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Project final ppt on turbocharger 2007


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Project final ppt on turbocharger 2007

  1. 1. SEACOM ENGINEERING COLLEGE Project Presentation on “Study and Demonstration of principle on Turbocharger” Presented by:A bhijit Nandy-20600710091 Priyam Ghose-20600710090 Utsab Koley-20600710096 Hiranmoy Gorai-09206007062 Moudrik Sarkar-09206007051 Indranil Chatterjee-09206007050 UUnnddeerr tthhee GGuuiiddaannccee ooff DDrr..BB..BB..GGHHOOSSHH Mechanical Engineering 8Th Semester
  2. 2. WHAT IS A TURBOCHARGER ?  It is a turbine driven compressor.  It uses the waste energy from exhaust gas to increase the charge mass of air and power of the engine.
  3. 3. WHY WE USE ?  It uses some of the unused energy contained in the hot exhaust gases.  Wide range of power levels.  Increases the density of the air to add more fuel.  Reduces specific fuel oil consumption.  Improves mechanical, thermal efficiencies.
  4. 4. SUPERCHARGERS  In basic concept, a supercharger is nothing more than an air pump mechanically driven by the engine itself.  Usually compress the fuel/air mixture after it leaves the carburetor.  Some of the power created is offset by the power required to drive the supercharger.
  5. 5. SUPERCHARGING PRINCIPLES When air–fuel charge is ignited it produces force which is directly a function of the charge density.  So here we increase the charge density by using supercharger. The more air and fuel that can be packed in a cylinder, the greater the density of the air– fuel charge.
  6. 6. WHY TURBOCHARGERS ? NOT SUPRECHARGERS  The turbocharger does not drain power from the engine.  By connecting a turbocharger as much as 40% to 50% of waste energy we can use. INTAKE AIR CARBURETOR EXHAUST
  7. 7.  Some of the power created is waste to drive the Supercharger as it is driven directly from the engine. FUEL/AIR MIXTURE EXHAUST GASES
  8. 8. Turbocharging Principles A part of the exhaust gas energy is treated by the turbine The turbine power is transmitted to the compressor through the rotating shaft The air is pressurized by the compressor The air cooler brings the air to a high density to the engine by decreasing the temperature The engine can work at a high power density without increase of the thermal load
  9. 9. TURBOCHARGER DESIGN AND OPERATION Components of The Turbocharger of Our Project  Turbine.  Air compressor.  Shaft  Waste gate  Lube holes or groove  Snap rings  Thrust Bearing  Heat Shield or The turbine back plate  Compressor & Turbine Housing
  10. 10. TURBINE  The exhaust from the cylinders passes through the turbine blades, causing the turbine to spin.  There are two main turbine types: axial and radial flow used. Material: K18(Special type of stainless steel) No Of Blades: 12 no’s Wheel Diameter: 40mm
  11. 11. THE COMPRESSOR  Increases both density and pressure and across its vanes.  Centrifugal flow compressors are the most common in .  Air is drawn in axially, accelerated to high velocity and then expelled in a radial direction. Material: High quality, high strength aluminium alloys. No Of Blades: 8no’s Wheel Diameter: 50mm
  12. 12. SHAFT It transmits the rotational motion and torque from the turbine to the compressor. Length: 120 mm Diameter: Diameter is variable. Max Diameter =8mm, Min Diameter=5mm, Material: K18(Special type of stainless steel)
  13. 13. Housing Compressor housings are made of a cast aluminium alloy. Turbine housings are made of ductile irons or nickel alloyed ductile irons.
  15. 15. BRAYTON CYCLE THE IDEAL CYCLE FOR GAS-TURBINE Brayton cycle, is made up of four internally reversible processes 1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor) 2-3 Constant-pressure heat addition 3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine) 4-1 Constant-pressure heat rejection.
  16. 16. CONCEPT OF OPEN CYCLE & CLOSE CYCLE GAS TURBINE OPEN SYSTEM The exhaust gases leaving the turbine are thrown out in atmosphere ,not re circulated CLOSE SYSTEM The exhaust gases leaving the turbine are not thrown out in atmosphere ,hence re circulated
  17. 17. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE P-V DIAGRAMS OF NATURALLY ASPIRATED & SUPERCHARGED ENGINES The two important differences are : •Increase in pressure over the un supercharged cycle. •The pumping loop of a supercharged engine is positive instead of negative. Hence to get the net I.P the power represented by pumping loop is to be added instead of being subtracted. Net work output Wnet= work done by piston + Gas exchange work = area 12341+ area 15671.
  18. 18. Application Range o Diesel Powered Cars. o Gasoline Powered Cars. o Motorcycles. o Trucks. o Aircraft. o Marine Engine.
  19. 19. Turbocharger Performance Impact on Turbocharging high-speed engines 1996-2012 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0% Turbocharger power used* Engine power output En gine fuel consumption Engine emissions Years Level * in terms of compressor power at engine design point for given volume flow rate and pressure ratio
  20. 20. HIGH EFFICIENCY AT HIGH PRESSURE RATIO 70 efficiency 65 60 Turbocharger 55 50 45 40 Compressor pressure ratio Full-load optimized specification 1 2 3 4 5 6
  21. 21. THANK YOU