Indian road congress paper

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Presented a paper on "Automated Parking Facilities as one of the Possible Solutions to the City Transport System" at the Workshop on "Possible Solutions to the City Transport System Including Pedestrian Segregation & Automated Parking Facilities" organised by Indian Road Congress & Highways Department, Govt of Tamilnadu on 26th April, 2013

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Indian road congress paper

  1. 1. Proceedings of the Indian Road Congress-One Day Workshop-cum-Seminar on “Possible Solutions to the City TransportSystem including Pedestrians Segregation & Automated Parking Facilities” on 26thApril, 2013, Chennai.Automated Parking Facilities as one of thePossible Solutions to the City TransportSystemSanjog Bawane, Head-Public Private Partnership Projects, CCCL Infrastructure Limited, Chennai,Tamil Nadu, India.Email:sanjoginfra@ccclindia.com, Mb: +91 9884008057Abstract- Due to the proliferation in the number of vehicleson the road, traffic problems are bound to exist. This is dueto the fact that the current transportation infrastructureand car park facility developed are unable to cope with theinflux of vehicles on the road. In India, the situation is madeworse by the fact that the roads are significantly narrowercompared to the West. Therefore, problems such as trafficcongestion and insufficient parking space inevitably cropsup. Various measures have been taken in the attempt toovercome the traffic problems. To alleviate theaforementioned problems, the automated car parkingsystem has been developed. This paper introduces variousautomated car parking systems and highlights the approachof various stakeholders, planning and formulation issuesand puts forward a viewpoint on the same.I. INTRODUCTIONIndia’s urban population is rapidly expanding as anincreasing number of small town dwellers are migratingto cities. Rising income levels mean that even for themiddle income Indian, owning a car is not as unthinkableas it was a decade ago.Statistics reveal that parking space requirement has outstripped the number of vehicles by 45%, on an average,across metros. Conventional on-ground parkingarrangements alone are no longer sufficient to handlesuch massive parking requirements. The challenge forurban planners is to allocate parking spaces for the risingcar population. In high activity areas, it is difficult to findparking spaces, resulting in problems such as on-streetparking, thereby congesting the already congested roads.II. AUTOMATED PARKING-AN OPTIONAutomatic car parking helps tackle these problems to agreat extent. It is a space efficient concept that saves atleast 33% of parking space as compared to conventionalramp based multilevel parking thereby having thepotential to make huge difference in urban & transportplanning. It is a space efficient, secure andenvironmentally sound solution for both present andfuture parking needs.III. AUTOMATED PARKING SYSTEMSHow does it work?The process of parking is simple and does not requirehuman interference. The car is parked in a car lift at theentrance to the parking area. It is then automaticallymoved through the facility and stored in the parking slot.This is carried out through a parking managementmechanism which directs controls of the parking systemcomprising of pallet/pallet-less technology, robots andlifts. Retrieval is carried out in the same manner, usingthe parking management system, and this process is fast.Trolley Parking:This system operates by a vertical lift running fromvehicle entrance level to each parking level, andindependently working trolley. Flexible arrangement ofentrance is possible due to combining a vertical lift and ahorizontal trolley. This type can efficiently cope withplans of utilizing underground space as well as movinglines of vehicles.Fig. 1-Trolley Parking1
  2. 2. Proceedings of the Indian Road Congress-One Day Workshop-cum-Seminar on “Possible Solutions to the City TransportSystem including Pedestrians Segregation & Automated Parking Facilities” on 26thApril, 2013, Chennai.Fig. 2-Trolley ParkingTranslator Parking:Translator simultaneously operates vertically andhorizontally to move vehicles in and out on all levels justlike an automated storage. By arranging the location ofentrance and exit flexibly, utilizing the underground spaceand moving lines of vehicle flow is easily managed.Fig. 3-Translator ParkingFig.4-Translator ParkingElevator Parking:An elevator located in the center of the tower for avehicle, moves vehicles vertically as well as horizontally.Applying the latest elevator system, this can reach theexpress running speed, while providing low-noise, lowvibration operating mechanism.Fig. 5-Elevator ParkingFig. 6-Elevator ParkingIV. SEMI-AUTOMATED PARKING SYSTEMSFor the lesser parking slots, Semi-Automatic ParkingSystems are the viable solution. These are even referredas Mechanical Parking systems mainly working onChain-Pulley or Hydraulic mechanism. These aremodular in nature and have multiple entry points. PuzzleParking is the most widely used one.Puzzle Parking:Upper and lower pallets repeatedly move vertically andhorizontally to move vehicles in and out. Depending onsite condition, continuous installations of units arepossible with simple installation.2
  3. 3. Proceedings of the Indian Road Congress-One Day Workshop-cum-Seminar on “Possible Solutions to the City TransportSystem including Pedestrians Segregation & Automated Parking Facilities” on 26thApril, 2013, Chennai.Fig. 7-Puzzle ParkingFig. 8-Puzzle ParkingV. SUITABILITY OF AUTOMATED/SEMIAUTOMATED PARKING SYSTEMSParking planning concepts mainly revolve around parkingdensity, frequency of parking cycles at a given locationand the location. Semiautomatic system as a whole isthough cheaper than Fully Automated systems but it isnot as effective as the later when it comes to handlinghigher frequency of parking cycles. Within theAutomated parking system domain, Trolley and translatorsystems are equally efficient when it comes to handlinghigh parking density and high frequency of parkingcycles. Trolley system has a slightly upper edge overtranslator system from structural design point of view.Both are safe but translator system may require fewadditional structural elements. Though translator systemlosses to trolley system on construction cost but it gainsover trolley system on equipment cost.Fully Automated parking, from functional point of view,is best suited for public places (CBD’s, Railway Stationsand Airports, to name a few). Semi-Automated systemssolve the purpose when it comes to catering individualpremises (parking for employees within the officepremises, Residential complexes).VI. APPROACH OF STAKEHOLDERSVarious stakeholders like Planning Authorities, UrbanLocal Bodies (ULB’s) and Real Estate Developers hasinitiated Automated Parking projects.Delhi Development Authority (DDA) in its Master Plan2021 has even introduced the norms for AutomatedParking systems and its financial viability through PPProute by offering utilisation of commercial space abovethe parking structure. It has even identified locations forthe same. Such initiatives enables the ULB’s to fast trackthe Parking Proposals.ULB’s too have initiated lot of Automated ParkingProjects mostly on PPP route. Office buildings and high-end housing complexes too are keeping an option openfor Semi-Automatic Parking systems.Most of the projects initiated by Public Agencies arethrough PPP route.VII. ISSUESIt is well understood that Standalone Automated ParkingSystems are not financially viable option due its high costand restriction on Parking Charges. Further, parkingrequirement will always be in an area which has highcommercial value. This provokes the public agencies tolook at such projects through PPP route. But the fact isthat not many projects, initiated on PPP route, has beenimplemented, or for that matter, even awarded mainly dueto following reasons:1. Though the location on which such projects areproposed are of high commercial value fromthat particular city’s point of view, but thecommercial rentals in that area may not beenough to fetch good returns to the Projectdeveloper. Over and above this, the projectproponents insist on Premium on the project tobe paid to them, which in turn forms the bidcriteria. It is therefore that the developers arenot inclined to participate in such tenders andhence the projects don’t come up.3
  4. 4. Proceedings of the Indian Road Congress-One Day Workshop-cum-Seminar on “Possible Solutions to the City TransportSystem including Pedestrians Segregation & Automated Parking Facilities” on 26thApril, 2013, Chennai.2. Locations (particularly CBD’s), that needsparking facility, do not have land and even if ithas, it’s a park or green space. Resulting inPIL’s and such projects get tangled in legalbattles.3. Off late lot of projects were proposed on busterminus. Such projects, even though incommercially high rental localities, could notcome up. Reason being, the ground floor in suchcases are required for bus circulations and therentals from 1stfloor onwards is half of thatfrom ground floor, thus affecting the financialviability.VIII. CONCLUSIONPublic agencies though have identified parking facilitiesas one of the issues to be sorted out but the approach isnot reaping the desired results.Public parking facility is required to be seen from a cityperspective as a whole and not as a single facility at onelocation. Projects need to be taken up simultaneously atdifferent locations. It has to be understood thatAutomated Parking is one of the options to tackle theproblem, though it is very efficient, but it comes with ahigh price tag. Hence, look at different options of parkingfacility as well. Considering the following approach willhelp the public agencies to review their parking solutionin an integrated manner:1. In depth assessment of locations, so as to decideon which projects should be implemented onPPP (Premium) or PPP (Concession PeriodCriteria) or EPC. Cross subsidise such projectswithin the parking projects.Double entry accrual based system of accountingin ULB’s will ease the process of this crosssubsidisation.2. Consider other options of parking as well likeconventional and Semi Automatic parkingfacilities at different locations so as to reduce thefinancing burden on the public agencies andthereby making the cross subsidisation model areality.3. One facility should not be provided at the cost ofother. Green areas should be strictly maintainedas green. In such places, even if conventionalunderground parking is proposed, the projectbecomes unviable if taken through PPP route.4. Proper traffic circulation planning around theparking facility within the parking site should begiven utmost importance. A service road forentry and exit of the parking facility will notcreate a bottleneck in already congestedadjoining main road.5. Advanced construction methodologies like“Top-Down Construction Method” forunderground parking will enable above groundconstruction and underground construction tohappen simultaneously thus reducing substantialconstruction time. Also, “Pre-fab Construction”for above ground parking systems will cut downon construction time to a great extent and alsoease congestion due to construction activities.4

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