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- 1. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses Sanket Patil May 12, 2008 Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 2. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions 1 Introduction Deﬁnition Representation 2 Topological Features Scale-free Nature “Small World” properties Other features 3 Philosophy Emergence Machines vs Societies Self Interest 4 Design Systems Design: Desiderata Complex Systems Design 5 Analyses 6 Conclusions Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 3. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Networks Not “simple networks” Not random graphs Have non-trivial topological features Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 4. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Networks Not “simple networks” Not random graphs Have non-trivial topological features Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 5. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Networks Not “simple networks” Not random graphs Have non-trivial topological features Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 6. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Examples Computer Networks, the Internet, the Web Food-webs, protein interaction networks Social Networks, Trade Networks The brain Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 7. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Examples Computer Networks, the Internet, the Web Food-webs, protein interaction networks Social Networks, Trade Networks The brain Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 8. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Examples Computer Networks, the Internet, the Web Food-webs, protein interaction networks Social Networks, Trade Networks The brain Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 9. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Examples Computer Networks, the Internet, the Web Food-webs, protein interaction networks Social Networks, Trade Networks The brain Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 10. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Networks Designed (for performance) Have evolved/emerged over time Are teleological / have purpose of life Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 11. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Networks Designed (for performance) Have evolved/emerged over time Are teleological / have purpose of life Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 12. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Networks Designed (for performance) Have evolved/emerged over time Are teleological / have purpose of life Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 13. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Representation Networks are modelled as “Graphs” A node/vertex/point represents a machine, a human, a cell etc. An edge/arc/line represents a relation between two nodes Edges can be undirected or directed. Weights are used to convey additional (extra-topological) information Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 14. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Basic Deﬁnitions Degree: The number of edges incident on a node Indegree (outdegree): Number of incoming (outgoing) edges Degree Distribution: A probability distribution of node degrees Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 15. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Basic Deﬁnitions Degree: The number of edges incident on a node Indegree (outdegree): Number of incoming (outgoing) edges Degree Distribution: A probability distribution of node degrees Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 16. Outline Introduction Topological Features Deﬁnition Philosophy Representation Design Analyses Conclusions Path: A sequence of adjacent vertices Pathlength: The number of edges in a path Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 17. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Scale-free Nature Network dynamics/behaviour is independent of the size Power Law degree distributions Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 18. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Scale-free Nature Network dynamics/behaviour is independent of the size Power Law degree distributions Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 19. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Power Law Distribution Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 20. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Properties P[X = k] α k −p Small number of nodes with a very high degree and a large number of nodes with a very low degree “heavy tail”, “long tail”, “80:20” Income distributions, page rank, wikipedia contribution Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 21. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Properties P[X = k] α k −p Small number of nodes with a very high degree and a large number of nodes with a very low degree “heavy tail”, “long tail”, “80:20” Income distributions, page rank, wikipedia contribution Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 22. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Properties P[X = k] α k −p Small number of nodes with a very high degree and a large number of nodes with a very low degree “heavy tail”, “long tail”, “80:20” Income distributions, page rank, wikipedia contribution Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 23. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Properties P[X = k] α k −p Small number of nodes with a very high degree and a large number of nodes with a very low degree “heavy tail”, “long tail”, “80:20” Income distributions, page rank, wikipedia contribution Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 24. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Preferential Attachment Nodes prefer to attach to “popular” nodes “Rich getting richer” Entrenchment Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 25. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Preferential Attachment Nodes prefer to attach to “popular” nodes “Rich getting richer” Entrenchment Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 26. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Preferential Attachment Nodes prefer to attach to “popular” nodes “Rich getting richer” Entrenchment Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 27. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions “Small World” Properties Stanley Milgram: Small world experiment Mean Path Length 6 Critique: not a comprehensive study “Six degrees of separation” Watts and Strogatz Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 28. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions “Small World” Properties Stanley Milgram: Small world experiment Mean Path Length 6 Critique: not a comprehensive study “Six degrees of separation” Watts and Strogatz Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 29. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions “Small World” Properties Stanley Milgram: Small world experiment Mean Path Length 6 Critique: not a comprehensive study “Six degrees of separation” Watts and Strogatz Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 30. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions “Small World” Properties Stanley Milgram: Small world experiment Mean Path Length 6 Critique: not a comprehensive study “Six degrees of separation” Watts and Strogatz Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 31. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions “Small World” Properties Stanley Milgram: Small world experiment Mean Path Length 6 Critique: not a comprehensive study “Six degrees of separation” Watts and Strogatz Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 32. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Saul Steinberg: Ninth Avenue Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 33. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Social Commentary Small world geometry Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 34. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Social Commentary Small world geometry Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 35. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Kleinberg’s “small world” Ninth Avenue as a powerful analogy The “far” is almost as accessible as the “near” How are your friends/acquaintances distributed? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 36. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Kleinberg’s “small world” Ninth Avenue as a powerful analogy The “far” is almost as accessible as the “near” How are your friends/acquaintances distributed? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 37. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Kleinberg’s “small world” Ninth Avenue as a powerful analogy The “far” is almost as accessible as the “near” How are your friends/acquaintances distributed? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 38. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 39. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Coeﬃcient Neighbourhood: Nodes that are adjacent to a node no of edges in the neighbourhood Ci = total possible edges n i=0 Ci Cgraph = n Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 40. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Coeﬃcient Neighbourhood: Nodes that are adjacent to a node no of edges in the neighbourhood Ci = total possible edges n i=0 Ci Cgraph = n Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 41. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Coeﬃcient Neighbourhood: Nodes that are adjacent to a node no of edges in the neighbourhood Ci = total possible edges n i=0 Ci Cgraph = n Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 42. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Small Worlds High clustering coeﬃcient Low average path length Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 43. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Navigability in small worlds Kleinberg’s metric space models (circa 2000) Short paths do exist But can we ﬁnd them using local information? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 44. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Navigability in small worlds Kleinberg’s metric space models (circa 2000) Short paths do exist But can we ﬁnd them using local information? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 45. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Navigability in small worlds Kleinberg’s metric space models (circa 2000) Short paths do exist But can we ﬁnd them using local information? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 46. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Short range and long range connections Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 47. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Exponent Connections based on distance (r) and clustering exponent α For a node u, the probability of connecting to v is r −α Highly clustered neighbourhood Number of long range links decays with distance Only when α = 2, a decentralized routing algorithm can be found which has a log n bound Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 48. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Exponent Connections based on distance (r) and clustering exponent α For a node u, the probability of connecting to v is r −α Highly clustered neighbourhood Number of long range links decays with distance Only when α = 2, a decentralized routing algorithm can be found which has a log n bound Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 49. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Exponent Connections based on distance (r) and clustering exponent α For a node u, the probability of connecting to v is r −α Highly clustered neighbourhood Number of long range links decays with distance Only when α = 2, a decentralized routing algorithm can be found which has a log n bound Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 50. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Exponent Connections based on distance (r) and clustering exponent α For a node u, the probability of connecting to v is r −α Highly clustered neighbourhood Number of long range links decays with distance Only when α = 2, a decentralized routing algorithm can be found which has a log n bound Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 51. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Clustering Exponent Connections based on distance (r) and clustering exponent α For a node u, the probability of connecting to v is r −α Highly clustered neighbourhood Number of long range links decays with distance Only when α = 2, a decentralized routing algorithm can be found which has a log n bound Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 52. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Finding short paths Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 53. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Other Features Communities Hierarchical Structures Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 54. Outline Introduction Topological Features Scale-free Nature Philosophy “Small World” properties Design Other features Analyses Conclusions Other Features Communities Hierarchical Structures Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 55. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Complex Systems: Philosophy Systems Theory Cybernetics Non-linear Dynamics Multiagent Systems and AI Network Science, Connectionism, Cognitive Psychology Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 56. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Complex Systems: Philosophy Systems Theory Cybernetics Non-linear Dynamics Multiagent Systems and AI Network Science, Connectionism, Cognitive Psychology Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 57. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Complex Systems: Philosophy Systems Theory Cybernetics Non-linear Dynamics Multiagent Systems and AI Network Science, Connectionism, Cognitive Psychology Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 58. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Complex Systems: Philosophy Systems Theory Cybernetics Non-linear Dynamics Multiagent Systems and AI Network Science, Connectionism, Cognitive Psychology Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 59. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Complex Systems: Philosophy Systems Theory Cybernetics Non-linear Dynamics Multiagent Systems and AI Network Science, Connectionism, Cognitive Psychology Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 60. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Strudy of Complex Networks Structure or Topology How structure governs the function How design can be analysed teleologically Can we use this knowledge to build better systems? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 61. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Strudy of Complex Networks Structure or Topology How structure governs the function How design can be analysed teleologically Can we use this knowledge to build better systems? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 62. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Strudy of Complex Networks Structure or Topology How structure governs the function How design can be analysed teleologically Can we use this knowledge to build better systems? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 63. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Strudy of Complex Networks Structure or Topology How structure governs the function How design can be analysed teleologically Can we use this knowledge to build better systems? Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 64. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Emergence The connections between the components is as important as the components Emergent behaviour of complex networks Case Study: The Human Brain Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 65. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Emergence The connections between the components is as important as the components Emergent behaviour of complex networks Case Study: The Human Brain Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 66. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Emergence The connections between the components is as important as the components Emergent behaviour of complex networks Case Study: The Human Brain Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 67. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Machines vs Societies Systems Thinking: parts and whole Machines funcion based on norms Societies are declarative Societies are more robust Case study: The Heart Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 68. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Machines vs Societies Systems Thinking: parts and whole Machines funcion based on norms Societies are declarative Societies are more robust Case study: The Heart Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 69. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Machines vs Societies Systems Thinking: parts and whole Machines funcion based on norms Societies are declarative Societies are more robust Case study: The Heart Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 70. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Machines vs Societies Systems Thinking: parts and whole Machines funcion based on norms Societies are declarative Societies are more robust Case study: The Heart Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 71. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Machines vs Societies Systems Thinking: parts and whole Machines funcion based on norms Societies are declarative Societies are more robust Case study: The Heart Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 72. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Self Interest Autonomous agents Local constraints and self interest Global or environmental dampeners Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 73. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Self Interest Autonomous agents Local constraints and self interest Global or environmental dampeners Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 74. Outline Introduction Topological Features Emergence Philosophy Machines vs Societies Design Self Interest Analyses Conclusions Self Interest Autonomous agents Local constraints and self interest Global or environmental dampeners Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 75. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions Systems Design: Desiderata Safety Resilience Fairness Livenss Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 76. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions Systems Design: Desiderata Safety Resilience Fairness Livenss Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 77. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions Systems Design: Desiderata Safety Resilience Fairness Livenss Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 78. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions Systems Design: Desiderata Safety Resilience Fairness Livenss Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 79. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Systems Design Eﬃciency Robustness Cost Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 80. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Systems Design Eﬃciency Robustness Cost Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 81. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions Complex Systems Design Eﬃciency Robustness Cost Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 82. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions An Optimization Problem Designing complex systems is an optmization process Search in a multidimensional space Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 83. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions An Optimization Problem Designing complex systems is an optmization process Search in a multidimensional space Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 84. Outline Introduction Topological Features Systems Design: Desiderata Philosophy Complex Systems Design Design Analyses Conclusions Approaches Mathematical Programming Ant Colony Optimization Swarm Intelligence Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithms Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 85. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Graph Theoretic Analyses Graph thoretic properties used in design and analyses Constraints and objectives are deﬁned in terms of graph properties Design is usually evolution of optimal graphs under the given constraints Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 86. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Graph Theoretic Analyses Graph thoretic properties used in design and analyses Constraints and objectives are deﬁned in terms of graph properties Design is usually evolution of optimal graphs under the given constraints Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 87. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Graph Theoretic Analyses Graph thoretic properties used in design and analyses Constraints and objectives are deﬁned in terms of graph properties Design is usually evolution of optimal graphs under the given constraints Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 88. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Eﬃciency APL: Average of all pairs shortest paths Diameter: The longest shortest path. An upper bound on eﬃciency. Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 89. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Eﬃciency APL: Average of all pairs shortest paths Diameter: The longest shortest path. An upper bound on eﬃciency. Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 90. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Local Objectives Eccentricity: The longest shortest path for a node The greatest separation a node suﬀers Average eccentricity or eccentricity distribution are also good indicators of eﬃciency Radius: Smallest eccentricity. “Central” node Number of “central” nodes can be another measure Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 91. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Local Objectives Eccentricity: The longest shortest path for a node The greatest separation a node suﬀers Average eccentricity or eccentricity distribution are also good indicators of eﬃciency Radius: Smallest eccentricity. “Central” node Number of “central” nodes can be another measure Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 92. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Local Objectives Eccentricity: The longest shortest path for a node The greatest separation a node suﬀers Average eccentricity or eccentricity distribution are also good indicators of eﬃciency Radius: Smallest eccentricity. “Central” node Number of “central” nodes can be another measure Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 93. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Local Objectives Eccentricity: The longest shortest path for a node The greatest separation a node suﬀers Average eccentricity or eccentricity distribution are also good indicators of eﬃciency Radius: Smallest eccentricity. “Central” node Number of “central” nodes can be another measure Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 94. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Local Objectives Eccentricity: The longest shortest path for a node The greatest separation a node suﬀers Average eccentricity or eccentricity distribution are also good indicators of eﬃciency Radius: Smallest eccentricity. “Central” node Number of “central” nodes can be another measure Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 95. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Cost Density(connectance): no of edges/no of possible edges Edges per node Weights, costs and other environment dependent measures Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 96. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Cost Density(connectance): no of edges/no of possible edges Edges per node Weights, costs and other environment dependent measures Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 97. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Cost Density(connectance): no of edges/no of possible edges Edges per node Weights, costs and other environment dependent measures Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 98. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Robustness Centrality Measures Connectivity Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 99. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Robustness Centrality Measures Connectivity Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 100. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Centrality Degree Centrality: degree distribution Betweenness: importance of nodes based on the no. of paths passing through them Closeness: per node average path length Eigenvector Centrality: importance of nodes based not just on how many are endorsing, but also who is connected. When a centrality distribution is uniform, the network is most robust Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 101. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Centrality Degree Centrality: degree distribution Betweenness: importance of nodes based on the no. of paths passing through them Closeness: per node average path length Eigenvector Centrality: importance of nodes based not just on how many are endorsing, but also who is connected. When a centrality distribution is uniform, the network is most robust Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 102. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Centrality Degree Centrality: degree distribution Betweenness: importance of nodes based on the no. of paths passing through them Closeness: per node average path length Eigenvector Centrality: importance of nodes based not just on how many are endorsing, but also who is connected. When a centrality distribution is uniform, the network is most robust Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 103. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Centrality Degree Centrality: degree distribution Betweenness: importance of nodes based on the no. of paths passing through them Closeness: per node average path length Eigenvector Centrality: importance of nodes based not just on how many are endorsing, but also who is connected. When a centrality distribution is uniform, the network is most robust Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 104. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Centrality Degree Centrality: degree distribution Betweenness: importance of nodes based on the no. of paths passing through them Closeness: per node average path length Eigenvector Centrality: importance of nodes based not just on how many are endorsing, but also who is connected. When a centrality distribution is uniform, the network is most robust Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 105. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Connectivity Connected, strongly connected and weakly connected Vertex Cut: The smallest number of vertices whose removal renders the network disconnected Edge Cut: The smallest number od edges whose removal renders the network disconnected A graph is k − connected if the size of its vertex cut is k Higher the connectivity, more robust the network Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 106. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Connectivity Connected, strongly connected and weakly connected Vertex Cut: The smallest number of vertices whose removal renders the network disconnected Edge Cut: The smallest number od edges whose removal renders the network disconnected A graph is k − connected if the size of its vertex cut is k Higher the connectivity, more robust the network Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 107. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Connectivity Connected, strongly connected and weakly connected Vertex Cut: The smallest number of vertices whose removal renders the network disconnected Edge Cut: The smallest number od edges whose removal renders the network disconnected A graph is k − connected if the size of its vertex cut is k Higher the connectivity, more robust the network Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 108. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Connectivity Connected, strongly connected and weakly connected Vertex Cut: The smallest number of vertices whose removal renders the network disconnected Edge Cut: The smallest number od edges whose removal renders the network disconnected A graph is k − connected if the size of its vertex cut is k Higher the connectivity, more robust the network Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 109. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Connectivity Connected, strongly connected and weakly connected Vertex Cut: The smallest number of vertices whose removal renders the network disconnected Edge Cut: The smallest number od edges whose removal renders the network disconnected A graph is k − connected if the size of its vertex cut is k Higher the connectivity, more robust the network Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 110. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Independent/Disjoint Paths Two paths are vertex independent if they have no common vertices (except the terminals) Two paths are edge independent if they have no common edges Menger’s Theorem: Max-ﬂow min-cut More independent paths implies higher robustness Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 111. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Independent/Disjoint Paths Two paths are vertex independent if they have no common vertices (except the terminals) Two paths are edge independent if they have no common edges Menger’s Theorem: Max-ﬂow min-cut More independent paths implies higher robustness Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 112. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Independent/Disjoint Paths Two paths are vertex independent if they have no common vertices (except the terminals) Two paths are edge independent if they have no common edges Menger’s Theorem: Max-ﬂow min-cut More independent paths implies higher robustness Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 113. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Independent/Disjoint Paths Two paths are vertex independent if they have no common vertices (except the terminals) Two paths are edge independent if they have no common edges Menger’s Theorem: Max-ﬂow min-cut More independent paths implies higher robustness Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 114. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Number of connected components Robustness can be measured in terms of the number of components that result due to failures Size of the connected components also matters in many cases Toughness: A toughness of t means, for a given number k(> 1), at least t ∗ k nodes need to be removed to fragment the graph into k connected components Graph Toughness: Biggest value of t Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 115. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Number of connected components Robustness can be measured in terms of the number of components that result due to failures Size of the connected components also matters in many cases Toughness: A toughness of t means, for a given number k(> 1), at least t ∗ k nodes need to be removed to fragment the graph into k connected components Graph Toughness: Biggest value of t Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 116. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Number of connected components Robustness can be measured in terms of the number of components that result due to failures Size of the connected components also matters in many cases Toughness: A toughness of t means, for a given number k(> 1), at least t ∗ k nodes need to be removed to fragment the graph into k connected components Graph Toughness: Biggest value of t Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 117. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Number of connected components Robustness can be measured in terms of the number of components that result due to failures Size of the connected components also matters in many cases Toughness: A toughness of t means, for a given number k(> 1), at least t ∗ k nodes need to be removed to fragment the graph into k connected components Graph Toughness: Biggest value of t Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 118. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Conclusions Complex Networks design have non-trivial topological properties Structure governs function Designed for eﬃciency under constraints of robustness and cost Graph thoretic measures are useful for design and analyses Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 119. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Conclusions Complex Networks design have non-trivial topological properties Structure governs function Designed for eﬃciency under constraints of robustness and cost Graph thoretic measures are useful for design and analyses Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 120. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Conclusions Complex Networks design have non-trivial topological properties Structure governs function Designed for eﬃciency under constraints of robustness and cost Graph thoretic measures are useful for design and analyses Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses
- 121. Outline Introduction Topological Features Philosophy Design Analyses Conclusions Conclusions Complex Networks design have non-trivial topological properties Structure governs function Designed for eﬃciency under constraints of robustness and cost Graph thoretic measures are useful for design and analyses Sanket Patil An Overview of Complex Networks Design and Analyses

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