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  1. 1. CARPENTRY <ul><li>TIMBER: It is the name given to the wood obtained from exogenous trees by cutting these trees after their full growth . </li></ul><ul><li>It is made suitable for Engineering or building purpose by sawing and converting into various commercial sizes. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Advantages of timber <ul><li>Very easy to work to give desire shape and size. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Light in weight than most of material. </li></ul><ul><li>Good resale value </li></ul><ul><li>Responds well to polishing and painting. </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of strength , durability, lightness and economy . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Timber <ul><li>EXOGENOUS OR OUTWARD GROWING </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOGENOUS OR INWARD GROWING </li></ul>
  4. 4. SELECTION OF TIMBER <ul><li>DURABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>WORKABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>WEIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>HARDNESS </li></ul><ul><li>COHESIVENESS </li></ul><ul><li>ELASTICITY </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE TO FIRE </li></ul><ul><li>ABILITY TO RETAIN SHAPE </li></ul><ul><li>POLISHING </li></ul>
  5. 5. SEASONING <ul><li>To reduce moisture content in wood to make it suitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Unwanted or excess moisture is not taken out, its presence would render wood unsuitable due to uneven shrinkage warping or shrinking </li></ul>
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES OF SEASONING <ul><li>WOOD BECOMES HARD </li></ul><ul><li>WOOD BECOMES DURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE TO SHOCK AND STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>BETTER WORKABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>No SHRINKAGE AFTER SEASONING </li></ul><ul><li>DEFECTS LIKE TWISTING AND BOWING DO NOT OCCUR </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE TO FIRE </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVES painting and polishing. </li></ul>
  7. 7. METHODS OF SEASONING <ul><li>NATURAL OR AIR SEASONING </li></ul><ul><li>WATER SEASONING </li></ul><ul><li>ARTIFICIAL or KILN SEASONING </li></ul>
  8. 8. DEFECTS IN SEASONING <ul><li>NATURAL DEFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>DEFECTS DUE TO CONVERSION </li></ul><ul><li>DEFECTS DUE TO FUNGI and insects. </li></ul><ul><li>SHAKE DEFECT: When tree is not cut even after attaining full maturity , cohesion is lost due to evaporation of moisture and gum. </li></ul><ul><li>HEART Shake; Star Shake;, Cup Shake </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>IRREGULAR GRAINS OR TWISTED FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>When fibres of the wood have different angles with its axis , they are twisted. </li></ul><ul><li>They may not be parallel to axis inspite the piece is cut along grained by theses defects occurs </li></ul><ul><li>RIND GALLS / BURLS </li></ul><ul><li>Wounds created by irregularly broken branches at place where they are part of it </li></ul><ul><li>It Creates a sort of cavity . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>DISTORTION: </li></ul><ul><li>The shrinkage starts in most of the woods when their moisture content falls below 25%. </li></ul><ul><li>If Seasoning is not uniform wood is sawn into thinner section, distortion takes place like Twisting, Cupping, Splitting, Warping Etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. CARPENTRY <ul><li>Carpentry deals with the processing of wood to obtain desired shapes and sizes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hand tools <ul><li>Large number of hand tools are used for processing the wood </li></ul><ul><li>Marking and measuring tools </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting and parting tools </li></ul><ul><li>Boring tools </li></ul><ul><li>Striking tools </li></ul><ul><li>Holding tools </li></ul>
  13. 13. Measuring tools <ul><li>Steel rule or engineer’s rule </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden folding rule </li></ul><ul><li>Steel tape </li></ul>
  14. 14. Steel rule
  15. 15. Wooden folding rule
  16. 16. Steel tape
  17. 17. Marking tools <ul><li>Important marking tools are </li></ul><ul><li>Straight edge </li></ul><ul><li>Try square </li></ul><ul><li>Marking gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Divider </li></ul><ul><li>Marking knife </li></ul>
  18. 18. Straight edge
  19. 19. Try square
  20. 20. Meter square
  21. 21. Bevel square
  22. 22. Marking knife
  23. 23. Gauges <ul><li>Gauges are used for cutting parallel lines at a given distance from the edge </li></ul><ul><li>Types of gauges </li></ul><ul><li>MarKing gauge 7. divider </li></ul><ul><li>Mortise gauge 8. Caliper </li></ul><ul><li>Panel gauge 9. spirit level </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting gauge 10. </li></ul><ul><li>Wing compass </li></ul><ul><li>Trammel </li></ul>
  24. 24. Marking gauge
  25. 25. Mortise gauge
  26. 26. Panel gauge <ul><li>It is similar to marking gauge, but it has a long stem which enables to mark the width of wide boards such as door panels </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cutting gauge <ul><li>Cutting gauge similar to marking gauge but it has sharp cutter instead of a pin </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to cut lines across the grains </li></ul><ul><li>It is particularly adapted for dovetail joints </li></ul>
  28. 28. divider
  29. 29. calipers
  30. 30. caliper
  31. 31. Hand saw <ul><li>Hand saw is used for cutting wood to the desired shape and size </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of hand saw </li></ul><ul><li>Handle </li></ul><ul><li>Blade </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications of hand saw </li></ul><ul><li>Length of blade– 600mm to 700mm </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch--- 2.5mm to 8mm </li></ul>
  32. 32. Types of hand saw <ul><li>Rip saw </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cut saw </li></ul><ul><li>Panel saw </li></ul><ul><li>Tenon saw </li></ul><ul><li>Dovetail saw </li></ul><ul><li>Bow saw </li></ul><ul><li>Coping saw </li></ul><ul><li>Key hole saw </li></ul><ul><li>Compass saw </li></ul>
  33. 33. Rip saw
  34. 34. Use of rip saw
  35. 35. Cross cut saw
  36. 36. Tenon saw
  37. 37. Dovetail saw
  38. 38. Bow saw
  39. 39. Coping saw
  40. 40. Key hole saw & compass saw
  41. 42. chisels <ul><li>Chisels are used for cutting excess wood for making joints </li></ul><ul><li>They are also used for shaping different profiles in wood work </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of chisels </li></ul><ul><li>1.handle 2.blade </li></ul><ul><li>3.tang 4.shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>5.neck </li></ul>
  42. 43. Chisel-parts
  43. 44. Types of chisels <ul><li>The following chisels are most commonly used </li></ul><ul><li>Firmer chisel </li></ul><ul><li>Bevelled edge firmer chisel </li></ul><ul><li>Paring chisel </li></ul><ul><li>Mortise chisel </li></ul><ul><li>Socket chisel </li></ul><ul><li>Gouges </li></ul>
  44. 45. Firmer <ul><li>Capable of doing heavy work </li></ul><ul><li>Used for joining and shaping the wood </li></ul><ul><li>Blade rectangular section with beveled edge </li></ul><ul><li>Length of blade– 125mm </li></ul><ul><li>Width—3 to 50mm </li></ul>
  45. 47. Beveled edge firmer chisel <ul><li>Similar to firmer chisel but sides are beveled </li></ul><ul><li>Used to cut sharp corners </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly adapted for dovetail joints </li></ul><ul><li>Length of blade—125mm </li></ul><ul><li>Width– 3 to 50mm </li></ul><ul><li>Blade is less strong than firmer chisel </li></ul>
  46. 49. Paring chisel <ul><li>It is chisel with long blade </li></ul><ul><li>Used to cut deep corners with with hand pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly used in pattern making </li></ul>
  47. 50. Mortise chisel <ul><li>These are robust can withstand heavy blows </li></ul><ul><li>It has thick stock and narrow cutting edge </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting edge is 6 to 13mm </li></ul>
  48. 51. Socket chisel <ul><li>It is provided with socket instead of tang </li></ul><ul><li>The wooden handle is inserted into this socket </li></ul><ul><li>Socket prevents splitting of handle while removing heavy stock </li></ul>
  49. 52. gouges <ul><li>These are also called round chisels </li></ul><ul><li>A gouge with a bevel on the outside is called a firmer gouge </li></ul><ul><li>A gouge beveled inside is called scribing gouge </li></ul><ul><li>Used for making curved profiles </li></ul>
  50. 53. gauges
  51. 54. planes <ul><li>Planes are used to produce flat and smooth surfaces by cutting thin layers of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Special purpose planes are also available for cutting grooves and rebates </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of planes </li></ul><ul><li>1.body or sole 2.cutting blade </li></ul><ul><li>3.handle 4.knob </li></ul>
  52. 55. Parts of planes
  53. 56. Types of planes <ul><li>Jack plane </li></ul><ul><li>(a) wooden (b)metal </li></ul><ul><li>2. Trying plane </li></ul><ul><li>3. Smoothing plane </li></ul><ul><li>4. Rebate plane </li></ul><ul><li>5. Plough plane </li></ul><ul><li>6. Router plane </li></ul><ul><li>7. Spoke shave </li></ul><ul><li>8. Special planes </li></ul>
  54. 57. Wooden jack plane <ul><li>Used to general purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Consists wooden body, in which cutter is fastened at an angle of 45 0 to the sole </li></ul><ul><li>Length of plane is 350 to 425mm </li></ul><ul><li>Blade is made of high carbon steel </li></ul><ul><li>Width of blade is 50 to 75mm </li></ul><ul><li>The cutting hardened and tempered </li></ul>
  55. 58. Wooden jack plane
  56. 59. Metal jack plane <ul><li>The body is made of gray cast iron, it is provided wooden handle at back and wooden knob at front </li></ul><ul><li>A fine screw is used for adjusting depth of cut </li></ul><ul><li>Function is same as wooden jack plane </li></ul><ul><li>It is durable and gives better surface finish </li></ul><ul><li>Blade can be adjusted easily </li></ul>
  57. 60. Metal jack plane
  58. 61. Trying plane <ul><li>Gives better surface finish </li></ul><ul><li>Longer than wooden jack plane </li></ul><ul><li>Cutter width is 60mm </li></ul>
  59. 62. Trying plane
  60. 63. Smoothening plane <ul><li>It is similar to jack plane, but smaller in size, and has no handle </li></ul><ul><li>Length varies from 200 to 300mm </li></ul><ul><li>Width of blade is 70mm </li></ul><ul><li>Used for finishing and smoothening surfaces which are already planed by jack plane </li></ul><ul><li>It is handy and conveniently used to remove uneven spots </li></ul>
  61. 64. Smoothening plane
  62. 65. Rebate plane <ul><li>Small size plane length is 200mm </li></ul><ul><li>Blade width is from 12 to 50mm </li></ul><ul><li>Used to cut recess along the edge </li></ul><ul><li>The blade is fastened with the help of wedge </li></ul>
  63. 66. Rebate plane
  64. 67. Plough plane <ul><li>Used for making deep grooves of standard size </li></ul><ul><li>The depth of gauge is fixed on the body and operated by thumb screw </li></ul><ul><li>Width of blades is 3 to 15mm in the steps of 2mm </li></ul>
  65. 68. Plough plane
  66. 69. Router plane <ul><li>Used for finishing the grooves to a constant depth which are formed by the chisel or saw </li></ul>
  67. 70. Spoke shave <ul><li>Used for finishing the curved surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>The blade with a cap iron is held by screw, and is adjustable to depth of cut . </li></ul><ul><li>It has a provision for holding at the both the ends </li></ul>
  68. 71. Spoke shave
  69. 72. Boring tools <ul><li>Boring tools are used for making holes in wood </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Boring tools </li></ul><ul><li>Bradawl </li></ul><ul><li>Gimlet </li></ul><ul><li>Brace </li></ul><ul><li>Auger </li></ul><ul><li>Bits </li></ul>
  70. 73. Bradawl & Gimlet
  71. 74. Bradawl & Gimlet <ul><li>Bradawl is used for boring of small holes for inserting the screws and nails </li></ul><ul><li>Bradawl has chisel like point, and it is operated by hand </li></ul><ul><li>Gimlet also hand operated tool used for making small holes for screws. It has a spiral flutes with screw like point . </li></ul>
  72. 75. Brace <ul><li>It is a boring tool used for making holes. It holds and rotates various types of bits for producing holes </li></ul><ul><li>It is operated by hand </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly used braces are Ratchet brace & wheel brace </li></ul>
  73. 76. Ratchet brace
  74. 77. Ratchet brace <ul><li>Used for making large holes </li></ul><ul><li>It has wooden head and handle which is fitted in bearings to turn easily </li></ul><ul><li>At the bottom it is provided with a chuck to hold the bit </li></ul><ul><li>The ratchet positioned above the chuck helps to rotate the bit in one direction only </li></ul>
  75. 78. Wheel brace <ul><li>Used for making small holes and drills </li></ul><ul><li>It has a chuck with self centering jaws which holds the round and parallel shank drill </li></ul><ul><li>Drill bit is rotated by operating the crank </li></ul>
  76. 79. Wheel brace
  77. 80. Auger
  78. 81. Auger <ul><li>It is used for producing long deep holes of diameter ranging from 6 to 40mm </li></ul><ul><li>It is a steel bar with an eye at the top in which a handle is fitted </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom end is provided with screw </li></ul><ul><li>It has flutes to remove chips </li></ul>
  79. 82. Bits <ul><li>There are number of bits are used with Brace </li></ul><ul><li>Shell bit </li></ul><ul><li>Forstner bit </li></ul><ul><li>Counter sink bit </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion bit </li></ul><ul><li>Centre bit </li></ul><ul><li>Drill </li></ul><ul><li>Reamer bit </li></ul>
  80. 83. Types of bits
  81. 84. Types of bits
  82. 85. Bits <ul><li>Shell bit: it is used for boring holes where the accuracy and finish are not important. Holes upto 12mm dia can be bored </li></ul><ul><li>Forstner bit: used to cut very clean hole. It has a small locating point and a circular rim to guide the bit. Used to make holes upto 30mm diameter </li></ul>
  83. 86. Bits <ul><li>Counter sink bit: it does not bore holes, but it is used for shaping the top of a screw hole so that the head of the screw lies below the surface of the wood </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion bit: it has an adjustable cutter and can be used for boring shallow holes ranging from 13 mm to 125mm diameter </li></ul>
  84. 87. bits <ul><li>Centre bit: used for boring holes across the grains. Range is from 3mm to 35 mm diameter. It has a point with horizontal cutting lips. It is not suitable for deep holes </li></ul><ul><li>Drill: has twisted flute with two cutting lips. Used in case of very hard wood </li></ul><ul><li>Reamer bit : it has square taper body and is used for enlarging the holes to the required size </li></ul>
  85. 88. Striking tools
  86. 89. Striking tools <ul><li>Striking tools are used to drive in nails and to operate chisels. The most common striking tools are used in carpentry are hammers and mallets </li></ul><ul><li>Hammers : it is primarily used for driving in nails. The effectiveness of hammer is depends on the manner in which the blow is struck. For effective use hammer should be gripped at the end of hammer </li></ul>
  87. 90. Warrington hammer <ul><li>Mostly used for bench work and light work </li></ul><ul><li>It is made of cast steel with tempered face and peen </li></ul><ul><li>The wooden handle fits into the eye and steel wedge is driven into form a rigid joint </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the hammer is designated by its weight and is about 330 grams </li></ul>
  88. 91. Claw hammer <ul><li>It is a dual purpose hammer </li></ul><ul><li>It has a hammer face which is used to drive in nails, and claw at the other end for pulling out nails from the wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight varies from 375 to 675 grams </li></ul>
  89. 92. Mallet <ul><li>Mallet is used for operating chisels and gauges </li></ul><ul><li>It is made up of hard wood and is provided with a handle </li></ul><ul><li>The striking faces are made flat, and may be round and rectangular in cross-sections </li></ul>
  90. 93. Use of claw hammer
  91. 94. Holding tools <ul><li>In wood working various devices are used to hold and support the job while performing different operations </li></ul><ul><li>The common holding devices are </li></ul><ul><li>Bench 2. bench vice </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bench 4. bench hook </li></ul><ul><li>5. Bench hold fast 6. sash cramp </li></ul><ul><li>7. Hand screw 8. G. Cramp </li></ul>
  92. 95. Bench <ul><li>work bench is basic supporting device for many operations. It is usually 1.5 to 1.8 m long, 0.7 to 0.9 m wide and 0.7m high </li></ul><ul><li>Two or four carpenter vices are fitted on opposite sides to hold the jobs during the operation </li></ul><ul><li>It is provided with accessories such as bench stop bench hook </li></ul>
  93. 96. Work bench
  94. 97. Bench vice
  95. 98. Bench vice <ul><li>It is made up of gray cast iron or steel, and it has two jaws one of which is fixed to the side of a bench and other is movable. The rotation of the handle causes the movable jaw to open and close. </li></ul><ul><li>The job is held between the two jaws </li></ul><ul><li>It is used for holding the work for planing, sawing and chiseling on the bench </li></ul>
  96. 99. Bench hook & bench hold fast
  97. 100. Bench hook <ul><li>The bench hook is used to support the work during planing or cutting </li></ul><ul><li>It is made up of wood </li></ul><ul><li>It can be placed conveniently on the work table </li></ul>
  98. 101. Bench hold fast <ul><li>It is used for securing work to the bench </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of cast iron pillar, steel arm and screw with a handle </li></ul><ul><li>The pillar drops into a hole bored in the bench, and screw operates the arm to hold work on the table </li></ul>
  99. 102. Sash clamp
  100. 103. Sash cramp <ul><li>It used for holding wide work such as box or frame constructions and jointed boards </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of a steel bar fitted with two jaws, one of which is movable by a screw and other is fixed in to one of the holes by fastening pin </li></ul>
  101. 104. Hand screw
  102. 105. G-Clamp
  103. 106. G-Cramp <ul><li>It is used for holding small work </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of a frame with a jaw at one end, and movable jaw which is operated by a screw and a thumb nut at the other end </li></ul><ul><li>It is also used to hold small parts for gluing </li></ul><ul><li>The frame is made up of cast iron and screw with a jaw is made of steel </li></ul>
  104. 107. Carpentry operations <ul><li>Marking </li></ul><ul><li>Sawing </li></ul><ul><li>Planing </li></ul><ul><li>Chiseling </li></ul><ul><li>Boring </li></ul><ul><li>Rebating </li></ul><ul><li>Polishing </li></ul><ul><li>Grooving and tongueing </li></ul>
  105. 108. Carpentry joints <ul><li>The successful construction with wood depends on satisfactory joining </li></ul><ul><li>Before joining, the wood is made to accurate size with true surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>The joints made in wood work are usually secured firmly by means of dowel pins or screws. </li></ul>
  106. 109. Types of carpentry joints <ul><li>Halving joints </li></ul><ul><li>Mortise and tenon joint </li></ul><ul><li>Metre joint </li></ul><ul><li>Dovetail joint </li></ul><ul><li>Dowel joint </li></ul><ul><li>Butt or rubbed joint </li></ul><ul><li>Screw and slot joint </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue and grooved joint </li></ul>
  107. 110. Halving joint <ul><li>These are used in construction of frames </li></ul><ul><li>After marking and cutting the two parts were glued together with final external surfaces level </li></ul>
  108. 111. Corner halving joint
  109. 112. T- halving joint
  110. 113. Halving joints
  111. 114. Mortise and tenon joint <ul><li>It is strong joint used in construction of doors, windows and frames </li></ul><ul><li>The tenon (tongue) fits into a mortise(mouth) </li></ul><ul><li>The open martise and tenon joint is called briddle joint and is usually made in square sections </li></ul>
  112. 115. Mortise & tenon joint
  113. 116. Bridle joint
  114. 117. Metre joint <ul><li>It is formed by cutting the ends at an angle </li></ul><ul><li>The two ends are joined by nails or screws </li></ul><ul><li>This joint is used in photo frames </li></ul>
  115. 118. Mitre joint
  116. 119. Dowel joint <ul><li>It is used as substitute for mortise and tenon joint, and securing loose parts to a product </li></ul>
  117. 120. Dowel joint
  118. 121. Butt & rubbed joint <ul><li>It is widening joint used to produce wide boards like drawing boards, table tops </li></ul><ul><li>To make the joint the edges are planed with trying plane and joined together with glue </li></ul>
  119. 122. Butt or rubbed joint
  120. 123. Screw & slot joint <ul><li>This joint is used for thick wooden pieces which do not glue readily </li></ul><ul><li>On piece carries the screw while the other has a hole for head of the screw and a slot for shank </li></ul>
  121. 124. Screw & slotted joint
  122. 125. Tongue & grooved joint
  123. 126. Tongue & grooved joint <ul><li>It is widening joint used for flanks and boards </li></ul><ul><li>This is prepared by cutting a groove on one edge and a matching tongue on the other </li></ul><ul><li>The tongue is fitted into groove </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes grooves are made on both the edges and a separate tongue is inserted in it. Such joints are called inserted tongue and groove joint </li></ul>