SEACOM ENGINEERING COLLEGE
Project Presentation on “Study and Demonstration of
principle on Turbocharger”
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WHAT IS A TURBOCHARGER ?
It is a turbine driven compressor.
It uses the waste energy from exhaust gas to increase
the charge mass of air and power of the engine.
WHY WE USE ?
It uses some of the unused energy contained in the hot
Wide range of power levels.
Increases the density of the air to add more fuel.
Reduces specific fuel oil consumption.
Improves mechanical, thermal efficiencies.
In basic concept, a supercharger is nothing more than an
air pump mechanically driven by the engine itself.
Usually compress the fuel/air mixture after it leaves the
Some of the power created is offset by the power required
to drive the supercharger.
When air–fuel charge
is ignited it produces
force which is directly
a function of the
So here we increase
the charge density by
The more air and fuel that can
be packed in a cylinder, the
greater the density of the air–
WHY TURBOCHARGERS ? NOT SUPRECHARGERS
The turbocharger does not drain power from the engine.
By connecting a turbocharger as much as 40% to 50% of waste
energy we can use.
Some of the power created is waste to drive the
Supercharger as it is driven directly from the
A part of the
energy is treated
by the turbine
The turbine power
is transmitted to
The air is
pressurized by the
The air cooler
brings the air to a
high density to the
The engine can
work at a high
of the thermal
TURBOCHARGER DESIGN AND
Components of The Turbocharger of Our
Lube holes or groove
Heat Shield or The turbine back plate
Compressor & Turbine Housing
The exhaust from the cylinders passes through the
turbine blades, causing the turbine to spin.
There are two main turbine types: axial and radial flow used.
Material: K18(Special type of
No Of Blades: 12 no’s
Wheel Diameter: 40mm
Increases both density and pressure and across its vanes.
Centrifugal flow compressors are the most common in .
Air is drawn in axially, accelerated to high velocity and
then expelled in a radial direction.
Material: High quality, high
No Of Blades: 8no’s
Wheel Diameter: 50mm
It transmits the rotational motion and torque from
the turbine to the compressor.
Length: 120 mm
Diameter: Diameter is variable. Max Diameter =8mm, Min
Material: K18(Special type of stainless steel)
Compressor housings are made of a cast aluminium alloy.
Turbine housings are made of ductile irons or nickel alloyed
OUR PROJECT TURBOCHARGER WITH
ALL ITS COMPONENTS
BRAYTON CYCLE THE IDEAL CYCLE
Brayton cycle, is made up of four internally reversible processes
1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor)
2-3 Constant-pressure heat addition
3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine)
4-1 Constant-pressure heat rejection.
CONCEPT OF OPEN CYCLE & CLOSE
CYCLE GAS TURBINE
The exhaust gases leaving
the turbine are thrown out
in atmosphere ,not re
The exhaust gases leaving the
turbine are not thrown out in
atmosphere ,hence re circulated
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE P-V DIAGRAMS OF
NATURALLY ASPIRATED & SUPERCHARGED
The two important differences are :
•Increase in pressure over the un supercharged cycle.
•The pumping loop of a supercharged engine is positive instead of
negative. Hence to get the net I.P the power represented by pumping loop
is to be added instead of being subtracted.
Net work output Wnet= work done by piston + Gas exchange work
= area 12341+ area 15671.
o Diesel Powered Cars.
o Gasoline Powered Cars.
o Marine Engine.
Impact on Turbocharging high-speed engines
Turbocharger power used*
Engine power output
En gine fuel consumption
* in terms of compressor power at engine design point for given volume flow rate and pressure
HIGH EFFICIENCY AT HIGH PRESSURE
Compressor pressure ratio Full-load optimized specification
1 2 3 4 5 6