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W4A 2012 - Vagner Santana


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Slides presented at the W4A 2012, April 17th Lyon, France.

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W4A 2012 - Vagner Santana

  1. 1. Web Accessibility And People With Dyslexia: A Survey On Techniques And Guidelines W4A 2012, April 17th, 2012Vagner F. de Santana (IC/UNICAMP)Rosimeire de Oliveira (CMCC/UFABC),Leonelo D. A. Almeida (IC/UNICAMP), andProf. M. Cecilia C. Baranauskas (IC/UNICAMP)
  2. 2. Agenda• Motivation and Objective• Understanding dyslexia• Methodology• Results• Discussion• Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Motivation• Web accessibility usually refers to visual disabilities• 15 to 20% of the people have dyslexia (IDA)• Commonly found in men; 60-80% (APA)• How to design user interface (UI) also for people with dyslexia?• How many studies have you heard/read/saw about dyslexia? 3
  4. 4. Objective• Bring to light some specificities of dyslexia• Review literature on dyslexia and Web accessibility• Synthesize techniques and guidelines to avoid/eliminate accessibility barriers• Organize guidelines considering maintainers’ roles o Developers o Designers o Content producers 4
  5. 5. Understanding dyslexia• Dyslexia has a Greek origin o "dis" means disorder o "lexia" means language• Dyslexia is a language disorder• Neurology views dyslexia as a neurological disorder of genetic origin• Dyslexia is also viewed as having multiple factors (biological and functional) 5
  6. 6. Understanding dyslexia• People with dyslexia have difficulties to understand written words and sentences• People with dyslexia can benefit from using o Screen readers o Voice recorders o Voice synthesizers o Spell checkers o Screen magnifiers 6
  7. 7. Understanding dyslexia• However, dyslexia does not mean o Low intellectual level o Low intelligence o Low educational attainment o Disease• It is a specific brain impairment related to language processing. 7
  8. 8. Understanding dyslexia→ DiagnosisA) Reading achievement [...] is substantially bellow that expected [...].B) The disturbance in Criterion A significantly interferes with academic achievements or activities of daily living that require reading skills.C) If a sensory deficit is present, the reading difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it. (DSM-IV) 8
  9. 9. Methodological→ Stance• Universal Design (UD): o Design of something that is usable by everyone, in the widest possible extension, without the need for adaptation or specialized design• Inclusive Design (ID) o Considering the needs of all users in mainstreams applications, not only in systems especially designed for people with disabilities• This work follows UD and considers ID in the whole process 9
  10. 10. Methodology→ Procedure1. Collect outcomes involving dyslexia and Web accessibility (from organizations, papers, and guidelines)2. Cluster extracts3. Compile and write them in a guideline style4. Organize guidelines according to UI elements they refer5. Set a priority level according to website maintainers’ roles (i.e., developers, designers, and content producers) 10
  11. 11. Results→ Groups identified1. Navigation2. Text presentation3. Writing4. Layout5. Images and charts6. End user customization7. Markup8. Colors9. Videos and audios 11
  12. 12. Results→ Guidelines per group 12
  13. 13. Results→ Relevance levels 13
  14. 14. Results→ Guidelines examples1. Navigation o Structure index pages considering logical order involving task sequence or structure o Provide self completion and orthographic correction in internal search 14
  15. 15. Results→ Guidelines examples1. Colors o Avoid pure white as the background, because white can obfuscate the text for people with dyslexia; a close alternative is the light gray (#FFFFE5) 15
  16. 16. Results→ Guidelines examples1. Text presentation o Do not use justified alignment due to irregular spacing between words o Avoid fonts with serif o How many 8s and Gs are presented bellow? g g 8 8 g g 8 g 8 g 8 8 8 g 8 16
  17. 17. Results→ Guidelines examples1. Writing o Use short and common words o Use active voice o Instead of: The login is needed in order to use the system o Use: You need to login into the system 17
  18. 18. Results → Guidelines examples 1. Layout o Provide white space among UI elements o Avoid large columns of texts“Horatio says tis but our fantasy, And will not let belief take hold of him Touching this dreaded sight, twice seen ofus: Therefore I have entreated him along With us to watch the minutes of this night; That if again this apparitioncome, He may approve our eyes and speak to it.” (Shakespeare) “Horatio says tis but our fantasy, And will not let belief take hold of him Touching this dreaded sight, twice seen of us: Therefore I have entreated him along With us to watch the minutes of this night; That if again this apparition come, He may approve our eyes and speak to it. ” (Shakespeare) 18
  19. 19. Results→ Guidelines examples1. Images and charts o Avoid moving or blinking images o Use images, charts, and pictures to complement textual information 19
  20. 20. Results→ Guidelines examples1. End user customization o The website should be easily customizable o Provide color scheme, font type, and text size customization features mag35.html 20
  21. 21. Results→ Guidelines examples1. Markup o Code so that the website can be read by screen readers o Guarantee that markup is valid 21
  22. 22. Results→ Guidelines examples1. Videos and audios o Do not play them automatically when the page loads o Do not rely only on one media to provide content 22
  23. 23. Discussion• Guidelines show convergence, but some conflicts have occurred o White background x light gray background o Fluid design x width length• WCAG directly cites dyslexia in success criteria (i.e., 3.1.5 Reading level)• Lack of explicit consideration of dyslexia might divide users needs from maintainers• End user customization plays a central role as a conflict solver 23
  24. 24. Conclusion• Dyslexia is still not well understood• Its specificities are not addressed by Web Accessibility standards• Guidelines help on the understanding of o Limitations of people with dyslexia o How to remove/avoid accessibility barriers• Future works involve o Integration of the surveyed guidelines into other sets o Explore solutions (e.g., end user customization) 24
  25. 25. Thank you! vsantana@ic.unicamp.brAcknowledgements: FAPESP (grants #2009/10186-9 and#2011/06399-7) and UFABC for supporting this research 25