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Transmission media


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What is transmission media and its type.....

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Transmission media

  1. 1. Transmission Media Chapter 3 Chapter 3 1
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Discuss characteristics of cables </li></ul><ul><li>List the various types of copper wired cables </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss fiber optic cables </li></ul><ul><li>Explain wireless transmission media </li></ul>Chapter 3
  3. 3. Recall - I Chapter 3 <ul><li>Topology is a pattern of computer devices and describes the way in which these devices are connected </li></ul><ul><li>The disadvantages of bus topology are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire network gets affected if main cable breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminators are required at both ends of backbone cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to detect the faulty device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited number of devices can be attached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy traffic degrades performance </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Recall - II Chapter 3 <ul><li>The advantages of ring topology are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to mange as compared to Bus network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles large volume of traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very reliable and offers great speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a good communication over a long distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No terminators are required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of mesh topology are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full mesh topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial mesh topology </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Cables <ul><li>Segment Length – Length of single wire </li></ul><ul><li>Attenuation – Indicates loss of signal </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth – Amount of data carried by cable </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Segments – Maximum number of segments in network </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – Copper cables are cheapest, fiber optic cables are expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Interference susceptibility and crosstalk – Defines concept of electronic interference on cables </li></ul><ul><li>Crosstalk- Explains the concept of interference generated when magnetic fields or current of one cable affects electrical currents of other cable </li></ul>Chapter 3
  6. 6. Selection of cable <ul><li>Analyze the present and future data transmission speed required by the application. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if high density graphics are required in future. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the architecture of the network to be designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine whether you want to use copper cable or fiber optic cable. </li></ul><ul><li>See for the dispersion of devices in the network, how widely they are spaced. (Check for the suitable price of cable.) </li></ul><ul><li>Check for backbone or a lobe to a LAN node. </li></ul>Chapter 3
  7. 7. Types of cables <ul><li>Copper medium is the cheapest mode of data transfer </li></ul>Chapter 3 Types of cables Coaxial cable Twisted pair cables
  8. 8. Coaxial cable <ul><li>Consist of a solid copper core surrounded by an insulator mainly made up of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) or Teflon </li></ul><ul><li>Coaxial cables are less prone to interference (both internal and external) </li></ul>Chapter 3
  9. 9. Types of Coaxial cable <ul><li>Coaxial cables are mainly divided into four categories </li></ul>Chapter 3 Types of Coaxial cables RG58 RG8 RG6 RG59
  10. 10. RG58 <ul><li>Maximum segment length is 200 meters </li></ul><ul><li>Interference protection is better than twisted pair cables </li></ul><ul><li>Offers resistance of 50 ohms </li></ul><ul><li>BNC-T connector is used to connect this cable </li></ul><ul><li>Used in thinnet (10BASE2) network </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly used in changing environments </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to add/remove devices form the network using RG58 cable </li></ul><ul><li>Cheapest form of coaxial cable </li></ul>Chapter 3
  11. 11. RG8 <ul><li>Maximum segment length is 500 meters </li></ul><ul><li>Interference protection is good compared to any copper cable </li></ul><ul><li>Offers resistance of 50 ohms </li></ul><ul><li>AUI and Vampire Tap connector is used to connect this cable </li></ul><ul><li>Used in 10BASE5 network </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive than RG58 </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage is rigidness due to which it is only used as a backbone </li></ul>Chapter 3
  12. 12. RG6 <ul><li>Broadband quad-shielded cable that offers an impedance of 75 ohms </li></ul><ul><li>Provides lower attenuation characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in cable TV, CCTV and satellite dish antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Covers distance up to 1500 feet (450m approx) </li></ul>Chapter 3
  13. 13. RG59 <ul><li>Solid conductor is surrounded by a foam polyethylene dielectric </li></ul><ul><li>Offers impedance of 75 ohm and used with BNC connector </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in security camera, cable TV and home theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Covers a distance up to 1000 feet (300m approx) </li></ul><ul><li>Has a higher attenuation as compared to other coaxial cables </li></ul>Chapter 3
  14. 14. Practical <ul><li>To cut the sheath of different coaxial cables and see the different layers inside the cable. </li></ul>Chapter 3
  15. 15. Twisted Pair Cables <ul><li>A pair of cables twisted around each other forms a twisted pair cable. </li></ul>Chapter 3 Twisted Pair cables Unshielded Twisted Pair Shielded Twisted pair
  16. 16. UTP Cables - I <ul><li>Pair of unshielded wires wound around each other </li></ul><ul><li>Cheapest form of cables available for networking purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Highly used in LAN environments </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to install </li></ul><ul><li>Easily gets affected by EMI and RFI </li></ul>Chapter 3
  17. 17. UTP Cables - I <ul><li>Maximum cable length – 100m </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth – 100 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Connector – RJ45 </li></ul><ul><li>Bend Radius – 360 degree/feet </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance – 50 ohm </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Transmission Mode - Baseband </li></ul>Chapter 3
  18. 18. UTP Cable Types-I Chapter 3 Cat 7 Cat 6 Cat 5e Cat 5 Cat 4 Cat 3 Cat 2 Cat 1 UTP
  19. 19. UTP cable types-II <ul><li>CAT1 – telephone cable </li></ul><ul><li>CAT2 – 4 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>CAT3 – 10 Mbps, 16 MHz (10 Base T) </li></ul><ul><li>CAT4 – 16 Mbps, 20 MHz (Token Ring) </li></ul><ul><li>CAT5 – 100 Mbps, 100 MHz (100 Base T) </li></ul><ul><li>CAT5e – 1000 Mbps, 100 MHz (22 Gauge) </li></ul><ul><li>CAT6 – 1000 Mbps, 250 MHz (24 Gauge) </li></ul><ul><li>CAT6a - 10GBase – T, 500 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>CAT7 – 10GBase – T, 600 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>CAT7a - 40 Gigabit Ethernet ,1000 MHz </li></ul>Chapter 3
  20. 20. STP Cables <ul><li>Pair of wires wound around each other is placed inside a protective foil wrap </li></ul><ul><li>Better protection from EMI, RFI and crosstalk as compared to UTP </li></ul><ul><li>STP is cheaper than fiber optic cable but costlier than UTP </li></ul>Chapter 3
  21. 21. Types of STP Cables <ul><li>CAT5e – Operates at 350 MHz and carries data up to 1000 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>150 Ohm Shielded Cable – Operates at 16 MHz </li></ul>Chapter 3
  22. 22. Practical <ul><li>Cutting the sheath of twisted pair cable and seeing the various pairs of the cable </li></ul>Chapter 3
  23. 23. Case Study 1 Chapter 3 The Mumbai branch of MoneyMaker bank has multiple departments, which are on different floors in the same building. Each department is interconnected using UTP cables. John, the network administrator has set up a client server environment and has used a star topology. The employees of the bank are unable to transmit data and information from one department to another in an efficient manner
  24. 24. Problem Chapter 3 Data and information cannot be transmitted between the departments efficiently
  25. 25. Suggested Solution Chapter 3 The problem is caused due to EMI emitted by the electrical transformers. John should use STP cables to interconnect the different departments located on each floor as STP provides better protection from EMI. The computers inside each department can be interconnected using UTP cables.
  26. 26. <ul><li>Use CBT to explain fiber optic cable </li></ul>Chapter 3
  27. 27. Fiber Optic Medium - I <ul><li>Consists of centre glass core surrounded by cladding </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical signals are converted into light signals </li></ul><ul><li>A phenomenon called as total internal reflection is used for transmission </li></ul><ul><li>LED or laser is used to transmit signal </li></ul>Chapter 3
  28. 28. Fiber Optic Medium - II <ul><li>Most commonly used fiber optic cable is 62.5/125 micro meter (diameter core/cladding) </li></ul><ul><li>Pair of fibers i.e. two strands of cables contained in different cladding used to send and receive data signals </li></ul><ul><li>Kevlar fiber is used as a sheathing material as it provides better protection </li></ul><ul><li>Highly secure as they don’t emit any signals </li></ul>Chapter 3
  29. 29. Fiber Optic Cable Characteristics <ul><li>Bandwidth – Carries large amount of data ranging from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps </li></ul><ul><li>Segment Length – Transmits data signals over larger distance (2 – 100 K.M.) </li></ul><ul><li>Interference – No electric signals pass through these types of cables thus providing security. Used in areas that are highly susceptible to noise, e.g. near TV towers, radio stations and electric transformer. </li></ul>Chapter 3
  30. 30. Fiber Optic Cable Types <ul><li>Fiber optic cables can carry signals in a single direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Light signals are turned on and off in order to transmit data </li></ul>Chapter 3 Fiber Optic Cable Types Single Mode Multi mode
  31. 31. Single Mode Fiber Optic cable <ul><li>A type of cable that has only a single strand of glass fiber with a thin diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber optic cables that use lasers are known as single mode cable. </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be transmitted at higher speeds and over long distances </li></ul>Chapter 3
  32. 32. Multi Mode Fiber Optic cable - I <ul><li>A type of cable that contains a glass fiber with a larger diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a 62.5/125 micrometer fiber cable. </li></ul>Chapter 3
  33. 33. Multi Mode Fiber Optic cable - II <ul><li>Multiple modes of light signals can be propagated through it </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits data over short distances </li></ul><ul><li>Use LEDs as source of light </li></ul><ul><li>Used to transmit two or more signals using a single fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Speed is less as compared to single mode fiber optic cable </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used now a days </li></ul>Chapter 3
  34. 34. Fiber Optic Cable Connectors -I <ul><li>Connectors depend on the different kinds of light emitting sources (LED and Laser) and light sensors used </li></ul><ul><li>Straight Tip (ST) – A popular connector used with fiber optic cables and used in gigabit Ethernets or backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Subscriber Connector (SC) – A type of low cost connector used in 100 Base-FX fiber optic networks and can be pushed into the device and removed by pulling out. </li></ul>Chapter 3
  35. 35. Fiber Optic Cable Connectors -II <ul><li>Medium Interface Connector (MIC) – like SC and are used in the FDDI architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Sub Miniature Type A (SMA) – looks similar to ST but uses a threaded outer shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber Jack – Attaches two fibers in snap lock connector </li></ul>Chapter 3
  36. 36. Case Study 2 Chapter 3 The Chennai branch of MoneyMaker bank has a database server. All departments are connected to this server using coaxial cables. These departments are unable to retrieve and update information from the server spontaneously. It takes a lot of time to get updated information.
  37. 37. Problem Chapter 3 The employees of the bank are unable to retrieve information from the database quickly.
  38. 38. Suggested Solution Chapter 3 The problem is caused due to the lower transmission speeds provided by the coaxial cables. These cables provide a maximum transfer rate of 10 Mbps. Thus, if all departments of the bank try to access the information from the server, the speed slows down. To increase the data transfer rate, the network administrator should use UTP Cat 6 twisted pair cables. This cable provides higher bandwidth and higher data transfer rate as compared to coaxial cables.
  39. 39. Media Comparison Chapter 3 Characteristics UTP STP Coaxial Cables Fiber Optic Cables Bandwidth 10 Mbps – 100 Mbps 10 Mbps – 100 Mbps 10 Mbps 100 Mbps - 1 Gbps Maximum cable segment 100 meters 100 meters 200 – 500 meters 2 k.m. – 100 k.m. Interference rating Poor Better than UTP Better than twisted pair wires Very good as compared to any other cable Installation cost Cheap Costly than UTP Costly than twisted pair wires Most costly to install Bend radius 360 degrees / feet 360 degrees / feet 360 degrees / feet or 30 degrees / feet 30 degrees / feet Security Low Low Low High
  40. 40. Wireless Medium <ul><li>Unguided form of transmission medium </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitters and receivers are used to send and receive signals </li></ul><ul><li>Involves use of electromagnetic waves such as microwave, infrared, radio waves etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless medium is useful in connecting large geographical areas </li></ul>Chapter 3
  41. 41. Radio Waves <ul><li>Line of sight between devices is not required </li></ul><ul><li>Frequencies used are VLF, LF, MF, HF, VHF, UHF, SHF and EHF </li></ul>Chapter 3
  42. 42. Microwave <ul><li>High frequency EM wave that is used for point to point communication </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave Categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial – Relay towers are used to transmit radio signals between earth stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite – Radio signals are transmitted between different base stations using satellites </li></ul></ul>Chapter 3
  43. 43. Infrared Transmission <ul><li>Uses Infrared lights for transmission and reception of signals </li></ul><ul><li>Line of sight must be maintained between the devices </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used in LAN environments </li></ul><ul><li>LEDs or Injection Laser Diode (ILD) is used to transmit information and photodiodes are used to receive the signals </li></ul>Chapter 3
  44. 44. Case Study - 3 <ul><li>Money Maker Bank plans to link all its branches located across India to a centralized server located in Mumbai. As all the branches are located at various geographical locations, the bank plans to maintain an account of all the transactions of each and every branch. The overhead cost of the current network is too high. So the network administrator wants to use a cost effective way. </li></ul>Chapter 3
  45. 45. Problem <ul><li>Identify the type of setup required to connect various branches to the central server in a cost effective manner. </li></ul>Chapter 3
  46. 46. Suggested Solution <ul><li>The bank should establish a wireless network from all the branches to the central server. This will reduce the cost of installing cables for interconnecting the branches. This will also reduce the overhead cost of maintenance of cables, as it is costlier to connect all the branches, which are spread in India, using cables. </li></ul>Chapter 3
  47. 47. Summary – I <ul><li>Networking hardware involves all peripheral devices, interface cards and other components such as cables and wires that are used to establish network connection </li></ul><ul><li>All cables have certain characteristics such as segment length, bandwidth, crosstalk, attenuation, interference susceptibility, cost and number of segments </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of medium are available for transmitting data over the network such as copper medium, fiber optic medium and wireless medium </li></ul><ul><li>Copper medium includes coaxial cables and twisted pair cables </li></ul>Chapter 3
  48. 48. Summary – II <ul><li>Twisted pair cable consists of a pair of cables that is twisted around each other </li></ul><ul><li>Two types twisted pair cable are STP and UTP </li></ul><ul><li>Crosstalk is a phenomenon in which signals of one wire interfere with the signals transmitted over the other wire </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid crosstalk, a pair of wires wound around each other and each pair is placed inside a protective foil wrap </li></ul><ul><li>Types of UTP cables are Cat 1, Cat 2, Cat 3, Cat 4, Cat 5, Cat 5e, Cat 6, CAT6a and Cat 7 </li></ul><ul><li>STP cable types include Cat 5e and 150 ohm shielded cable </li></ul>Chapter 3
  49. 49. Summary – III <ul><li>Coaxial cables consist of a solid copper core that is surrounded by an insulator which is again covered by a mesh like ground wire and an outer cover known as a sheath </li></ul><ul><li>Thinwire or RG-58 cable is approximately 0.64 cm in diameter and is used in constantly changing environments </li></ul><ul><li>BNC connector is used to connect devices to the thinnet coaxial cable network </li></ul><ul><li>RG-8 cable is approximately 1 cm in diameter and used as a backbone cable </li></ul>Chapter 3
  50. 50. Summary – IV <ul><li>For RG-6 cable, the center conductor is 1.05 mm in diameter and for RG-59 cable is 0.86 mm </li></ul><ul><li>A fiber optic cable consists of a centre glass core that is surrounded by a glass cladding, Kevlar fibers and an outer sheath material </li></ul><ul><li>LEDs and lasers are used to transmit light signals through the fiber optic cables </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of fiber optic cables available namely single mode and multi mode </li></ul>Chapter 3
  51. 51. Summary – V <ul><li>The primary types of connectors used to connect fiber cables are ST, SC, SMA, Fiber Jack and MIC </li></ul><ul><li>In wireless medium, signals are transmitted through air and space using radio and satellite networks </li></ul>Chapter 3