisis. All backed 24/7 by America’s most reliable wireless network and the people who stand behind it. Visit www.verizonwireless.com/government or call 800.817.9694 for information on all our Government Solutions. Equipment sample shown; please consult your Verizon Wireless account manager for complete details on our full COOP offering. America’s most reliable wireless network claim based on fewest aggregate blocked and dropped connections. See verizonwireless.com/bestnetwork for details. © 2007 Verizon Wireless. GOVEM8Q307 EM_AugTemp.indd 14 8/1/07 9:19:01 AM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  38. 38. “And the century’s steady progress in reducing deaths and injuries due to natural disasters had begun to level off,” he wrote. “Furthermore, there was concern that a single disaster — for example, a catastrophic East Coast hurricane or a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake — could kill thousands, cost hundreds of billions of dollars, disrupt the national economy, and exhaust the reserves of the insurance industry.” The background problem in the United States, Blanchard said, is that the country isn’t on the right path as far as mitigating disasters. “Thus, it doesn’t matter what kind of cadre you have working in and around emergency management. I’m aware of no one who thinks disaster losses will flatten out or go down, but I have heard a number of people who do hazard and disaster research give voice to their fears that [the] disaster loss curve is in fact going to steepen.” Our country would be in a better position, Blanchard said, if those in the emergency management field and in schools focus their studies on emergency management — which is a broad term. “It could be disaster studies, emergency administration and planning — a wide range of titles I loosely call emergency management,” he said. “But you put all those things together, and it does justify the leap of faith that the country would be on better footing in the future.” The more college students become aware of hazards and disasters and how to respond to them, and become acquainted with the social science research literature on these topics, the better, Blanchard said. If only the findings from that research literature were put into practice, Blanchard said, because much — if not most — of disaster loss could have been avoided had knowledge in hand been applied. “But the fact is, most of the lessons learned, most of the social science — or certainly much of it — is not implemented,” Blanchard said. “The lessons really aren’t learned for very long. How long the lessons actually stay in one’s mind depends on how traumatic the disaster is.” Growing Support Many colleges and universities, nationally and internationally, are starting to offer certification programs, bachelor’s degrees and even master’s degrees in emergency management. “The lessons really aren’t learned for very long. How long the lessons actually stay in one’s mind depends on how traumatic the disaster is.” — B. Wayne Blanchard, project manager of the Higher Education Project, Emergency Management Institute Boston University, Eastern Michigan University and California State University at Long Beach are just a few of the more than 100 schools offering such education programs. In addition, the International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) created its Certified Emergency Manager (CEM) Program to raise and maintain professional standards. “It is an internationally recognized program that certifies achievements within the emergency management profession,” according to the IAEM, which also states that CEM certification is a peer review process administered by IAEM, and is maintained in five-year cycles. Internationally the Emergency Management Certificate from York University in Canada uses lectures, case studies and class discussions to help students develop an understanding of the Emergency Response Cycle, including hazard identification, risk analysis, risk evaluation and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Students also develop the ability to read, interpret, prepare and implement emergency plans, policies and procedures, and learn how to work as team members while providing effective leadership, according to the university. “Emergency managers require strong analytical, communication and integrative skills, which help them establish a meaningful dialogue with experts in a wide range of fields and make sense of the complex information they provide,” according to a statement from the university. “My advice to aspiring emergency managers is to focus on gaining experience, join a professional organization and then become certified,” Washoe County’s Kenneston said. “Experience is crucial and can be gained through employment with a response agency, participating in mutual aid to a disaster site, or by volunteering with a citizen corps program or nongovernmental organization that provides disaster support.” It’s very important, he said, that emergency management professionals possess a common experience base, such as the Incident Command System and the National Incident Management System. Though important, education alone won’t make a great emergency manager. In addition to education, it takes training and experience to make a professional 21st-century emergency manager, Blanchard said. Education, he emphasized, must acquaint the student with social science literature. Once the student has graduated — though education continues over his or her lifetime — training comes next, Blanchard said. “There are so many details, procedures and protocols that aren’t the province of education, but are the province of training, and are absolutely necessary.” Then there’s the third arm — experience. “It’s sort of a truism,” he said. When you’ve actually worked a disaster, it’s like an epiphany, it opens your eyes, expands your field of vision. So experience, I think, is essential as well.” Still, Blanchard cautioned, experience isn’t the be-all and end-all. “In fact, I know people who’ve had lots of experience and lots of training, and are far from being what I would call a professional emergency manager who’s on the path of helping their community become disasterresistant and resilient.” k 38 EM08_36.indd 38 8/13/07 12:55:59 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  39. 39. MyYour Briefcase yYour Briefcase MPersonalization T H E G E OR G E WA S H I N G TO N U N I V E R S I T Y I N A R L I N G TO N , VA Graduate Programs in Personalization A New Content Management Tool for Government Crisis, Emergency and Risk Management A New Content Management Tool for Government Track News & RSS Feeds Bookmark & RSS & Presentations Track News VideosFeeds Bookmark Videos Primers” Research “Tech & Presentations Research “Tech Primers” And Much More! And Much More! TAKE OUR TAKE OUR TUTORIAL TUTORIAL School of Engineering and Applied Science TODAY! TODAY! Information Sessions Tuesday, September 11 6:00 pm Monday, October 15 6:00 pm Thursday, November 15 6:00 pm Graduate Education Center, Arlington 3601 Wilson Blvd., Suite 400 Arlington,VA Metro: Orange Line to Virginia Square Rsvp Today! 202.973.1130 nearyou.gwu.edu/engineering Emergency management professionals are in demand. Our evening and Saturday morning courses are designed to advance your career and expand your horizons. Sponsored by: Interdisciplinary, management focused curriculum. Confidence in a connected world. Graduate Certificate or Master’s degree: Our Graduate Certificate Program in Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness & Response can be completed in less than one year; courses can transfer to a Master’s degree with a focus in Crisis, Emergency and Risk Management. www.gwu.edu/gradinfo 32173 THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY IS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY/ AFFIRMATIVE ACTION INSTITUTION CERTIFIED TO OPERATE IN VA BY SCHEV. EM08_36.indd 39 8/15/07 2:08:13 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go
  40. 40. E UPR PHOTO COURTESY OF KORBIN JOHNSON THE 40 EM08_40.indd 40 8/13/07 12:51:08 PM 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA. 95630 916-932-1300 Cyan 5 25 50 75 95 100 5 Pg Magenta 25 50 75 95 100 5 Yellow 25 50 75 95 100 5 Black 25 50 75 95 100 ® _______ Designer _______ Creative Dir. _______ Editorial _______ Prepress _________ Production _______ OK to go

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