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©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
1
Software Project
Management
4th Edition
Resource allocation
Chapter 8
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
2
Schedules
• Activity schedule - indicating start and
completion dates for each activity
• Resource schedule - indicating dates
when resources needed + level of
resources
• Cost schedule showing accumulative
expenditure
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
3
Resources
• These include
– labour
– equipment (e.g. workstations)
– materials
– space
– services
• Time: elapsed time can often be reduced
by adding more staff
• Money: used to buy the other resources
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
4
Resource allocation
• Identify the resources needed for each
activity
• Identify resource types - individuals are
interchangeable within the group (e.g.
‘VB programmers’ as opposed to
‘software developers’)
• Allocate resource types to activities and
examine the resource histogram
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
5
Resource histogram:
systems analysts
WEEK
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
2
3
4
5
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
6
Resource clashes
can be resolved by:
– delaying one of the activities
• taking advantage of float to change start date
• delaying start of one activity until finish of the
other activity that resource is being used on -
puts back project completion
– moving resource from a non-critical activity
– bringing in additional resource - increases
costs
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
7
Prioritizing activities
There are two main ways of doing this:
• Total float priority – those with the
smallest float have the highest priority
• Ordered list priority – this takes account
of the duration of the activity as well as
the float – see next overhead
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
8
Burman’s priority list
Give priority to:
• Shortest critical activities
• Other critical activities
• Shortest non-critical activities
• Non-critical activities with least float
• Non-critical activities
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
9
Resource usage
• Need to maximise %usage of resources
i.e. reduce idle periods between tasks
• Need to balance costs against early
completion date
• Need to allow for contingency
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
10
Critical path
• Scheduling resources can create new
dependencies between activities – recall
critical chains
• It is best not to add dependencies to the
activity network to reflect resource
constraints
– Makes network very messy
– A resource constraint may disappear during the
project, but link remains on network
• Amend dates on schedule to reflect resource
constraints
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
11
Allocating individuals to
activities
The initial ‘resource types’ for a task have
to be replaced by actual individuals.
Factors to be considered:
• Availability
• Criticality
• Risk
• Training
• Team building – and motivation
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
12
Cost schedules
Cost schedules can now be produced:
Costs include:
• Staff costs
• Overheads
• Usage charges
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
13
Cost profile
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
14
Accumulative costs
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005
15
Balancing concerns

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Spm chapter 8

  • 1. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 1 Software Project Management 4th Edition Resource allocation Chapter 8
  • 2. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 2 Schedules • Activity schedule - indicating start and completion dates for each activity • Resource schedule - indicating dates when resources needed + level of resources • Cost schedule showing accumulative expenditure
  • 3. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 3 Resources • These include – labour – equipment (e.g. workstations) – materials – space – services • Time: elapsed time can often be reduced by adding more staff • Money: used to buy the other resources
  • 4. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 4 Resource allocation • Identify the resources needed for each activity • Identify resource types - individuals are interchangeable within the group (e.g. ‘VB programmers’ as opposed to ‘software developers’) • Allocate resource types to activities and examine the resource histogram
  • 5. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 5 Resource histogram: systems analysts WEEK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5
  • 6. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 6 Resource clashes can be resolved by: – delaying one of the activities • taking advantage of float to change start date • delaying start of one activity until finish of the other activity that resource is being used on - puts back project completion – moving resource from a non-critical activity – bringing in additional resource - increases costs
  • 7. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 7 Prioritizing activities There are two main ways of doing this: • Total float priority – those with the smallest float have the highest priority • Ordered list priority – this takes account of the duration of the activity as well as the float – see next overhead
  • 8. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 8 Burman’s priority list Give priority to: • Shortest critical activities • Other critical activities • Shortest non-critical activities • Non-critical activities with least float • Non-critical activities
  • 9. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 9 Resource usage • Need to maximise %usage of resources i.e. reduce idle periods between tasks • Need to balance costs against early completion date • Need to allow for contingency
  • 10. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 10 Critical path • Scheduling resources can create new dependencies between activities – recall critical chains • It is best not to add dependencies to the activity network to reflect resource constraints – Makes network very messy – A resource constraint may disappear during the project, but link remains on network • Amend dates on schedule to reflect resource constraints
  • 11. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 11 Allocating individuals to activities The initial ‘resource types’ for a task have to be replaced by actual individuals. Factors to be considered: • Availability • Criticality • Risk • Training • Team building – and motivation
  • 12. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 12 Cost schedules Cost schedules can now be produced: Costs include: • Staff costs • Overheads • Usage charges
  • 13. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 13 Cost profile
  • 14. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 14 Accumulative costs
  • 15. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 15 Balancing concerns