Hot chilli & uses v13.06.21wb


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Hot chilli & uses v13.06.21wb

  1. 1. Welcome to World of Hot Chilies & Non-conventional uses of Capsicum spp. By Sanjay Rai on 21 June, 2013, @ VRC Bangalore
  2. 2. Highlights : • Hot Pepper Classification – focus on spicy heat based classification & grouping • World Hottest Chilli Pepper's • Uses of Chilli pepper : - In Medical Science ( Indian Ayurveda & Modern Medical Science) - In Cosmetics & other industry - In Weapon ( for self defense & crowed management) - Other uses
  3. 3. Chilli : Historical Facts • Chili peppers have been a part of the human diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BC. • There is archaeological evidence at sites located in southwestern Ecuador that chili peppers were domesticated more than 6000 years ago, • Christopher Columbus was one of the first Europeans to encounter them (in the Caribbean), and called them "peppers" because they, like black and white pepper of the Piper genus known in Europe, have a spicy hot taste. • Chilies were cultivated around the globe after Columbus. • Diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician, brought the first chili peppers to Spain and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. • The spread of chili peppers to Asia & India was most likely a natural consequence of its introduction to Portuguese traders. • Chili peppers journeyed from India, through Central Asia and Turkey, to Hungary, where it became the national spice in the form of paprika.
  4. 4. Clasification Capsicum Spp. C. annum C. chinense C. Frutesens C. baccatum C. pubescens C. annum Var annum C.annum var, glabriusculum Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Subclass: Asteridae Order: Solanales Family: Solanaceae Genus: Capsicum L.
  5. 5. Capsicum cultivar C. annuum var. annuum Banana pepper, Bell pepper, Bird's eye, Cascabel Cayenne Chilaca Chungyang Red Pepper Cubanelle De árbol Dundicut Facing heaven Fresno GuajilloHungarian w ax Italian sw eet Jalapeño Medusa Mulato New Mexico (Anaheim) Pasilla Peperoncini Peter Pimento Poblano Santa Fe Grande Serrano Shishito C. annuum var. glabriusculum Piq-uín Wild Chil-te-pin C. chinense Adjuma Ají dulce Datil Fatalii HabaneroHainan Yellow Lantern Chili Madame Jeanette Naga Jolokia Red Savina Habanero Scotch bonnetTrinidad Moruga Scorpion Trinidad Scorpion Butch T C. frutescens African bird's eye Siling labuyo Malagueta Tabasco C. baccatum Ají Bishop's Crow n Lemon Drop Piquanté C. pubescens Rocoto Pepper
  6. 6. Scoville scale • The Scoville scale is the measurement of the pungency (spicy heat) of chili peppers. • The number of Scoville heat units (SHU) indicates the amount of capsaicin present. Capsaicin is a chemical compound that stimulates chemoreceptor nerve endings in the skin, especially the mucous membranes. • The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville. His method, devised in 1912, is known as the Scoville Organoleptic test. The modern commonplace method for quantitative analysis uses high-performance liquid chromatography, making it possible to directly measure capsaicinoid content.
  7. 7. Scoville ratings of chemicals Scoville ratings of chemicals Scoville heat units Examples 16,000,000,000 Resiniferatoxin 5,300,000,000 Tinyatoxin 16,000,000 Capsaicin 15,000,000 Dihydrocapsaicin 9,200,000 Nonivamide 9,100,000 Nordihydrocapsaicin 8,600,000 Homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin 160,000 Shogaol 100,000 Piperine 60,000 Gingerol 16,000 Capsiate
  8. 8. Chemistry of Capsaicin
  9. 9. Natural occurrence
  10. 10. Scoville ratings of peppers Scoville heat units Examples 1,500,000–2,000,000 Most law enforcement grade pepper spray, Trinidad Moruga Scorpion 855,000–1,463,700 Naga Viper pepper, Infinity Chilli, Bhut Jolokia chili pepper, Trinidad Scorpion Butch T pepper,Bedfordshire Super Naga 350,000–580,000 Red Savina habanero 100,000–350,000 Habanero chili, Scotch bonnet pepper,Datil pepper, Rocoto, Piri Piri Ndungu, Madame Jeanette, Peruvian White Habanero, Jamaican hot pepper,Guyana Wiri Wiri, Fatalii 50,000–100,000 Byadgi chilli, Bird's eye chili (aka. Thai Chili Pepper),Malagueta pepper, Chiltepin pepper, Piri piri (African bird's eye), Pequin pepper, 30,000–50,000 Guntur chilli, Cayenne pepper, Ají pepper,Tabasco pepper, Cumari pepper (Capsicum Chinese), Katara (spicy) 10,000–23,000 Serrano pepper, Peter pepper, Aleppo pepper 3,500–8,000 Espelette pepper, Jalapeño pepper, Chipotle, Guajillo pepper, New Mexican varieties of Anaheim pepper, Hungarian wax pepper, Tabasco sauce 1,000–2,500 Anaheim pepper, Poblano pepper, Rocotillo pepper, Peppadew 100–900 Pimento, Peperoncini, Banana pepper No significant heat Bell pepper, Cubanelle, Aji dulce
  11. 11. Bell Pepper (0-100 SHU) • Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper or a pepper (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) and capsicum (in India, Australia and New Zealand). • This is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange, green, chocolate/brown, vanilla/white, and purple. • Bell Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America. • Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European, African and Asian countries. • Today, China is the world's largest pepper producer, followed by Mexico and Indonesia.
  12. 12. Banana Pepper (100-900SHU) • The banana pepper (also known as the yellow wax pepper or banana chili) is a medium-sized member of the chili pepper family that has a mild, tangy taste. While typically bright yellow, it is possible for them to change to red or orange as they ripen. It is often pickled, stuffed or used as a raw ingredient in foods. It is a cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum . • A mature fruit will be about 2-3 inches (5–8 cm) in length and have a curved shape and yellow color similar to a banana, giving rise to the fruit's common name. • Banana peppers are an optimum food for inclusion in weight loss diets, containing low amounts of calories, fat, and sodium. They are also a good source of dietary fiber, vitamin A, potassium and a very good source of vitamin C.
  13. 13. Anaheim Pepper ( 1000-2000SHU) • An Anaheim pepper is a mild variety of chili pepper. • The chile "heat" of Anaheims typically ranges from 500 to 2,500 on the Scoville scale. • This chile is used in many Mexican and New Mexican dishes.
  14. 14. Hungarian wax pepper ( 3500-8000 SHU) • The Hungarian wax pepper is a medium variety of Capsicum annuum with a wide Scoville Scale range of 1,000 to 15,000 Scoville units. • This pepper is usually harvested before maturity when still yellow. It measures between 4"-6" inches in length (10cm- 15cm) which tapers to a rounded point. Upon maturity, the pepper becomes orange then red in color . • This is similar in appearance to banana peppers when immature, it is a different cultivar.
  15. 15. Serrano pepper (10000-23000 SHU) • The serrano pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a type of chili pepper that originated in the mountainous regions of the Mexican states of Puebla and Hidalgo. The name of the pepper is a reference to the mountains (sierras) of these regions. • Unripe serrano peppers are green, but the color at maturity varies. Common colors are green, red, brown, orange, or yellow. • It is one of the most used chili peppers in Mexican cuisine. Mexico produce about 180,000 tons of Serranos each year.
  16. 16. Guntur Chillies (30,000-50,000 SHU) • Guntur chilies is a group of cultivars originating in Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. They are exported to Asia, Canada, and Europe. The Guntur district is the main producer and exporter of most varieties of Chilies and chili powder in India to countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Middle East, South Korea, U.K. and USA & Latin America. Chilies have various colors and flavors because of the level of Capsaicin in them. Guntur chilies form an important part of curries and various popular dishes of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. • S4 Type is the most famous type among the chilis and has a huge demand throughout the world. It widely grows in Guntur, Warangal, and Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh. The skin of crushed chili is thick, red and hot. It has its peak harvesting season from December to May. It has an ASTA (American Spice Trade Association) Color value of 32.11 and Capsaicin Value of 0.226%.
  17. 17. Byadgi Chilli (50000-100000 SHU) • The business involving Byadagi chillis has the second largest turnover among all chilli varieties of India . • An oil, oleoresin extracted from these chillies is used in the preparation of nail polish and lipsticks. • Byadagi chilli is also known for its deep red colour and is less spicy and is used in many food preparations of South India. • Byadagi chilli has been accorded Geographical Indication * (GI) in February 2011.Its GI tag is 144. • *A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country). India, as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 has come into force with effect from 15 September 2003. The GI tag ensures that none other than those registered as authorised users (or at least those residing inside the geographic territory) are allowed to use the popular product name. Darjeeling tea became the first GI tagged product in India, in 2004-05.
  18. 18. Habanero Chilli (100,000-350,000 SHU) • Unripe habaneros are green, and they color as they mature. Common colors are orange and red, but white, brown, and pink are also seen. • Typically a ripe habanero chili is 2–6 centimetres (0.8–2.4 in) long. Habanero chilis are intensely hot, rated 100,000–350,000 on the Scoville scale. • The habanero is a perennial flowering plant, meaning that with proper care and growing conditions, it can produce flowers (and thus fruit) for many years. • In 2000, the habanero was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's hottest chili, but it has since been displaced by a number of other peppers, the record tending to change hands every few years.
  19. 19. Red Savina pepper (350000-580000 SHU) • The Red Savina pepper is a cultivar of the habanero chili (Capsicum chinense Jacquin), which has been selectively bred to produce hotter, heavier, and larger fruit. • In February 2007, the Red Savina chili was displaced in Guinness World Records as the hottest chili in the world by the Naga Jolokia pepper. The Red Savina held the record from 1994 until 2006. • The Red Savina is protected by the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act (PVP #9200255)
  20. 20. Bhut Jolokia (855,000-1,463,700 SHU)
  21. 21. Bhut Jolokia (855,000-1463700 SHU) • Also known as Bhut Jolokia, ghost pepper, ghost chili pepper, red naga chilli, and ghost chilli. • The Bhut Jolokia is an interspecific hybrid cultivated in the Indian states of Nagaland and Assam. It grows in the Indian states of Assam, Nagaland and Manipur. • There was initially some confusion and disagreement about whether the Bhut was a Capsicum frutescens or a Capsicum chinense pepper, but DNA tests showed it to be an interspecies hybrid, mostly C. chinense with some C. frutescens genes. • In 2007, Guinness World Records certified that the Ghost Pepper (Bhut Jolokia) was the world's hottest chili pepper ; however, in 2011 it was superseded by the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion ‘Butch T’. • The pepper is called by different names in different regions. North of the Brahmaputra, it is widely called Bhut Jolokia or Bhoot Jolokia, literally translating to 'Ghost Chilli in Assamese and Bengali ("Bhoot" means ghost in most other Indo-Aryan languages as well). • In 2000, India's Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) reported a rating of 855,000 heat units (SHU) on the Scoville scale, and in 2004 a rating of 1,041,427 units was made using HPLC analysis.
  22. 22. Bhut Jolokia continue… • In 2005, at New Mexico State University Chile Pepper Institute near Las Cruces, New Mexico, regents Professor Paul Bosland found Bhut Jolokia grown from seed in southern New Mexico to have a Scoville rating of 1,001,304 SHU by HPLC . • The effect of climate on the Scoville rating of Bhut Jolokia peppers is dramatic. A 2005 study comparing percentage availability of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Bhut Jolokia peppers grown in Tezpur (Assam) and Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), India showed that the heat of the pepper is decreased by over 50% in Gwalior's more arid climate . • Ripe peppers measure 60 to 85 mm (2.4 to 3.3 in) long and 25 to 30 mm (1.0 to 1.2 in) wide with a red, yellow, orange or chocolate color. • The unselected strain of Bhut Jolokia from India is an extremely variable plant, with a wide range in fruit sizes and amount of fruit production per plant, and offers a huge potential for developing much better strains through selection in the future. Bhut Jolokia pods are unique among peppers, with their characteristic shape, and very thin skin. • However, for the red fruit variety, there are two different fruit types, the rough, dented fruit and the smooth fruit.
  23. 23. Characteristics of Bhut Jolokia Plant height 45–120 cm Fruit shape Sub-conical to conical Stem color Green Fruit length 5.95–8.54 cm Leaf color Green Fruit width at shoulder 2.5–2.95 cm Leaf length 10.65–14.25 cm Fruit weight 6.95–8.97 g Leaf width 5.4–7.5 cm Fruit surface Rough, uneven or smooth Pedicels per axil 2 Seed color Light tan Corolla color Yellow green 1000 seed weight 4.1–5.2 g Anther color Pale blue Seeds per fruit 19–35 Annular constriction Present below calyx Hypocotyl color Green Fruit color at maturity Red is the most common, with orange, yellow and chocolate as rarer varieties Cotyledonous leaf shape Deltoid
  24. 24. Trinidad moruga Scorpion Pepper
  25. 25. Trinidad Scorpion ‘Butch T’ • Butch T Scorpion pepper is a chili pepper that was formerly the most pungent pepper. It has been since replaced by the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion as the world's hottest pepper, from Trinidad and Tobago. • The pepper is a Capsicum chinense cultivar, derived from theTrinidad Scorpion, which is indigenous to Trinidad and Tobago. • It is named after Butch Taylor, the owner of Zydeco farms who is responsible for propagating the pepper's seeds. The "scorpion" peppers are referred to as such because the pointed end of the pepper is said to resemble a scorpion's stinger.
  26. 26. Trinidad moruga Scorpion Pepper (1,500,000-2,000,000 SHU) • The Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Blend (Capsicum chinense), endemic to the district of Moruga in Trinidad and Tobago, is currently the world's hottest Chili pepper cultivated. • The New Mexico State University's Chilli Pepper Institute has identified the Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Blend as the newest hottest chili pepper as of February 2012. • According to the Institute, the Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Blend ranks as high as 2,009,231 SHU on the Scoville scale, making it the hottest chili pepper in the world to date. • Paul Bosland, a chili pepper expert and director of the Institute, said that, "You take a bite. It doesn't seem so bad, and then it builds and it builds and it builds. So it is quite nasty. • The pepper can be grown from seeds in most parts of the world; in North America, the growing season is January–July. In India, there is no official record found. ………
  27. 27. Protocol for testing • According to Dr. Paul Bosland, director of the Chile Pepper Institute at New Mexico State University,: “The heat levels of a single plant can be up to 78 percent higher than the average for the field in which it was grown. Thus, one single plant may be a record setter for that year and location, but it does not prove the variety as a whole is record setting. While a single pumpkin can be crowned "the biggest" in pumpkin size contests, should a single fruit of a very hot Capsicum variety deserve to be listed as a record breaker? In order to conduct a scientifically valid test to determine the hottest chile pepper variety, an ample seed sample must be planted in replicated trials that include the current hottest variety and appropriate controls. A random sample of fruit from the replicated varieties should then be tested at an independent legitimate testing facility. The variety with the statistically higher heat level could then be considered as the reigning hottest variety. Single fruits would not qualify, nor would samples without appropriate comparisons. If the 'Bhut Jolokia' had also been growing in the Butch T field, might it have been hotter than 1,463,700 SHU? Only a controlled scientific test would give us the "true" answer.”
  28. 28. Uses of Capsicum • Use as Food & Spice • Medicinal uses • Industrial uses • Use as weapons • Other uses
  29. 29. Medicinal uses a. Blood Circulation: • Capsicum has been used for decades as a catalyst for other herbs. Because Capsicum stimulants circulation and enhances blood flow. • it is considered food for the circulatory system, a common condiment to the diet. It is the most useful of the systemic stimulants. It stimulates blood flow, strengthens and feeds the cell structure of the heart, capillaries and nerves so they will regain elasticity. • A general tonic, it is also specific for both circulatory and digestive systems
  30. 30. b. Blood pressure • Capsicum reduces Blood Pressure. Capsicum is said to be helpful in lowering blood pressure. • A combination of capsicum with the herbs hawthorn berries (which strengthens the heart), and garlic (which is known to lower blood pressure) is a good preventive of blood pressure problems. • Its purifies the blood; promotes normal blood pressure and pulse rate.
  31. 31. c. Blood Cholesterol • Capsicum Lowers Cholesterol - By binding cholesterol and bile acids in the intestinal tract, the body is able to excrete more cholesterol. • Capsicum reportedly significantly lowers serum cholesterol and triglycerides.
  32. 32. d. Heart attack : • It is helpful for preventing strokes and heart attacks. Cayenne pepper is a very effective heart tonic especially for older folks. • In the case of heart attack, a teaspoon of Capsicum to a cup of boiling water taken internally will bring the patient back to consciousness. • According to Dr. Christopher, a heaping teaspoon of Cayenne Pepper in a cup of hot water will stop a heart attack in progress. • Capsicum Reduces Risk of Blood Clot - Thins the blood by decreasing blood levels of fibrin, reducing the risk of a heart attack or stroke.
  33. 33. e. Digestion : • It rebuilds the tissue in the stomach and heals the stomach and intestinal ulcers; in equalizing the blood circulation. • Cayenne produces natural warmth; and in stimulating the peristaltic motion of the intestines, it aids in assimilation and elimination. • Capsicum is an overall digestive aid that stimulates the production of gastric juices, clears excess mucus from the stomach, helps to alleviate stomach ulcers from within, improves the appetite and relieves nausea from seasickness. • It is also a carminative that helps to relieve gas. It may be used in flatulent dyspepsia and colic. Promotes the cleansing of the entire digestive system.
  34. 34. f. Asthama & Cold: • Capsicum has a powerful action on the mucous membrane, and in hoarseness and sore throat, and in putrid throat a gargle made of Capsicum is particularly beneficial. • Capsicum has been used internally as a gargle for throat irritation or infection. It is excellent in "prevention and cure of the common cold and flu" yellow fever, black vomit, decay and putrefaction "gangrene, and cancers like aids etc.". • Taken internally as a tea, Cayenne is used for coughs, colds, and breaking up mucus congestion.A little Capsicum sprinkled in water and gargled will eliminate a sore throat. Capsicum is an overall tonic that is said to build up resistance to illness, sore throats, sinus infections and colds. • reduce the symptoms of respiratory illnesses such as asthma, bronchitis, the common cold and sinusitis.
  35. 35. g. Cancers & Ulcers : • Researchers at the University of Texas have revealed that specific compounds found in chilli pepper can make cancer cells destroy themselves. • In the current research, skin cancer cells were exposed to two major components of chilli peppers known as capsaicin and resini-fera toxin. • The exposure caused them to self-destroy themselves because of oxygen de-privation . Capsicum Kills Cancer Cells. It was also found that this ingredient also "killed" prostate cancer cells. Capsicum also heals ulcers.
  36. 36. h. Metabolisim & weight reduction : • Capsicum speeds up the metabolism of fat and may reduce weight gain due to a high fat diet by increasing the liver enzymes accountable for fat metabolism and decreases fat deposits in the liver caused by high fat diet. • As an astringent, Capsicum is useful in the treatment of diarrhea and may arrest bleeding from ulcers. • An increased resting metabolic rate is good for those wishing to lose weight as a person with a high metabolic rate will burn more fat than a person with a low metabolic rate during any identical physical activity or exercise. • Capsaicin-stimulated increases in resting metabolic rate peak at 75 to 90 minutes after the consumption of capsaicin and persist for up to three hours after consuming capsaicin- containing hot chillis.
  37. 37. i. Vitamins & Minerals : • Chiles are rich in vitamin C and are believed to have many beneficial effects on health. The pain caused by capsaicin stimulates the production of endorphins, which act as analgesics and produce a sense of well- being. It is a rich source of antioxidants containing vitamins A, C & E. It reduces blood cholesterol especially the harmful LDL and triglycerides. • Capsicum or Cayenne, derived from chili peppers, is highly nutritious, containing Vitamin C and B-complex vitamins as well as iron, calcium, and phosphorous. The red color of many chili peppers is due to their high Vitamin A content. • Make sure that at least one of the World's Healthiest Foods that are rich in vitamin A, such as bell peppers, is a daily part of your healthy way of eating. • Subjects who consumed the lowest amounts of vitamin C-rich foods were more than three times more likely to develop arthritis than those who consumed the highest amounts.
  38. 38. Modern Medical Science view on Capsicum uses: • This remedy has been used to treat several conditions. Studies in humans or animals have not proved that this remedy is safe or effective for all uses. • Before using this remedy for a serious condition, you should talk with your healthcare provider. • Capsaicin is used in skin creams, lotions, or patches. Some products have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat: • Pain from shingles, arthritis etc • Nerve pain in people with diabetes or AIDS • Minor aches and pains from muscles or joints
  39. 39. Modern Medical Science view on Capsicum uses: • However, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not approve uses for natural remedies. The FDA does not inspect or regulate natural remedies the way they do prescription medicines. The following are uses for capsaicin as a natural remedy: • Capsaicin, as a natural remedy, is taken by mouth to treat: • Cramps • Diarrhea • Toothache • Blood clots • Fever • Nausea • Malaria
  40. 40. Modern Medical Science view on Capsicum uses: cont… • High cholesterol • Heart disease • It is also taken by mouth to improve digestion. Capsaicin is used as a nasal spray to treat: • Hay fever • Sinusitis • Cluster headaches • Migraine headaches.
  41. 41. Safety Information / Disclaimer Safety Information / Disclaimer • Natural remedies are not always safe. • This is not advice to pregnant or breast-feeding without healthcare provider's approval. They should not be taken by infants, children, or older adults without healthcare provider's approval. • They affect your body and may interact with prescription medicines that you take. • Natural remedies are not standardized and may be contaminated. They may have different strengths and effects.
  42. 42. B ) Industrial uses : Cosmetics industries : • The following functions have been reported for the Capsicum- derived ingredients. • Antidandruff agent - Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract • Cosmetic astringent - Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract • Hair conditioning agent - Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract • Skin conditioning agent - miscellaneous - Capsicum annuum • Skin protectant - Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract • In cosmetics and personal care products, Capsicum-derived ingredients are used in the formulation of shampoos and hair products, as well as skin care, cleansing, and bath products.
  43. 43. Cosmetics industries : .
  44. 44. Cosmetics industries cont… • Oleoresins or oil in the Chilli contain coloring principles or pigments that are used as natural colors in many applications including cosmetics industry in lipsticks , nail polish etc. • The extractable color content is measured through a Spectrophotometer, and is expressed on an ASTA color value scale. • Indian Byadgi chilli known for its brilliant red color and have used in cosmetics, are known to have ASTA value range b/w 150-200.
  45. 45. Liquor Industry : Pic. Chilli vodka splash 
  46. 46. Capsicum : Use as weapons Chilli Bombs : • Chilli bombs are being used in Africa and part of India toward off elephants from straying into human habitation. • The elephant first repelled by a ‘chilli cord’ covered with a combination of chilli and engine oil that is strung around the periphery of the fields. • Chilli bomb ‘a combination of chillies, water and dung called chilli bombs hit the ground and explode in a cloud of very spicy dust, which act as an irritant that forces them to flee. • The Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) laboratories in India are working on a project to develop hand grenades and other repellants to deal with terrorists and rioters by using the Bhut jolokia. • They have already carried out trials for hand grenades mixed with the Naga chilli and are getting ready to introduce in Indian army’s arsenal.
  47. 47. • Pepper spray, also known as OC spray (from "Oleoresin Capsicum"), OC gas, and capsicum spray - a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and temporary blindness, used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears. • Sprays must contain at least 1.0% Capsaicin and Related Capsaicinoids. • A synthetic analogue of capsaicin, des-methyl-di-hydro-capsaicin, is used in another version of pepper spray known as PAVA spray that is used in the United Kingdom. • Another synthetic counterpart of pepper spray, pelar-gonic acid morpho-lide, was developed and is widely used inRussia.
  48. 48. • Effect: Pepper spray is an inflammatory agent. It causes immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty breathing, runny nose, and coughing. The duration of its effects depends on the strength of the spray but the average full effect lasts around thirty to forty- five minutes. • The European Parliament Scientific and Technological Options Assessment (STOA) published in 1998 " An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control" with extensive information on pepper spray and tear gas. They write: “The effects of pepper spray are far more severe, including temporary blindness which lasts from 15–30 minutes, a burning sensation of the skin which lasts from 45 to 60 minutes, upper body spasms which force a person to bend forward and uncontrollable coughing making it difficult to breathe or speak for between 3 to 15 minutes.”
  49. 49. • Self-defense : It has been used on the hands to prevent thumb- sucking or nail biting. Capsaicin is the ingredient used in pepper spray for self- defense.
  50. 50. • In Bangladesh, police started using pepper spray to control opposition movement but doing this is blamed by many people. • In Hong Kong, pepper spray is classified as "arms" under the "Laws of Hong Kong". Chap 238 Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance. Without a valid license from the Hong Kong Police Force, it is a crime to possess and can result in a fine of $100,000 and to imprisonment for 14 years. • In India, pepper spray is legal and does not require any license; however, they are sold via government-approved companies after performing a background verification. • In the Philippines, the use of pepper spray for self-defense is legal, and it is freely available in stores. • In South Korea, pepper spray containing OC is legal; however, gas-gun types need a license to own. • In Japan, there are no laws against possession or use, but using it could result in imprisonment depending on the damage caused to the target.For info •
  51. 51. Chilli in Film Industry In Bollywood : Mirch Masala was a popular & critically acclaimed bollywood, Hindi movie made in the 1980s and was based on a story of ladies working in a chilli warehouse in Gujarat. In Hollywood : A movie name ‘ ‘Woman on Top’ (2000) directed by Penelope Cruz story roaming toward chilli.
  52. 52. Branding with Chillies : .
  53. 53. Hot Chilli taste for Challenge : Want to taste Bhut Jolokia / Trinidad moruga Scorpion ? *** Thanking you *** This is Question / Comment hours with taste of World Hottest Chilli (in Video)