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Wireless power transmission through sps


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Wireless power transmission through sps

  2. 2. WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION (WPT)  Nicola Tesla proposed the theory of wireless power transmission.  Transmission of energy from one place to another place without using wires.  Three main systems used for WPT : • Microwaves • Resonance • Solar cells 2
  3. 3. WHY WPT ???       Reliable Efficient Fast Low maintenance cost Can be used for short range or long range Reduction of losses during transmission and distribution of electrical energy.  Need for grids, substations etc. are eliminated.  Noble alternative for electrical transmission. 3
  4. 4. TYPES OF WPT ... There are mainly three major types of wireless energy transfer  Short range – INDUCTIVE COUPLING  Medium range – RESONANT COUPLING  Long range power transfer – ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION 4
  5. 5. HOW SPS WORKS ??? 5
  7. 7. OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM DESIGN..... It consists of : I. Solar Panel. II. Spacetenna ( antenna on satellite ). III. Rectenna ( RECTifyin g anTENNA). IV. Orbit selection Systematic view. 7
  8. 8. SOLAR PANEL  Set of solar photovoltaic modules electrically connected and mounted on a supporting structure.  Photovoltaic module is a packaged , connected assembly of solar cells.  Solar panels use photons(light energy) from sun to generate electricity through photovoltaic effect.  Solar panels were first used in space in 1958. 8
  9. 9. SPACETENNA: (Antenna on Satellite)  Spacetenna is a triangular prism with a length of 800 m and sides of 100 m.  The transmitting antenna on the horizontal under surface faces the earth, and the other two sides of the prism carry solar arrays.  The faces of prism are embedded with photovoltaic cells .These cells would convert solar energy into electricity, which in turn power onboard , Microwave Generator.  The microwave thus produced travels through atmosphere & collected by RECTENNAS on earth. 9
  11. 11. RECTENNA: (RECTIfying anTENNA)  mesh of an array of dipole antennas connected to diodes converting the radio frequency signal into DC voltage, which is then converted into regular AC electricity which is wired to homes, factories etc. It can be considered as a base station of Geosynchronous satellite. Microwaves of 2.45 GHz frequency is used to transmit power from satellite to rectenna. . A simple rectenna can be constructed from a Schottky diode placed between antenna dipoles as shown in Fig. 11
  12. 12. ORBIT SELECTION SCHEMATIC VIEW In LEO, a 11,00 Km altitude equatorial orbit will be used. This choice minimizes the transmission cost and the distance of power transmission from space. If it was in GEO ( that is 35,800 Km from the earth ) then the transmitting antenna would have to be 40 times larger than LEO one- or else the receiving station would have to be 40 times larger. 12
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  14. 14. 5,000 MW Receiving Station (Rectenna).This Station is about a mile & a half long in US. 14
  15. 15. WHY TO USE SPS ?  More intense sunlight.  Unlimited energy resource.  Energy delivered anywhere in the world.  Zero fuel cost.  Zero co2 emission – environment safe.  Waste heat is radiated back into space.  No air or water pollution is created during the generation.  Concept is simpler than the other most power systems here on the earth. 15
  16. 16. ...  SPS doesn’t use up the valuable surface area on the     earth. Solar radiation can be more efficiently collected. Space gets full power 24 hours a day. No effect of storms. Eco- friendly and maintenance free energy resource. 16
  17. 17. DISADVANTAGES...  Issues identified during DOE study : Complexity – long years to complete. Size- 6.5 miles long by 3.3 miles wide.       Transmitting antenna about 1.5 mile in diameter (1 km) Cost – prototype would have cost $74 billion. Interference with communication satellites Would require a network of 100’s of satellite. Heavy Launch cost The large scale of space solar power require international financing. 17
  18. 18. CONCLUSION...  SPS is still more expensive than ground based solar power & other energy sources. Yet even now, a small SPS system could be economically justified to provide unavailable emergency power for natural disaster situations, urban blackouts & satellite power failures.  For WPT via SPS to become reality, we require:  Government support.  Cheaper launch prices.  Involvement of private sector. 18
  19. 19. REFERENCES...  W.C. Brown, “Experiments Involving a Microwave Beam to Power and Position a Helicopter”, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace Electronic Systems. Vol. AES-5, no. 5, pp 692-702  Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program July 1977 - August 1980. DOE/ET0034, February 1978.  Tesla, N., “The transmission of electric energy without wires”, The thirteenth Anniversary 19
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