Principles of Nutrition by NHI (Human Physiology)


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Principles of Nutrition by NHI (Human Physiology)

  1. 1. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGYPhysiology tells us how organs and cells function and is further divided into----------- 79
  2. 2. Physiology Organism Cellular Molecular1-Organ physiology2-Cellular physiology3-Molecular physiology 80
  3. 3. Structural Organization Atoms Molecules Organ Cells Tissues Systems OrganismAt simplest level all living beings are made up of atoms such as O,N,C,& P. Whenatoms are grouped they form molecules like water, salt, fats, proteins, sugars.Molecules associates to form the organization called cells. There are different typesof cells. We say cells are the functional unit of the body. Cells are unified into unitscalled as tissues. Similar type of tissues are organized in functional unit calledorgans and organs work together in a unit called system. Thus we see theorganizational unit of cell and increasing with complexity– this is the process ofphysiology. 81
  4. 4. Cells Cells: Building Blocks of Our Body Membrane Fat Holds Cell Together Separates CellsCell membrane is the outer most component of the cell. This membrane is made upof proteins & fats. It does not allow the unwanted material to get in and the requiredmaterial to g out. Thus acts like a guard. 82
  5. 5. Cells Cells: Building Blocks of Our Body Passive Diffusion Active TransportMost materials get into the membrane by two methods.1--- Passive diffusion2--- Active transport. 83
  6. 6. Cytoplasm Liquid Inside "Cell Membrane" Organelles "Tiny Organs" Mitochondria Endoplasm LysosomesCytoplasm is found in the inner part of the cell. Organelles are found in cytoplasmwhich perform different functions.Mitochondria- The power houses of the cell.Endoplasm- Converts the amino acids into proteinsLysosomes- Its main function is to collect the cell waste & remove it. 84
  7. 7. Nucleus Brain of Cell DNA Ribosomes "RNA" Protein SynthesisNucleus contains chromosomes, GENES, DNA & RNA. It contains the informationof our physical characteristics. 85
  8. 8. Energy Food = Energy ATP = Energy MitochondriaThe energy is produced from food that we eat. Mitochondria is responsible forproducing energy that cells need. 86
  9. 9. Metabolism Anabolic - small large Amino Acids Proteins Uses ATP Catabolic Fat Acetyl CoA ATP Proteins Amino Acids Make ATPThe food releases energy through a series of chemical reaction through a processcalled METABOLISM.Metabolism is of two types--- Anabolism & Catabolism. 87
  10. 10. Fat Anabolic - Triglycerides Fat Catabolic - Fat Acetyl CoA ATPIn case of catabolism (catabolic metabolism) the large complex chemicals arebroken down into smaller chemicals which releases energy and then stored as ATP.The main site of catabolism is mitochondria and ATP’s are stored here. 88
  11. 11. ProteinAnabolic - Amino Acids ProteinCatabolic - Protein Amino Acids Essential Amino Acids Non-Essential Amino Acids
  12. 12. Sugar Anabolic - Sugar Glycogen Catabolic - Glycogen Sugar ATPGlycogen is a complex molecule consisting of many glucose units. Its main site ofstorage is liver. 90
  13. 13. PHYSIOLOGYDigestive System
  14. 14. Digestive System Esophagus Stomach Small intestine 21 ft long Large intestine – 5 Ft long AppendixDigestion of food starts from mouth. It has to pass through various organs of ourbody where it is acted upon number of digestive juices and enzymes before it isassimilated in the body. 92
  15. 15. Digestive System Digestion: Breaking Complex Food Into Smaller Particles Mouth Teeth Breakdown FoodChewing breaks down the cellulose envelope and make starch and sugar availablefor subsequent digestion. 93
  16. 16. Digestive System Teeth Tongue Salivary gland Epiglottis EsophagusSaliva contains a starch splitting enzyme (ptyalin) which converts starch into dextrinand liberates some maltose. This food is passed by the epiglottis and enters into theesophagus and then to stomach. 94
  17. 17. Digestive System Tongue Propels Food Taste Buds (Sweet, Sour Salt) Salivary Glands (Saliva) Moisten Food Begin Digestion - Starch Tonsils Part of Immune System
  18. 18. Digestive System Epiglottis Muscles to Prevent Food Entering Lungs Directs Food to Esophagus and Blocks Trachea Coughing Esophagus Muscular Tube to StomachEpiglottis is a muscular piece of tissue that blocks food from going into our lungswhen we swallow food. 96
  19. 19. Digestive System Stomach Sphincter-Muscle Closes Stomach Reflux Churns Food-Chyme Mixes With Acid and Pepsin Mucus Protects Stomach Intrinsic FactorEsophageal sphincter separates the esophagus from stomach. This keeps thecontent of the stomach from going back into the esophagus.The stomach churns the food into a liquid called chyme. At this stage the stomachproduces acid, mucus & pepsin.Acid– important for the digestion of the food.Mucus– protects the stomach from eating itself up.Pepsin– important in the digestion of proteins. 97
  20. 20. Digestive System Stomach Vomiting Reflex Bulimia - Esophagus, Teeth Ulcers GastrectomyWhen the peristaltic movement occurs in opposite direction it is said to be reflux orregurgitation, i.e; removing of food from stomach back to esophagus and mouth. If itoccurs too frequently it can be damaging to the esophagus or mouth.Bulimia--- Forced vomiting done to loose weight---- this can severely damage boththe esophagus and teeth.Gastrectomy----- removal of some part of the stomach due to some reason. In suchcase stomach cannot hold much of food and produce chyme and digestion is alsonot as good as it should be. 98
  21. 21. Digestive System Accessory Organs Liver - Largest Organ Metabolism Liver Stomach Bile Production Vitamin Storage Remove Chemicals Cholesterol Production Essential for LifeLiver is the largest organ in our body. It is also called the master organ. It plays animportant role in the absorption of fats, vitamins, production of bile-salts, proteinssuch as albumin, globulin and synthesis of cholesterol. 101
  22. 22. Digestive System Accessory Organs Pancreas – 5 inches long Pancreas Digestion Blood Sugar Levels Diabetes - Type I and Type II DuodenumIts main role is the regulation of blood sugar by producing insulin in the body. Itproduces number of enzymes which helps to digest the food efficiently.Insulin is a hormone. Lack of insulin results in a disease called Diabetes. There aretwo types of diabetes---- type I & type II. 102
  23. 23. Urinary System Kidney Urinary Ducts Urinary Bladder Filtration System Kidney Urine Chemical Waste Urinary Salts duct Water BladderThe primary function of the urinary system is the regulation of water and minerals inthe body. The kidneys are been shaped which acts as a filter of our body. Firstwater and minerals are taken out of the nephron and sent back into the blood. Theunwanted chemicals, water & salts are excreted out as urine. We produces about1500 ml of urine every day. 103
  24. 24. Urinary System More Sweat = Less Urine Kidney Plays Role in Blood Pressure Urine Production Blood Pressure Salt Balance Chemicals Metabolized in Liver Excreted in KidneyWhen we sweat more kidneys respond by producing less urine and reabsorbingmore water and minerals. When a person has high BP, increasing water excretioncan decrease the BP by the kidneys. As the kidneys produces more urine, morewater is removed from the body and BP will go down.When we take drugs or are exposed to chemicals our body must get rid of them. Inthat case liver and kidneys usually work together. The chemicals first go to liverwhere it is processed and then sent to the kidneys to be excreted. 104
  25. 25. Respiration Nose Trachea Bronchioles Lungs Nose nasal area Filter Warm trachea Moisten lungsThe process of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphereand the body cells during inspiration and expiration is called respiration. Respiratorysystem consists of nose, trachea, bronchioles and lungs. 105
  26. 26. Respiration Nose Trachea Bronchioles Lungs Trachea Stiff Tubes pharynx Larynx larynx Bronchioles Tubes to Lungs trachea Cilia MucusPharynx connects the nasal passage with the larynx. Larynx has tonsils in it, whichfilters out bacteria in the air and removing them before they get into the body. At theend of the tube the larynx divide into two tubes--- the trachea and esophagus whichhas epiglottis that works like a lid.The trachea is a stiff tube that runs from the pharynx to the bronchia. Trachea isconnected to bronchioles. These bronchioles separate and deliver air to each lung.Lining the bronchioles are mucus coated flaps of skin called cilia. Their function is totrap particles before they reach the alveolus. 106
  27. 27. Respiration Nose Trachea Bronchioles Lungs Alveoli Gas Exchange Surface Area Inhalation/Exhalation Brain Gas Exchange Surface AreaLungs has tremendous surface area equivalent to a tennis court. The lung functionsas a gas exchange process. The exchange of gases takes place in alveolar sacs.The exchange of atmospheric oxygen with the carbon dioxide of the body celloccurs during inhalation and exhalation. 107
  28. 28. Respiration Nose Trachea Bronchioles Lungs Hemoglobin Protein Oxygen/Carbon DioxideThe oxygen that enters the lungs are taken up by the hemoglobin, trapped insidethe RBC in the blood. Oxygen is required for cellular metabolism which releasesenergy for cellular activities. As the cell produces the energy it also produce carbondioxide that must be removed from the body. The blood carries this carbon dioxideto the lungs from where it is removed 108
  29. 29. Cardiovascular SystemBody Left Heart Lungs Right HeartBody Artria Contract Ventricles Contract Heart Rhythm Pacemaker 60-80 Beats/Minute
  30. 30. Cardiovascular System Blood Vessels Arteries Blood from Heart Muscular Systole/Diastole Blood pressure (Pulse) Feel Your Wrist Capillaries Tiny (Feed Body)Blood leaves the heart in a series of vessels called the arteries and returns to theheart in a series of vessels called the veins. Blood leaves the heart through aortawhich divides further into smaller and smaller blood vessels till they form capillaries.Arteries and arterioles have smooth muscles around them which give themelasticity. When heart contract the blood is forced out into the arteries (systole) andthe arteries expand. When the heart relaxes (diastole) the blood stops entering thevessels by the blood vessels relax. 111
  31. 31. Cardiovascular System Blood Vessels Venuoles Tiny (Take Blood to Veins) Veins Blood to Heart Little Muscle Smooth Blood FlowThe capillaries of the arterial system join with the smallest vessels of the venoussystem called venules. These venules give rise to veins which bring backdeoxygenated blood back to heart. The venous system has much less muscles &less pulsing pressure compared to the arterial system. Blood also flows smoothly inveins as the pulsing pressure is less. 112
  32. 32. Cardiovascular System Blood Pressure 120/80 mmHg Heart Pump Blood Vessels Amount of Blood Need to Move Blood Too Much Bad Hypertension Too Little Bad HypotensionThe pressure of the blood with in the arteries primarily maintained by the contractionof the left ventricle of the heart. When we measure the BP we get two values thesystolic and the diastolic blood pressure. When the heart contract we get systolicpressure & and when the heart relax we get diastolic pressure. 113
  33. 33. Cardiovascular System Blood Red Cells/White Cells/Plasma Red Cells - Hemoglobin/Oxygen Lungs Metabolism + Oxygen Metabolism and Carbon Dioxide AnemiaBlood is a liquid which contains RBC, WBC, Platelets, Plasma, oxygen etc. Thehemoglobin of the RBC is responsible of carrying oxygen to tissues. The lowercount of hemoglobin results in anemia. As the blood travels through out the bodythe level of oxygen falls & as the blood goes to the lungs oxygen is left very little.When this deoxygenated blood goes through lungs again oxygen binds back to thehemoglobin. 114
  34. 34. Cardiovascular System Blood Red Cells/White Cells/Plasma White Cells Immunity Infection Platelets Blood ClotWhite cells are members of our immune system & protect us from infections beforethey cause disease.Platelets are important for our survival. It helps in the clotting of blood. If there is anycut, platelets accumulate at the cut and plug it. 115
  35. 35. Cardiovascular System Blood Red Cells/White Cells/Plasma Plasma - Liquid ProteinsPlasma is the fluid portion of the blood. It constitute about 55% of the total bloodvolume. Plasma is a solution of water, proteins, sugar, salts, hormones andvitamins. 116
  36. 36. Nervous System Nervous System
  37. 37. Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)These are the two major divisions of nervous system,CNS– The brain and spinal cord.PNS--- 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. 118
  38. 38. Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Nerves Nerves Spinal Cord Brain Coordinates Body Actions + Functions Processes Information External InternalThe spinal cord serves as a coordinating center for reflexes and connects the PNSwith the CNS.The brain is the primary center for regulating and coordinating body activities. In anadult it weighs about 3 pounds and has many different parts performing differentfunctions. 119
  39. 39. Nervous System CNS Spinal Cord Gray Matter White Matter Meninges BackboneSpinal nerves come from the top and the bottom of the spinal cord. The top nervescontrols our senses and the bottom nerves controls our muscle actions. White &gray matter are the two regions. Spinal cord and the brain are covered by 3 layerscalled meninges. 120
  40. 40. Nervous System CNS Connects PNS with Brain Coordinates Reflexes Spinal Nerves Senses MovementSpinal nerves come from the top and the bottom of the spinal cord. The top nervescontrols our senses and the bottom nerves controls our muscle actions. 121
  41. 41. Nervous System Brain Computer Coordinates + Processes All Information Prepares + Coordinates Responses Gray Matter/White MatterBrain– Site of consciousness, sensation, memory and coordination. It receives theinformation from the spinal cord and cranial nerves and prepares a response to theinformation. The brain can also formulate a plan of action without the externalstimulus. The outer portion of the brain has gray matter and the inner portion haswhite matter. 122
  42. 42. Nervous System Brain Cerebrum (Memory, Reasoning, Intelligence, Personality, Senses, Logic) Cerebellum (Physical Activity) Brain Stem Brain Cord Cord BrainThese are the 3 major portions of the brain.Cerebrum-- is the largest part. It is the center of reasoning and memory and definesa persons intelligence and personality. It also controls all five senses, muscleaction, learning, logic, creativity.Cerebellum– is a large mass of gray and white tissues that serves as thecoordinating center for motor activity.Brain stem– connects the cerebrum with spinal cord. Brain stem is a complex ofseveral smaller parts such as pons & medulla oblongata. 123
  43. 43. Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Autonomic Nervous System We Do Not Control This System Sympathetic/Parasympathetic Blood Pressure Digestion Intestines Lungs "Fight or Flight"PNS stands for peripheral nervous system and is sub-divided into two components------1- Autonomic nervous system. 2- Sensory somatic nervous system.ANS- We have no control over this system. ANS has two sub units sympathetic andparasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system function is tomaintain our ability to have an effective fight or flight response, whileparasympathatic nervous system serves to keep our body in calm state. 124
  44. 44. Nervous System PNS Sensory Nerves (Taste, Smell, Sight, Touch, Hearing) Somatic Muscle Nerves (Movement)Sensory nerves carries information from our five sense organs and the responses ofour CNS back to skeletal muscles & the organs in the body. Somatic muscle nerves(spinal nerves) control much of our skeletal activity. 125
  45. 45. Musculature Skeletal Muscles Movement Connected to Bones Voluntary Red Fibers Slow White Fibers Fast Everywhere Somatic NervesMuscles connect with bones through tendons. When muscles contract or relax thebones move and our body moves. We can control the information going to theskeletal muscles and thus called voluntary muscles.Skeletal muscles are also called voluntary muscles.The red muscle fiber contains myoglobin similar to hemoglobin and can work for along time without becoming tired.White fibers respond quickly but tires rapidly.Somatic nerves cells respond most rapidly to nervous stimulation. 126
  46. 46. Musculature Smooth Muscles Involuntary Blood Vessels, Visceral organs Autonomic Nerves Cardiac Muscles Heart Involuntary Autonomic nervesSmooth muscles are involuntary . These muscles are most frequently found inVisceral Organs and Blood vessels.No conscious control over these muscles. These cells contract and relax in a groupand not as individual cells. These muscles make the heart work as a pump. 127
  47. 47. Musculature Consume ATP to do Work Need Calcium, Sodium, PotassiumFor contraction and relaxation of muscles they need energy, ATP and certainminerals like Ca, K for proper muscle function. 128
  48. 48. Integumentary System Skin Epidermis (Barrier) Dermis (Blood, Muscles, Connection) Barrier Infection Waterproof MechanicalThis system is made up of skin, hair, nails and glands.Epidermis is the outer layer, tightly packed cells and no blood vessels.Dermis is the second layer and has blood vesselsSkin serves the barrier in three ways. 129
  49. 49. Integumentary System Pigment Protect Against Sunlight Heat Regulation Sweating Blood FlowMelanin is a skin pigment that protects our skin from sunlight.Skin allows us to lose heat from our body by sweating & evaporation & from bloodby dilating blood vessels close to skin surface. 130
  50. 50. Integumentary System Vitamin D from Sunlight Touch Pain Pressure Heat Nerve FibersSynthesizing vit.D from sunlight is one of the important function of the skin. Skin is asense organ that tells us about pressure, touch, pain, heat and send the informationto the CNS for the body to respond. 131