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Report Writing<br />We will be discussing: -<br />What a Report is?<br />Characteristics of a good formal Report.<br />Act...
Report<br />Word REPORT is derived from the Latin ‘REPORTARE’ : ‘to bring back’<br />An orderly, factual, objective & syst...
Characteristics<br />Precision: Clearly reflect their purpose. Investigation, analysis & recommendations should be directe...
CharacteristicsContd….<br />Objectivity & the question of Impersonal Vs Personal writing: Objectivity is best attained by ...
CharacteristicsContd….<br />Consistency in Time Viewpoint: There are two time viewpoints: Past & Present. Select one & do ...
CharacteristicsContd….<br />Maintaining interest: Interesting writing is necessary for good communication. Careful word ch...
Activities Involved<br />Determining the purpose.<br />Deriving the factors (putting in right order)<br />Gathering the in...
Activities Involved      Contd….<br />Writing the assigned parts.<br />Revising collaboratively (synchronization or assess...
Purpose<br />Presenting data.<br />Describing problems & suggesting solutions.<br />Discussing & analyzing data.<br />Reco...
Classification of Reports<br />Informational : To convey important information.<br />Analytical : Based on critical analys...
Anatomy of a Report<br />Title page.<br />Preface.<br />Letter of transmittal.<br />Acknowledgements.<br />Table of conten...
Anatomy of a Report       Contd…<br />Introduction.<br />Methodology.<br />Discussion/Finding/Analysis.<br />Conclusion.<b...
Parts & Contents<br />Title Page:  Report Title, Name of the person/company/organization for whom report is prepared & Nam...
Parts & Contents          Contd…<br />Acknowledgements: Page of gratitude to those who helped prepare the report.<br />Tab...
Parts & Contents        Contd…<br />Introduction: Brief but thorough discussion of the problem. Includes Purpose/Objective...
Parts & Contents         Coned…<br />Conclusion: Sum up the main points.<br />Recommendation: Give Directions/Propositions...
Parts & Contents         Contd…<br />Work Cited/References/Bibliography: Use alphabetical order. Various styles – MLA, APA...
References/Bibliography<br />MLA: Wilson, Frank R. The hand: How it shapes the brain, language & human culture. New York: ...
Writing style<br />Brief writing style<br />Omit needless words<br />Combine sentences <br />Rewrite<br />UK English and U...
Writing style                Contd…<br />Let me know when you’re free next week for a meeting.<br />Could you let me know ...
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Report

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Report

  1. 1. Report Writing<br />We will be discussing: -<br />What a Report is?<br />Characteristics of a good formal Report.<br />Activities involved.<br />Purpose & Classification of Reports.<br />Anatomy (structure, framework, composition) of Report, Parts & Contents.<br />Writing References & Bibliography.<br />Writing Style.<br />
  2. 2. Report<br />Word REPORT is derived from the Latin ‘REPORTARE’ : ‘to bring back’<br />An orderly, factual, objective & systematic account of a specific business or professional activity.<br />Objective quality of report is its unbiased approach.<br />Basic ingredient of report is factual information.<br />
  3. 3. Characteristics<br />Precision: Clearly reflect their purpose. Investigation, analysis & recommendations should be directed by this central purpose.<br />Factual Details: Unbiased information.<br />Relevance: Purpose should always be kept at the centre while writing other details.<br />Reader Orientation: Necessary to keep in mind the person(s) who is (are) going to read it.<br />
  4. 4. CharacteristicsContd….<br />Objectivity & the question of Impersonal Vs Personal writing: Objectivity is best attained by emphasizing facts rather than the people involved in it. <br />In recent years some writers argue that Personal writing is more forceful. There is merit to both sides. Good advice is to use personal style for routine reports & impersonal style for more formal reports.<br />
  5. 5. CharacteristicsContd….<br />Consistency in Time Viewpoint: There are two time viewpoints: Past & Present. Select one & do not change.<br />Need for Transition: Transition means “bridging across”. It is used to connect the parts of the report. Use of topic sentences also helps improve thought flow.<br />Simple & unambiguous language: Clear, brief & grammatically accurate.<br />
  6. 6. CharacteristicsContd….<br />Maintaining interest: Interesting writing is necessary for good communication. Careful word choice, rhythm, concreteness – in fact all the good writing techniques.<br />Homogeneity: One topic at a time.<br />
  7. 7. Activities Involved<br />Determining the purpose.<br />Deriving the factors (putting in right order)<br />Gathering the information needed.<br />Interpreting the information.<br />Organizing the material.<br />Planning the writing of the report.<br />Assigning parts to be written.<br />
  8. 8. Activities Involved Contd….<br />Writing the assigned parts.<br />Revising collaboratively (synchronization or assessment)<br />Editing the final draft.<br />
  9. 9. Purpose<br />Presenting data.<br />Describing problems & suggesting solutions.<br />Discussing & analyzing data.<br />Recording events & happenings.<br />Analyzing a situation or a condition.<br />Giving feedback, suggestions or recommendations.<br />
  10. 10. Classification of Reports<br />Informational : To convey important information.<br />Analytical : Based on critical analysis.<br />Routine : Half-yearly, Annual reports.<br />Special : Special matters, occasion.<br />Oral : Read out.<br />Written : Letter type/ Formatted.<br />Formal : Impersonal<br />Informal : Flexible<br />
  11. 11. Anatomy of a Report<br />Title page.<br />Preface.<br />Letter of transmittal.<br />Acknowledgements.<br />Table of contents.<br />List of illustrations.<br />Abstract/Executive summary.<br />
  12. 12. Anatomy of a Report Contd…<br />Introduction.<br />Methodology.<br />Discussion/Finding/Analysis.<br />Conclusion.<br />Recommendation.<br />Appendices.<br />References & Bibliography.<br />
  13. 13. Parts & Contents<br />Title Page: Report Title, Name of the person/company/organization for whom report is prepared & Name of the person/company/organization by whom the report is prepared.<br />Preface: A brief introduction (salient features and scope).WHY<br />Letter of Transmittal: To let the other party know that a report is being sent to him, a brief idea-highlights- about the report & requirements.<br />
  14. 14. Parts & Contents Contd…<br />Acknowledgements: Page of gratitude to those who helped prepare the report.<br />Table of contents: Reflection of report structure. Sections & sub-sections are titled & numbered for quick search.<br />List of illustrations: List of figures, tables, illustrations numbered according to the chapters.<br />Abstract/Executive summary: Generally a single page. Includes Purpose, Background, Source, Findings, Conclusions/Recommendations.<br />
  15. 15. Parts & Contents Contd…<br />Introduction: Brief but thorough discussion of the problem. Includes Purpose/Objective, Background information, Literature review, Scope, Methodology, Assumptions & Limitations, Plan/Framework.<br />Methodology: Theories,Models, hypothesis (suggestions, propositions, possibilities) Materials & Methods, used to reach the Results.<br />Discussion:/ Finding/Analysis: Detailed discussion regarding the subject matter & findings.<br />
  16. 16. Parts & Contents Coned…<br />Conclusion: Sum up the main points.<br />Recommendation: Give Directions/Propositions on how a problem you have investigated can be solved.<br />Appendices: Includes Date Tables, Background calculations, Specification lists, Details of experimental configuration, other information for completeness. Must each have a footer with numbered pages for that appendix.<br />
  17. 17. Parts & Contents Contd…<br />Work Cited/References/Bibliography: Use alphabetical order. Various styles – MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, Oxford , Turabian etc.<br />APA: Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10. (Reference to a journal)<br />Wilson, F.R.(1998). The hand: How it shapes the brain, language & human culture. New York: Pantheon. (Reference to a book)<br />
  18. 18. References/Bibliography<br />MLA: Wilson, Frank R. The hand: How it shapes the brain, language & human culture. New York: Pantheon, 1998. (Reference to a book)<br />Assay, Ronald. “How the Americans made transcendentalism”, Journal of American History 23(1978) : 345-357.(Reference to a journal)<br />
  19. 19. Writing style<br />Brief writing style<br />Omit needless words<br />Combine sentences <br />Rewrite<br />UK English and US English<br />International English and Indian English<br />Denotation and Connotation<br />
  20. 20. Writing style Contd…<br />Let me know when you’re free next week for a meeting.<br />Could you let me know what times you have free?<br />Tone<br />Terry is hung up on trivial details.<br />Terry is meticulous and takes care of details that others sometimes ignore.<br />

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