Indian Energy Trends:
The Climate and Development Challenge


Girish Sant, Prayas Energy group




Prayas Energy Group   h...
Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions
  Rs.        (Joules/Rs.)      (Tons/Joules)   =   (Tons)


     ...
Economy-wide Energy Intensity
                                        Total Primary Energy Supply (Btu/$PPP 2000)




    ...
Economy Trends and Performance
    Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions

                Industry     ...
Energy Intensity – Industry
     Industrial growth (7% p.a between 2000 - 2005) has decoupled from its energy
        cons...
Industry Mitigation Opportunities


   •   Scale Best Available Technology penetration

   •   Small scale industries (1/3...
Where do India’s Emissions Come From?
    Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions

                Indust...
Modes of Transportation



                              •   Buses and rail dominate motorized
                           ...
Recent Policies and Mitigation opportunities


    •   JNNURM
         – Development of Public transportation
         – R...
Where do India’s Emissions Come From?
    Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions

                Indust...
Residential Sector – Emissions Impact
    Indian households have half the energy intensity of households with similar
    ...
Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions
  Rs.         (Joules/Rs.)     (Tons/Joules)   = (Tons)



      ...
Carbon Intensity trends and Drivers
       Electricity Sector
       – Contributes to 35% of the GHG emissions in India
  ...
National Action Plan on Climate Change
        While India is on a low energy and carbon path compared countries
      lik...
Action possible PMC/PCMC
    • Municipal Corporation’s procurement of five star appliances
    • Creation of Research netw...
Thank you..


                         girish@prayaspune.org
                      www.prayaspune.org/peg


Prayas Energy ...
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India Energy Trends, 6 Oct 09 by Girish Sant

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Talk by Girsh Sant at launch event of Worldwatch Institute's State of the World 2009, Indian Edition produced by CEE

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India Energy Trends, 6 Oct 09 by Girish Sant

  1. 1. Indian Energy Trends: The Climate and Development Challenge Girish Sant, Prayas Energy group Prayas Energy Group http://pesd.stanford.edu • Stanford University 06/10/2009
  2. 2. Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Rs. (Joules/Rs.) (Tons/Joules) = (Tons) Industry Electricity Transportation Residential Prayas Energy Group 2
  3. 3. Economy-wide Energy Intensity Total Primary Energy Supply (Btu/$PPP 2000) India’s energy intensity has been falling since the mid-nineties. Current trends would imply continued decline in the near future. Source: Energy Information Administration, USDOE Prayas Energy Group 3
  4. 4. Economy Trends and Performance Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Industry Electricity Transportation Residential Prayas Energy Group 4
  5. 5. Energy Intensity – Industry Industrial growth (7% p.a between 2000 - 2005) has decoupled from its energy consumption growth (3% p.a)   Specific Energy Consumption in GJ / ton   Type of 1990 1995 2000 2005 AAGR (1990- Industry 2005) Iron and 41.9 37.6 33.3 29.1 -2.41% Steel Cement 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1 -1.10% Ammonia 55.3 60.4 51.9 42.9 -1.67% Aluminum 399.0 393.8 380.5 364.9 -0.59% Pulp and 35.0 31.3 27.6 24.0 -2.48% Paper Cement industry is the most efficient in the world in terms of electricity use. Source: India Energy Outlook, LBNL,, 2009 Prayas Energy Group 5
  6. 6. Industry Mitigation Opportunities • Scale Best Available Technology penetration • Small scale industries (1/3rd of output) • BEE - Designated Consumers • Electricity sector production and delivery - Low plant efficiency (30% vs. best of 40%) - High Transmission/Distribution losses (30%) - Poor price signals to agriculture Prayas Energy Group
  7. 7. Where do India’s Emissions Come From? Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Industry Electricity Transportation Residential Prayas Energy Group 7
  8. 8. Modes of Transportation • Buses and rail dominate motorized transport • Non-motorized modes of transport(walking and bicycling) meet more than a quarter of all trips in major cities and greater than half in small towns and rural areas. • Despite high growth India has a relatively low ownership of vehicles: 12 LDVs per 1000 persons. Source: LBNL, 2009 Source: LBNL, 2009 Prayas Energy Group 8
  9. 9. Recent Policies and Mitigation opportunities • JNNURM – Development of Public transportation – Road/traffic management infrastructure • Improved urban design • Vehicle Fuel Economy Potential Co-benefits – Reduce accident fatalities – Reduce local pollution, congestion Prayas Energy Group 9
  10. 10. Where do India’s Emissions Come From? Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Industry Electricity Transportation Residential Prayas Energy Group 10
  11. 11. Residential Sector – Emissions Impact Indian households have half the energy intensity of households with similar income in Brazil and a third of that of a similar American household • Low meat consumption patterns – Livestock sector contributes to 18% of the GHG emissions. • High Urban Density – Smaller homes – less than 540 sq ft. – Low commuting distances in the cities • Electricity growth linked to income - Only 11 percent households consume more than 100 units in a month, average US household consumes 900 units a month. • 5 percent of CO2 emissions from direct energy use Mitigation: • Providing all households with modern cooking fuels will have a negligible (<1 percent) impact on emissions • BEE – Standards and Labeling program for efficient appliances Prayas Energy Group 11
  12. 12. Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Rs. (Joules/Rs.) (Tons/Joules) = (Tons) Electricity Prayas Energy Group 12
  13. 13. Carbon Intensity trends and Drivers Electricity Sector – Contributes to 35% of the GHG emissions in India – Power stations emitted 943 grams of CO2 per kWh of electricity produced in 2005 – more than 50% higher than the average for the world. Mitigation policies and opportunities in the Electricity Sector: – Renovation and Modernization programs of coal plants – Super-critical technology – Renewable energy penetration – Currently ,9.7% of the total installed capacity (does not include large hydro) – Renewable Purchase Obligations – Natural Gas – National Exploration and Licensing Policy Prayas Energy Group 13
  14. 14. National Action Plan on Climate Change While India is on a low energy and carbon path compared countries like US and China, the current BAU path for growth is not sustainable and needs a thorough review • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat • National Solar Mission • National Mission for a ‘Green India’ • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture • National Water Mission • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change Prayas Energy Group 14
  15. 15. Action possible PMC/PCMC • Municipal Corporation’s procurement of five star appliances • Creation of Research networks for identifying and facilitating knowledge generation and implementation of green and pro people actions/agenda • Reducing the Octroi of all five star appliances coming into the City • Transportation – Increasing the efficiency of Public Transport – Increasing the Taxes on Private vehicles (use money for public transport) • Incentives efficient Commercial Complexes / installations. – Reduced taxes for Energy Conservation Building Codes compliant Commercial buildings. (however this will require some coordination and additional paper work) Prayas Energy Group 15
  16. 16. Thank you.. girish@prayaspune.org www.prayaspune.org/peg Prayas Energy Group 16

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