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Signal and telicommunication/sanjeet-1308143

  2. 2. Optical Fiber Communications • Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The optical fiber acts as a low loss, wide bandwidth transmission channel. A light source is required to emit light signals, which are modulated by the signal data. To enhance the performance of the system, a spectrally pure light source is required
  3. 3. System of Working of OFC System
  4. 4. Quad Cable • Conductor: Each conductor consists of round wire of annealed high conductivity copper. • Insulation: Each conductor is insulated with solid medium/ high density polyethylene insulation. • Quadding: Four insulated conductors stranded to form a star quad, two conductors diagonally opposite forming one pair and the remaining two diagonally opposite conductors forming the second pairs of the quad.
  5. 5. Telephone Exchange • The IR (Indian Railway) exchange network is a hierarchical architecture with 3 levels. • Highest level - Zonal Head Quarters (ZHQ) and Railway Board (RB) • Medium level - Divisional HQ (DHQ) • Lowest level - Important activity centers • All telephones shall be push button type. The signaling may be decadic or DTMF • Type. The telephones shall be of the following type: • - Ordinary • - Secretary and Executive type • - Digital • - Magneto • - 4 wire
  6. 6. Various components of the exchange system • a) Exchange hardware • b) Exchange software • c) Man Machine Interaction Terminal PC with Printer • d) Test and measuring instruments • e) Power supply Arrangement consisting of Batteries, Charger, Changeover panel and stand-by system. • f) Intermediate Distribution Frame • g) Main Distribution Frame • h) Protection arrangement • i) Cable (underground and switch board) • j) Subscriber telephone set • k) Maintenance tool • l) Lightning protection and earthling arrangement
  7. 7. STM-1 • STM is used by telecommunication backbone networks to transfer packetized voice and data across long distances. It is a circuit switched networking mechanism, where a connection is established between two end points before data transfer commences, and torn down when the two end points are done • STM-1 63E1(1E1=2 mbps) • 1E1=30 Channel • 64 mbps=T ckt • Counting –left to right
  8. 8. Mobile Communication • Mobile Train Radio communication is a digital wireless network based on GSM-R (Global System for Mobile Communication-Railway) designed on EIRENE (European Integrated Railway Radio Enhanced Network) Functional requirement specification (FRS) and System Requirement specification (SRS)
  9. 9. Basic features of GSM-R Point to Point call Allows user to make a distinct call. Voice Broad cast call Allows groups of user to receive common information. Voice Group call Allows groups of user to make calls within /among the groups. Emergency call Allows user to call controller by short code or button during emergency. Functional addressing Allows a user or an application to be reached by means of a number, which identifies the relevant function and not the physical terminal. Location dependent addressing Provides the routing of mobile originated calls to the correct controller. geographic area.
  10. 10. Mobile communication process
  11. 11. Video Conferencing • A videoconference is a live connection between people in separate locations for the purpose of communication, usually involving audio and often text as well as video. • Connect : 19 DRM Office , 5 Division • Required: mic,router/modum,mcu(multi conferencing unit)video phone with codec,large Display
  12. 12. 1853 First Train: Bombay VT Thane 1966 centralised Traffic Control Gorakhpur- Chappra) Development of Rail Signalling: India 1958 First Route Relay Interlocking : Churchgate,WR 1894 Interlocking: Ghaziabad- Peshawar 23 Stations 1920 Double Wire Signalling Became a Must for MAUQ by 1950s 1972 Axle Counter
  13. 13. Control system • The Control Organization of IR has primary responsibility for scheduling and running all trains, and maintaining information on the positions and movements of all rolling stock. (These functions are collectively known as control - an area of the railway network is said to be 'controlled' when a control office is in charge of it).A control chart is drawn up by the section controller or his staff for each day. Fig: Control Panel Room
  14. 14. Basic Signaling • The absolute block system is the most widespread method of train working on IR. The block sections may be handled manually or automatically, or by some combination of those. Some sections still use different forms of physical token systems such as the Neale's Ball Token instruments. Fig: point machine
  15. 15. Interlocking In railway signalling, an interlocking is an arrangement of signal apparatus that prevents conflicting movements through an arrangement of tracks such as junctions or crossings. The signalling appliances and tracks are sometimes collectively referred to as an interlocking plant. An interlocking is designed so that it is impossible to give clear signals to trains unless the route to be used is proved to be safe.
  16. 16. PI and RRI • Panel Interlocking (PI) is the system used in most medium-sized stations on IR. In this, the points and signals are worked by individual switches that control them. • Route Relay Interlocking (RRI) is the system used in large and busy stations that have to handle high volumes of train movements. In this, an entire route through the station can be selected and all the associated points and signals along the route can be set at once by a switch for receiving, holding, blocking, or dispatching trains. • Electrical Interlocking(EI) In the more advanced electrical or electronic interlocking schemes, the points and signals are worked from one integrated mechanism in a signal cabin which features a display of the entire • Electrical equipment of some kinds may be used even in the mechanical interlocking systems described above (e.g., electrical relays that operate slotting
  17. 17. Relays • Relays of various sorts are used to turn on or turn off circuits that control signals, points, slots, level crossing gates, etc. Track relays are used for track circuits. Signal relays control signals. • Most railroad crossing train detection systems can detect trains within at least several hundred feet from the crossing on either side of the road. Although some of the earliest crossings provided a warning whenever a train was within detection range, even if the rear of that train had already cleared the crossing,
  18. 18. Track Circuit
  19. 19. Presented By Sanjeet Kumar sanjeetkumar2101@gmail.c +91-8968143473