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  2. 2. The Management in Geetha: Introduction: Management has become a part and parcel of everyday life, be it at home, in the office or factory and in Government. In all organizations, where a group of human beings assemble for a common purpose, management principles come into play through the management of resources, finance and planning, priorities, policies and practice. Management is a systematic way. The Geetha enunciates mind as follows: Mind is very restless, forceful and strong, O Krishna, it is more difficult to control the mind than to control the wind ~ Arjuna to Sri Krishna of Management guidelines from the Bhagavad Gita. The 16th chapter of Geetha clearly says that if a man wants to attain perfection he should faithfully follows the ordinance of Scriptures. The route towards perfection is your Subava and the visa for such journey is Vasana (the previous birth karmas) that is your Sanchitha Karmas. There is an important distinction between effectiveness and efficiency in managing. Effectiveness is doing the right things. Efficiency is doing things right. The general principles of effective management can be applied in every field, the differences being more in application than in principle. The Manager's functions can be summed up as: 1. Forming a vision 2. Planning the strategy to realise the vision. 3. Cultivating the art of leadership. 4. Establishing institutional excellence. 5. Building an innovative organisation. 6. Developing human resources 7. Building teams and teamwork. 2
  3. 3. 8. Delegation, motivation, and communication 9. Reviewing the performance and taking corrective steps when called for. Thus, management is a process of aligning people and getting them committed to work for a common goal to the maximum social benefit - in search of excellence and carrying out activities in any field of human effort. Manager's mental health Sound mental health is the very goal of any human activity - more so management. Sound mental health is that state of mind which can maintain a calm, positive poise, or regain it when unsettled, in the midst of all the external vagaries of work life and social existence. Internal constancy and peace are the pre-requisites for a healthy stress-free mind. Some of the impediments to sound mental health are: 1. Greed - for power, position, prestige and money. 2. Envy - regarding others' achievements, success, rewards. 3. Egotism - about one's own accomplishments. 4. Suspicion, anger and frustration. 5. Anguish through comparisons. Forming a vision The Leadership and The Leader: The Leader is a person who visualize his ambitions and epitomize the intrinsic value and directs its action to be performed and motivate a group of persons and asks them to execute his ambitions for the development of the business and assumes himself a primary and lead role and advice them (the Management) to remove all the obstacles and imponderables with a positive note and thereby shouldering all the responsibilities and race the organization through the gates of success. The vision of the leader should be carried out with the principles of Dharma and any Karma performed without the principles of dharma will automatically dissipate and destroyed without any fruitful result. In Mahabaratham Lord Krishna has a vision of Dharma and performed His action and became successful in all walks of life. Further more under His jurisdiction if any Adharma activities took place He would go to that place and set things right and 3
  4. 4. establishes the principles of Dharma and this ccould be noticed throughout the Mahaabarath story. The Manager and The Management: Planning the strategy to realise the vision. Management is defined as the Capacity of one Individual through which the incumbent can assess the intelligence of one or more persons and utilizes the services of such individuals and extract work from them for the benefit of the business organization in order to run the day-to-day affairs of the business organization in accordance with the vision of the leader (with the principles of Dharma) of the organization so as to achieve its objectives without any deviation and the person who perform such deeds with all his scientific approach collectively called as The Manager. Effectiveness is doing the right things. Efficiency is doing things right. A concept, which is described as “disinterested work" in the Geetha where Sri Krishna says, “He who shares the wealth generated only after serving the people, through work done as a sacrifice for them, is freed from all sins. On the contrary those who earn wealth only for themselves, eat sins that lead to frustration and failure.” The Ethical and Cultural Values: Any Knowledge without Ethical and Cultural Heritage is useless tool. Any knowledge if it is taught without cultural and Ethical Value and such knowledge will not last long on the mind of people. Therefore if we take the leaves from our cultural ethical valued literatures such as Vedas and Upanishid and Geethaupthesam and other Alwars’ and Nayanmars’ scriptures then only the knowledge and skills that we acquire will produce the desired result without detrimental to the ensuing generations to come and will become like a Banana Tree and ensures a continuous and perennial generation with a firm foundation and that would be the ultimate goal of any Managerial Skill. Therefore the education must be directly linked with Cultural and Ethical Values. We can learn best lesson from the country China and she is scrupulously following this principle and never wants to compromise with these things because of that only China still remains as a superpower in this competitive world. People who do not follow the above ideals are being eroded with western culture and pay the penalty when their ensuing generation mocks at them and they could not endure their unethical and uncultured activities and that could not be condoned at any cost and such a humiliating act made them to reconsider their approach of multiplying money at the cost of cultural heritage. Significance of Management: 4
  5. 5. Its task is to make people capable of joint performance, to make their weaknesses irrelevant, says the Management Guru Peter Drucker. It creates harmony in working together - equilibrium in thoughts and actions, goals and achievements, plans and performance, products and markets. It resolves situations of scarcity, be they in the physical, technical or human fields, through maximum utilization with the minimum available processes to achieve the goal. Lack of management causes disorder, confusion, wastage, delay, destruction and even depression. Managing men, money and materials in the best possible way, according to circumstances and environment, is the most important and essential factor for a successful management. The modern (Western) management concepts of vision, leadership, motivation, excellence in work, achieving goals, giving work meaning, decision making and planning, are all discussed in the Bhagavad Gita. There is one major difference. While Western management thought too often deals with problems at material, external and peripheral levels, the Bhagavad Gita tackles the issues from the grass roots level of human thinking. Once the basic thinking of man is improved, it will automatically enhance the quality of his actions and their results. Mahabaratham and Geetha: In the Mahabaratham Lord Krishna being An Avatar of Mahavishnu assume His Leadership qualities and assumed different characters in different circumstances and acts accordingly and Preached the principles of good attitudes and Dharma through Bagavt Geetha for all human beings and taught and fought with evil force and shown how to live in this World of Maya. Many Managerial Observations are there in His Bagavat Geetha and if such observations are understood thoroughly, we can come to conclusion that some of the observations are strikingly similar to the observations of Modern Managerial Science with slight differences only on the nomenclature of Terms and they are synonymous with the functional notations. Then life in the world can become a real education dynamic, full and joyful no matter what the circumstance. May the wisdom of loving consciousness ever guide us on our journey? What makes the Holy Gita a practical psychology of transformation is that it offers us the tools to connect with our deepest intangible essence and we must learn to participate in the battle of life with right knowledge. The Holy Gita is the essence of the Vedas, Upanishads. It is a universal scripture applicable to people of all temperaments and for all times. It is a book with sublime thoughts and practical instructions on Yoga, Devotion, Vedanta and Action. It is profound in thought and sublime in heights of vision. It brings peace and solace to souls that are afflicted by the three fires of mortal existence, namely, afflictions caused by one’s own body (disease etc), those caused by beings around one (e.g. wild animals, snakes etc.), and those caused by the gods (natural disasters, earth-quakes, floods etc). Lord Krishna’s various Roles in the Mahabharat with Special Reference to Managerial Skills As a Child: 5
  6. 6. All Childs are supposed to have naughty behaviour and lord Krishna being not an exceptional one behaved with all such typical features and complaints poured against His Name and as a result He was tied to a stone pit which is used for pounding paddy to rice by his affectionate mother and He endured all such punishment and killed some evil forces and emerged out as successful child and finally fulfils the wishes of His parents. When He assumes the role of a child He behaves like typical naughty child and even today this is celebrated as Bal Krishna Leela during Jenmastami and reminds us the best Managerial Games for getting relieved of our stress Cultivating the art of leadership Building teams and teamwork. As a Leader of Student: As a Conman for a Conman (Manager should not be jealous) Envy - regarding others' achievements, success, and rewards. When He assumes the role of a Leader of His age group and friends, He behaves like a very good leader and saved the entire village and its people. When He notices a cunning opponent He also behaves like a person with Hole and Corner Policy and clandestinely defeat him with his won kind and becoming victorious. This can be learnt when we observe an incident through which when He deflate the Pride of Lord Bramma who was jealous of Lord Krishna’s popularity and hide all the cattle in his place and wants to bring discredit to lord Krishna as He is a leader of all cow boys. Knowing the cunning nature of Lord Bramma He with his divine powers creates so many cattle and they resembled like ones that Lord Bramma has hidden and thus the days got elapsed and He remained calm. Noticing this lord Bramma checked his hiding place and found that all the cattle that he had hidden were intact and unable to sub due the Lord Krishna by realizing his mistake and surrendered to Lord Krishna and apologized for his misdeeds. Thus He assumed all kinds of Roles in order to be a typical example of oneself and a Leader and Preached Bagavat Geetha in the process with rich Cultural Heritage for establishing Dharma in this World of Maya. Establishing institutional excellence. Utilisation of available resources The first lesson of management science is to choose wisely and utilise scarce resources optimally. During the curtain raiser before the Mahabharata War, Duryodhana chose Sri Krishna's large army for his help while Arjuna selected Sri Krishna's wisdom for his support. This episode gives us a clue as to the nature of the effective manager - the former chose numbers, the latter, wisdom. The Manager must be Obedient and Graceful 6
  7. 7. When He assumes the role of Student to a teacher He is obedient and submissive and well disciplined to the Guru Santhipani Muni (and these records are still available at Ujjain in Madyapradesh State) and Gurumatha and even restored their son who was declared missing when he went to take bath in a river as a Gurudakshna (service of a student for the wisdom derived from the guru). LORD Krishna being an Avatar never revealed His godliness identity and asked question to clarify His doubts which betrayed His Godliness identity which was very well understood by Santhipani Muni and respected and realized Him as a Parabrammam and blessed Him as an out standing student of his Ashram. When He assumes the role of a Leader He is compassionate and Risk Taking and Self Evolving and not a Machivillinistic and Narcist. These are the Managerial Terms and its striking fitting course we can notice by the following observation: Developing human resources. Self-Evolving (The Manager should not be Machivillinistic and Narcist but be a being of Self-Evolving) Egotism - about one's own accomplishments This can be noticed when incessant rain and heavy down pour inundates His Village by a plot of Lord Indira He lifted the Govardana Hill through His Pointing Finger and protected the entire village and Deflated the Pride of Lord Indira and forced him to submit and he apologized to Lord Krishna and in the process of Indira’s submission He accepted his Total Surrender and without any Machivillinistic and Narccistic ideas He promised to help his son Arjuna in Mahabaratham and kept His Promise. Here we should not misunderstand that if we have such magical power we can also conquer any one like lord Indira but Lord Krishna has not utilized his magical power but remained calm and when He noticed the plot of Lord Indira through which he was making suffering of ordinary innocent people of his village and thereby achieving his goal by a dishonest way then only He swung in to action and forced to use His divine power against Indira in order to remove his Anavam (egotism) which is considered to be the first Malam(the impurities of Mind the other two are Kanmam and Maya). Further more Indira is a leader of Devas and he is not an ordinary man and does not behave like true leader with Machivillinistic and Narcistic ideas with his sensitivities, which always land him in trouble and suffered in the process. Building an innovative organisation Risk Taking(The Manager must be person Who should be Risk Taking and being an example oneself) Further when He plays with His Friend suddenly the ball fell in to the Yamuna River and no one dares to enter in to the river as it was occupied by dreaded Poisonous snake Kalinga and it used to spit venom on the river Yamuna and the people were very well aware of that. But Lord Krishna jumped in to the river and not only took the ball from 7
  8. 8. the river but also Danced on the Fore Head of Kalinga Sarpam and it is passionately and divinely called as Kalinga Narthananm through which He controlled its Ferocious activities and drove it away from the river Yamuna and restored happiness to all people of the village As a King: (The Manager must be a Simpleton) The Manager will be a King like in his Management similarly a King will be a King in his Kingdom. When He assumes the role of a King He is a benevolent but also a Simpleton with an easy access to every one. He got the kingdom back and released His Father Vasudeva and Mother Devaki from His cruel uncle Kamsan and killed him and restored peace and social hormony and in the process released His Grandpa Ukrasena Maharaj. . As a Demon(The Manager must be Courageous and a Demon like When he faces Difficult Situation) When He assumes the role of a Demon He Roars and kills the Evil Force with Firm determinations. He killed Lady Demon Buthali, Chagadasuran,Witchcraftful Sritharan, Banasuran, Kagagasuran, Thirunmathan and so on. As an All Mighty (The Manager must be Compassionate and do not leave the loyal workers in the lurch) When He is recognized as the All Mighty with feelings of complete Bakthi He went to their end and even worked as their servant and acted as a Savior for them. When Drowpadi was dragged in the Darbar Hall and desaried she appealed to Lord Krishna and invoked His blessings as an All Mighty to save her from such shameful action and immediately He swung in to action and saved her by going on increasing her length of the sari that she was wearing with His divine Power and thus stopped the process of desariying her in the open Darbar Hall and thus saved her from the clutches of such evil forces. Greed - for power, position, prestige and money. The source of the problem The reasons for this sorry state of affairs are not far to seek. The Western idea of management centres on making the worker (and the manager) more efficient and more productive. Companies offer workers more to work more, produce more, sell more and to stick to the organisation without looking for alternatives. The sole aim of extracting better and more work from the worker is to improve the bottom-line of the enterprise. The worker has become a hireable commodity, which can be used, replaced and discarded at will. 8
  9. 9. Thus, workers have been reduced to the state of a mercantile product. In such a state, it should come as no surprise to us that workers start using strikes (gheraos) sit-ins, (dharnas) go-slows, work-to-rule etc. to get maximum benefit for themselves from the organisations. Society-at-large is damaged. Thus we reach a situation in which management and workers become separate and contradictory entities with conflicting interests. There is no common goal or understanding. This, predictably, leads to suspicion, friction, disillusion and mistrust, with managers and workers at cross purposes. The absence of human values and erosion of human touch in the organisational structure has resulted in a crisis of confidence. Western management philosophy may have created prosperity – for some people some of the time at least - but it has failed in the aim of ensuring betterment of individual life and social welfare. It has remained by and large a soulless edifice and an oasis of plenty for a few in the midst of poor quality of life for many. As a Diplomat:(The Manager must be Diplomatic and Firm in his decision making) When He assumes the role of Diplomat He behaves like a Diplomat and His approach is still followed in the Science of Diplomacy. After enduring punishment given by the King Duriodana Pandavas returned and demanded their share of property and Lord Krishna acted as a Diplomat in favour of Pandavas and advised the King Duriodana to give their share of the property but Duriodana refused to do so and as a result Declared a war “The War Against Adharma and defeated the king Duriodana and maintained Dharma with all His divine powers. Anguish through comparisons. As a War General: (The Manager will be like a War General in the business battlefield and the Strategy adopted by him is highly accountable and bring success and such courageous attitude is absolutely essential with reference to the business ethics) When He assumes the role of War General He Faithfully fulfils His Role as a Great War General without taking any weapon on his hand and successfully own the War and Saved Pandavas. Lord Krishna’s Diplomacy in favor of Pandavas to Gowravas. This was very well planned and enacted by Lord Krishna in order to nullify the Great Bow possessed by Vithura, which he obtained from Lord Shiva. When he possesses that divine bow no one can conquer Vithura the uncle of the king Durioodana who is in the side of Gowravas. He tricked Durioodana by visiting Vithura’s house and then visited the king Durioodana’s Palace. Enraged by this king Durioodana scolded the mother of Vithura with filthy sarcastic words in the open assembly durbar hall. By that sarcastic remarks Vithura became angry and in the process he broke the Great Divine Bow and that had 9
  10. 10. happened as wished by lord Krishna and paved the way for Victory. Thus the Broken Arrow Movie was taken and enacted in Duawpra Yuga itself and then only came to Hollywood Movie. Killing The Great Warrior Karnan: He nullified the skills of Karna by Kunthi’s varam and got the promise for not using the Nagaasthram missile for a second time to kill Arjuna. When he fired the missile at the first time lord Krishna buried the chariot wheel for one foot under the earth and thus mislead the missile hitting only the crown of his head and thus He saved Arjuna from such accurate attack and kept His promise given to Lord Indira. By obtaining his Darma Palan He further nullified and nutralised him and asked Arjuna to kill him when he was adjusting his Chariot Car wheel. Suspicion, anger and frustration. Killing the Great Knighthood: Similarly He helped to Kill Drona Acharya by telling a false statement being told by Uthishtra (Dharma) as if the son of Drona Aswathama was killed in the battle field to be heard by Drona and in the process incapacitated him and he dropped his weaponry and asked Distaduma to kill him in the process. Thus He exploited the situation of Suspicion, anger and Frustration to His favor and got things done and emerged as successful. Reviewing performance and taking corrective steps when called for. Killing Jayatrathan: He also helped Arjuna to Kill Jayathrathan who mercilessly killed Abimanyu the son of Arjuna in the battlefield against all conventions of the warethics. To retaliate Arjuna pronounced an oath to kill Jayathrathan the husband of Thuchali the only sister of Duriodana before the sun set on the next day. When Arjuna was searching Jayathrathan He helped him to trace him with His Sudarsana Chakra and temporarily made the sun to set and forced him to appear from his hiding place and in the process killed him by an appropriate missile of Pasupathaasthram without which he could not have been killed. Jayathrathan got a blessing from his father who is a saint and such blessing warn any one who cuts his son’s head and makes it fall on the ground will meet with violent death with his head blown in to pieces and in such circumstances He advised Arjuna to use Pasupathaasthram which is like a modern laser guided missile and it will alone perform its strike absolutely on the target and obey any kind of dictations that is being ordered and asked Arjuna to place the beheaded head of Jayathrathan on the palm of the Saint Father of Jayatrathan. Without noticing that his father threw away the cut head of his son and in the process he himself met with violent death and his head will be blown up in to pieces and died. This plan was completely enacted by Lord Krishna and thus He helped Arjuna to fulfill his promise. 10
  11. 11. Delegation, motivation and communication The Manager must be Motivating and self-appealing to the Management When Arjuna refused to fight with the Pethamagar Beeshma the Grandppa and his brothers He preached the Bagavat Geetha and motivated Arjuna to perform his Chatrya Dharma and asked him to set aside his emotional feeling and get through his Karma Yoga. There is no theory to be internalized and applied in this psychology. Ancient practices spontaneously induce what each person needs as the individual and the universal coincide. The work proceeds through intellectual knowledge of the playing field(jnana yoga), emotional devotion to the ideal(bhakti yoga) and right action that includes both feeling and knowledge(karma yoga). With ongoing purification we approach wisdom. The Bhagavad Gita is a message addressed to each and every human individual to help him or her to solve the vexing problem of overcoming the present and progressing towards a bright future. Within its eighteen chapters is revealed a human drama. This is the experience of everyone in this world, the drama of the ascent of man from a state of utter dejection, sorrow and total breakdown and hopelessness to a state of perfect understanding, clarity, renewed strength and triumph As a Brammachari: When He assumes the role of Husband He sincerely discharge His duties as a typical genuine husband and Even Won the Award of Genuine Brammachari Award, by putting him in to the test of Virgin Man and invoked the blessings of All Mighty and promised to wake up a child which was destroyed in the womb itself by a missile delivered by Asvaththama the son of Dronachrya. At this juncture He came to the rescue of Uthiri who was bearing the embryo of her child got destroyed by the missile and when the Lord Krishna just smeared the stomach of Uthiri with His hand by saying “ Oh Lord If I am a genuine Bramachari with all knowledge of Brammam then the child will come alive” and even He named the Child as Parichithu and when the child came alive from the womb of Uthiri and this action gave Him a Clean Chit for Genuine Brammachari with all knowledge of Brammam despite adorning with several marriages throught Krishna Avatar. In conclusion The despondency of Arjuna in the first chapter of the Gita is typically human. Sri Krishna, by sheer power of his inspiring words, changes Arjuna's mind from a state of inertia to one of righteous action, from the state of what the French philosophers call “anomie” or even alienation, to a state of self-confidence in the ultimate victory of “dharma” (ethical action.) 11
  12. 12. When Arjuna got over his despondency and stood ready to fight, Sri Krishna reminded him of the purpose of his new-found spirit of intense action - not for his own benefit, not for satisfying his own greed and desire, but for the good of many, with faith in the ultimate victory of ethics over unethical actions and of truth over untruth. V. Sankaranarayanan, Assistant Director Faculty, NICM. Chennai. 12