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By SanthoshKumarN / Asst.Prof /Departmentof Biochemistry/SIMS&RH/Tumkur
METABOLICAL CHANGES IN DIFFERENT STATES
FED STATE
Dietary Carbohydrates.
• After a high carbohydrate meal, the pancreas is stimulated by the high concentration of
glucose to release insulin into the blood stream simultaneously shutting down the release
glucagon.
• The blood stream passes from the intestines to the hepatic portal vein.
• Insulin activates the liver to transport a good portion of the dietary glucose into the liver
cells & than it’s activates glycolysis, so some of the glucose is used to generate ATP.
• The remainder of the glucose is converted into glycogen or triacylglycerols.
• When the liver glycogen reaches its maximum, all of the excess glucose is diverted
towards triacylglycerols. The liver synthesizes both the fatty acids and the glycerol from
glucose.
• Triacylglycerides are not normally stored in the liver. They are packaged with
lipoproteins, phospholipids and cholesterol to form VLDL’s which are released into the
blood stream.
• Some of the fatty acids of the VLDL are taken up by the tissues, but most end up being
stored in the adipose tissue.
• The remainder of the glucose travels to the peripheral tissues. Insulin activates the uptake
of glucose by the muscle tissue and the adipose tissue.
By SanthoshKumarN / Asst.Prof /Departmentof Biochemistry/SIMS&RH/Tumkur
• Insulin also stimulates the adipose tissue to absorb the fatty acids carried by the VLDL’s.
The adipose tissue needs glucose to generate glycerol to produce triacylglycerols.
Dietary Lipids
• The intestinal mucosa cells absorb cholesterol, fatty acids & MAGs from the small
intestine.
• They then reassemble the triacylglycerols and package them with cholesterol,
phospholipids and lipoproteins to form chylomicrons.
• The chylomicrons are released into the blood stream, where tissues absorb the fatty acids.
• The fatty acids carried in the chylomicrons are absorbed by the adipose tissue,
reconverted into triacylglycerols and stored.
• The remnants of chylomicrons are absorbed by the liver cells.
Dietary Amino Acids
• The intestinal mucosa cells absorb amino acids and release them into the blood stream
where they are absorbed by the tissues that need them.
• They may be used for protein biosynthesis, converted into heme and other cofactors
or degraded and used for energy.
FASTING STATE
• Within one hour of a meal the blood glucose level begins to fall. The insulin conc. also
begins to fall and the glucagon conc. begins to rise. These changes in hormone conc.
trigger the release of metabolic fuels from the body stores.
By SanthoshKumarN / Asst.Prof /Departmentof Biochemistry/SIMS&RH/Tumkur
• Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, the breakdown of liver glycogen to maintain the
blood glucose concentration.
• Glucagon also stimulates gluconeogenesis, synthesizing glucose from lactate, alanine, and
glycerol.
• As fasting progresses, gluconeogenesis becomes more important to maintain the blood
glucose concentration.
• After 30 hours of fasting, the liver glycogen stores are depleted, and gluconeogenesis is
generating all of the blood glucose.
• Only the glycerol moiety of triacylglycerols can be used as source of glucose. Glucagon
also stimulates the breakdown of proteins and the catabolism of amino acids. This
generates ammonia which the liver converts into urea to be excreted.
• During fasting the triacylglycerols stored in the adipose tissue become the major energy
source.
• The glycerol component is used for gluconeogenesis and the fatty acids released are
oxidized by tissues such as muscle and heart tissue.
• The liver absorbs these fatty acids and converts them into ketone bodies which are
released in the blood. These ketone bodies can fuel the muscles and heart saving glucose
for the brain.
STARVATION STATE
By SanthoshKumarN / Asst.Prof /Departmentof Biochemistry/SIMS&RH/Tumkur
• Prolong fasting produces the starvation state. Metabolic changes have to occur
because the rate of protein catabolism would rapidly consume all of the body’s
protein.
• After 4-5 days of fasting, the body enters the starvation state.
• The muscles quit relying on ketone bodies for fuel and rely solely on fatty acids
stored in the adipose tissue for fuel.
• The result is a higher concentration of ketone bodies in the blood stream. The brain
begins to utilize these ketone bodies as a source of fuel.
• Glucose is still required to fuel the red blood cells, but now the liver needs to produce
only a fraction of glucose as it did in the fasting state.
• The decrease in gluconeogenesis spares the muscle tissue. The decreased rate of
amino acid catabolism reduces the rate of urea production.
• The adipose tissue plays an important role during starvation. How long you will
survive starvation depends on how much fat you have stored.
• During starvation fatty acids are fueling every tissue of the body except the red blood
cells.
• When the starving person runs out of stored TG, Proteins become the only source of
fuel.
• Soon the proteins of the individual have become so depleted that the heart, kidneys
and other tissues stop functioning.

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IM -03: Integration of metabolism Notes

  • 1. By SanthoshKumarN / Asst.Prof /Departmentof Biochemistry/SIMS&RH/Tumkur METABOLICAL CHANGES IN DIFFERENT STATES FED STATE Dietary Carbohydrates. • After a high carbohydrate meal, the pancreas is stimulated by the high concentration of glucose to release insulin into the blood stream simultaneously shutting down the release glucagon. • The blood stream passes from the intestines to the hepatic portal vein. • Insulin activates the liver to transport a good portion of the dietary glucose into the liver cells & than it’s activates glycolysis, so some of the glucose is used to generate ATP. • The remainder of the glucose is converted into glycogen or triacylglycerols. • When the liver glycogen reaches its maximum, all of the excess glucose is diverted towards triacylglycerols. The liver synthesizes both the fatty acids and the glycerol from glucose. • Triacylglycerides are not normally stored in the liver. They are packaged with lipoproteins, phospholipids and cholesterol to form VLDL’s which are released into the blood stream. • Some of the fatty acids of the VLDL are taken up by the tissues, but most end up being stored in the adipose tissue. • The remainder of the glucose travels to the peripheral tissues. Insulin activates the uptake of glucose by the muscle tissue and the adipose tissue.
  • 2. By SanthoshKumarN / Asst.Prof /Departmentof Biochemistry/SIMS&RH/Tumkur • Insulin also stimulates the adipose tissue to absorb the fatty acids carried by the VLDL’s. The adipose tissue needs glucose to generate glycerol to produce triacylglycerols. Dietary Lipids • The intestinal mucosa cells absorb cholesterol, fatty acids & MAGs from the small intestine. • They then reassemble the triacylglycerols and package them with cholesterol, phospholipids and lipoproteins to form chylomicrons. • The chylomicrons are released into the blood stream, where tissues absorb the fatty acids. • The fatty acids carried in the chylomicrons are absorbed by the adipose tissue, reconverted into triacylglycerols and stored. • The remnants of chylomicrons are absorbed by the liver cells. Dietary Amino Acids • The intestinal mucosa cells absorb amino acids and release them into the blood stream where they are absorbed by the tissues that need them. • They may be used for protein biosynthesis, converted into heme and other cofactors or degraded and used for energy. FASTING STATE • Within one hour of a meal the blood glucose level begins to fall. The insulin conc. also begins to fall and the glucagon conc. begins to rise. These changes in hormone conc. trigger the release of metabolic fuels from the body stores.
  • 3. By SanthoshKumarN / Asst.Prof /Departmentof Biochemistry/SIMS&RH/Tumkur • Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, the breakdown of liver glycogen to maintain the blood glucose concentration. • Glucagon also stimulates gluconeogenesis, synthesizing glucose from lactate, alanine, and glycerol. • As fasting progresses, gluconeogenesis becomes more important to maintain the blood glucose concentration. • After 30 hours of fasting, the liver glycogen stores are depleted, and gluconeogenesis is generating all of the blood glucose. • Only the glycerol moiety of triacylglycerols can be used as source of glucose. Glucagon also stimulates the breakdown of proteins and the catabolism of amino acids. This generates ammonia which the liver converts into urea to be excreted. • During fasting the triacylglycerols stored in the adipose tissue become the major energy source. • The glycerol component is used for gluconeogenesis and the fatty acids released are oxidized by tissues such as muscle and heart tissue. • The liver absorbs these fatty acids and converts them into ketone bodies which are released in the blood. These ketone bodies can fuel the muscles and heart saving glucose for the brain. STARVATION STATE
  • 4. By SanthoshKumarN / Asst.Prof /Departmentof Biochemistry/SIMS&RH/Tumkur • Prolong fasting produces the starvation state. Metabolic changes have to occur because the rate of protein catabolism would rapidly consume all of the body’s protein. • After 4-5 days of fasting, the body enters the starvation state. • The muscles quit relying on ketone bodies for fuel and rely solely on fatty acids stored in the adipose tissue for fuel. • The result is a higher concentration of ketone bodies in the blood stream. The brain begins to utilize these ketone bodies as a source of fuel. • Glucose is still required to fuel the red blood cells, but now the liver needs to produce only a fraction of glucose as it did in the fasting state. • The decrease in gluconeogenesis spares the muscle tissue. The decreased rate of amino acid catabolism reduces the rate of urea production. • The adipose tissue plays an important role during starvation. How long you will survive starvation depends on how much fat you have stored. • During starvation fatty acids are fueling every tissue of the body except the red blood cells. • When the starving person runs out of stored TG, Proteins become the only source of fuel. • Soon the proteins of the individual have become so depleted that the heart, kidneys and other tissues stop functioning.