Published on

Microstrip antenna can be defined as antenna in which the substrate is sandwidtched between conduction patch and ground plane.

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Submitted By Dangi Ankit L. Yavalkar Sanket S. Guided By Prof. Mrs. R. P. Labade Facilitator - ETC Department Of Electronics And Tele-communication 2009-10
  2. 2. <ul><li>Radar measurement of range, or distance, is made possible because of the properties of radiated electromagnetic energy: </li></ul><ul><li>This energy normally travels through space in a straight line, at a constant speed, and will vary only slightly because of atmospheric and weather conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>The electromagnetic waves are reflected if they meet an electrically leading surface. If these reflected waves are received again at the place of their origin, then that means an obstacle is in the propagation direction. </li></ul><ul><li>These principles can basically be implemented in a radar system, and allow the determination of the distance, the direction and the height of the reflecting object . </li></ul>A nd R anging D etection Ra dio
  3. 3. <ul><li>The electronic principle on which radar operates is very similar to the principle of sound-wave reflection. If you shout in the direction of a sound-reflecting object (like a rocky canyon or cave), you will hear an echo. If you know the speed of sound in air, you can then estimate the distance and general direction of the object. The time required for an echo to return can be roughly converted to distance if the speed of sound is known. </li></ul>Radar uses electromagnetic energy pulses in much the same way, as shown in Fig.
  4. 5. <ul><li>Manpack Radar: </li></ul><ul><li>A portable manpack radar can be used for detecting moving targets as people and vehicles. It is designed on th basis of pulse Doppler mode of operation. An X-band radar with a half power bandwidth about 45 deg and gain of 30 dB that weights about 2kg. It is constructed with 16 center-fed franklin type microstrip line standing wave antennas. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Radar: </li></ul><ul><li>Microstrip array have been used in low-power radars. An antenna array consisting of 48 (3 x 16) circular patches mounted on a rotating pedestal. The antenna operates in X- band, generating a gain of 22 dB, 6 deg beamwidth in azimuth and 25 deg in elevation . </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Secondary Surveillance Antenna: </li></ul><ul><li>For the purpose of improving the data rate, a cylindrical electronic scanning antenna which can be turned instantaneously in any direction and aimed at any target, is believed to be more promising than a mechanically rotated antenna. A cylindrical array of one-third arc and 90 deg active sector. Its radiating elements are vertically polarized circular patches. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Aperture Radar: </li></ul><ul><li>For remote sensing applications, SAR techniques have been used o determine ground soil grades, vegetation type, ocean wave speed and direction and so on. An SAR consists of two identical microstrip array, separated by a prescribed distance to properly perform the interferometric function. Each array generates a fan-shaped beam in broadside direction </li></ul>
  6. 7. Antenna is transducers (it converts one from of energy in to another) that transmit or receive electromagnetic waves (has electric and magnetic field component which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and to the direction of energy propagation).
  7. 8. Radiated field nearest to the antenna Only radiation field exist in this region
  8. 9. <ul><li>Radiation Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Directivity </li></ul><ul><li>Gain </li></ul><ul><li>Input Impedance </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage Standing Wave Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Polarisation </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Dipole Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Element Dipole Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Yagi Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Panel Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Parabolic Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Slot Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Microstrip Antenna </li></ul>
  10. 11. Radiation Patterns Power Gain Polarization Dipole Broadside Low Low Linear Multi Element Dipole Broadside Low/medium Low Linear Flat Panel antenna Broadside Medium Medium/high Linear/circular Parabolic Dish Antenna Broadside High High Linear/circular Yagi Antenna Endfire Medium/high Medium/high Linear Slotted Antenna Broadside Low/medium Low/medium Linear Microstrip antenna Endfire Medium Medium Linear
  11. 14. <ul><li>Contacting </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Contacting </li></ul><ul><li>Microstrip Line Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Coaxial Probe </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity Coupling </li></ul><ul><li>Aperture Coupling </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Microstrip Line Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Coaxial Probe </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity Coupling </li></ul><ul><li>Aperture Coupling </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>The surface currents are used to model the microstrip patch and the volume polarization currents are used to model the fields in the dielectric slab. It has been shown by newman and tulyathan how an integral equation is obtained for these unknown currents and using the method of moments, these electric field integral equations are converted into matrix equations which can then be solved by various techniques of algebra to provide the result. </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Surface Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Leaky Waves </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Thick Substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Stacked Patches </li></ul><ul><li>Use of different shape slots i.e. U </li></ul><ul><li>Use of different shape probes i.e. L, T </li></ul><ul><li>Use of substrate with low dielectric constant </li></ul><ul><li>Air gap or electromagnetically coupled patches </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>High dielectric substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Shorting pin </li></ul><ul><li>Shorting wall </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>IE3d software was used to simulate the structure of the antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>IE3D is an integrated full-wave electromagnetic simulation and optimization package for the analysis and design of 3D and planar microwave circuits, MMIC, RFIC, RFID, antennas, digital circuits and high-speed printed circuit boards. </li></ul><ul><li>IE3D has been adopted as an industrial standard in planar and 3D electromagnetic simulation. </li></ul><ul><li>The IE3D has become the most versatile, easy to use, efficient and accurate electromagnetic simulation tool. IE3D provides far more features and capabilities than other simulators. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis Method Used is MoM i.e. Method of Moment </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Frequency of operation (f o ) </li></ul><ul><li>3 GHZ </li></ul><ul><li>Substarte & Its Dielectric constant (εr) </li></ul><ul><li>Glass Epoxy (4.4) and Foam (1.07) </li></ul><ul><li>Height of dielectric substrate (h) </li></ul><ul><li>1.6mm and 3mm resp. </li></ul><ul><li>Width and Length of Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>L = 30mm and W = 40mm </li></ul><ul><li>Patch Model & Feed Point Location (Xf ,Yf) </li></ul><ul><li>50 Ohm Coaxial Connector </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>Geometry </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>1. f o = 2.99 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>2. S (1,1) = -34.6595 dB </li></ul><ul><li>3. VSWR = 1.04105 dB </li></ul><ul><li>4. Gain = 8.11072 dBi </li></ul><ul><li>5. Directivity = 8.89719 dBi </li></ul><ul><li>6. Radiation Efficiency =84.5474 % </li></ul><ul><li>7. Antenna Efficiency = 83.4727 % </li></ul><ul><li>8. Impedance Bandwidth = 153.6 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>9. VSWR Bandwidth = 164 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>10. Operating Range = 2.91 to 3.08 GHz </li></ul>
  21. 28. <ul><li>Manufacturing and Certification of antenna will be done by Signet Instruments, Mumbai </li></ul>
  22. 29. <ul><li>Network Analyzer : </li></ul><ul><li>To measure S11 parameters and smith chart </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern calculation : </li></ul><ul><li>To measure gain and directivity. </li></ul><ul><li>For this a standard antenna is considered which is used as transmitter and receiver. </li></ul>
  23. 31. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>C.A.Balanis “Antenna Theory and Design”, second edition, John Wiley and Sons, </li></ul><ul><li>New York, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>G. Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband Microstrip Antennas”, Willey and Sons, Inc., </li></ul><ul><li>New York, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Kin Lu Wong, “Compact Broadband Microstrip Antenna”, John Wiley and Sons, </li></ul><ul><li>New York, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. Bahl, A. Ittipiboon, “Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook”, </li></ul><ul><li>ARTECH HOUSE, Boston 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>D. M. Pozar and D. H. Schaubert, “Microstrip Antennas: The Analysis and Design </li></ul><ul><li>of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays”, IEEE Press, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron K. Shackelford, Kai-Fong Lee, and K. M. Luk, “Design of small size wide </li></ul><ul><li>bandwidth Microstrip antennas”, IEEE Antenna And Propagation Magazine, Vol.45 </li></ul><ul><li>No,1 February 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>W. Chan and K. F. Lee, “Input impedance of coaxially fed RMSA on electrically </li></ul><ul><li>thick substrate”, Microwave Optical Technology. Lett. , 6, 1993, pp.387-390. </li></ul><ul><li>R. Q. Lee, K. F. Lee and J. Bobinchak, “Electromagnetically Coupled Rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>Patch Antenna”, Electron. Lett. , 23, 1987, pp.1070-1072. </li></ul>
  24. 32. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffrey A. Fordham, “An Introduction to Antenna Test Ranges, Measurements and Instrumentation”, Microwave Instrumentation Technologies, LLC. </li></ul><ul><li>S. A. Malekabadi, A. R. Attari, M. M. Mirsalehi, “Compact and broad </li></ul><ul><li>band circular polarized microstrip antenna with Wide band axial ratio </li></ul><ul><li>bandwidth”, 2008 International Synopsis on Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>IE3D 11.05 Manual, Zeland Software Inc. Freemont, California </li></ul><ul><li>E.H. Newman and P. Tylyathan, “Analysis of Microstrip Antennas Using Moment Methods,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. AP-29, no. 1, pp. 47- 53, January 1981. </li></ul><ul><li>S.-C. Zhao, B.-Z. Wang, and Q.-Q. He, “Broadband Radar Cross Section Reduction Of A Rectangular Patch Antenna”, Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 79, 263–275, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>