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classification of drugs

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classification of drugs

  1. 1. Classification of Parasympathomimetics 1. Direct acting (Cholinergic agonists) •Choline esters: acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol, bethanechol •Alkaloids: Muscarine, Pilocarpine, Arecoline 2. Indirect acting (Anticholinesteases) •Reversible: Carbamates (physostigmine, neostigmine, galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine), acridine (tacrine) •Irreversible: Organophosphates (Malathion, parathion, echothiphate), carbamates (carbaryl, propoxur)
  2. 2. Classification of Sympathomimetics 1. Direct-acting sympathomimetics a.Selective: α1-phenylephrine, α2-clonidin, β1-dobutamine, β2- terbutaline b.Non selective: α1 α2-oxymetazoline, β1 β2-isoproterenol, α1 α2 β1 β2-epinephrine, α1 α2 β1 norepinephrine 2. Indirect-acting sympathomimetics: a.Releasing agents: amphetamine, tyramine b.Uptake inhibitor: cocaine c.MAO/COMT inhibitor: pargyline, entacapone 3. Sympathomimetics with mixed action: Ephedrine (α1 α2 β1 β2 and releasing agent)
  3. 3. Classification of Ganglionic blockers 1. Competitive blockers • Quaternary ammonium compounds: Hexamethonium, pentolinium • Amines (secondary/tertiary): Mecamylamine, Pempidine • Monosulfonium compound: Trimethaphan camforsulfate 2. Persistent depolarising blockers: nicotine (large dose), anticholinesterases (large dose) Classification of Neuromuscular blockers 1. Non- depolarising blockers: •Long acting: tubocurarine, dimethyltubocurarine, pancuronium, gallamine •Intermediate acting: Atracurium, vencuronium •Short acting: Mivacurium 2. Depolarising blockers: decamethonium , succinylcholine
  4. 4. Classification of Local Anaesthetics A. Injectable anaesthetic 1. Low potency, short duration : Procaine,Chloroprocaine 2. Intermediate potency and duration : Lidocaine,Prilocaine 3. High potency, long duration : Tetracaine, Bupivacaine B. Surface anaesthetic a) Soluble : Cocaine ,Lidocaine b) Insoluble : Benzocaine, Butylaminobenzoate
  5. 5. Adrenergic receptor antagonists 1. α-blockers a. Non-selective α-blockers: Tolazoline, phentolamine b. Irreversible α-blockers: Phenoxybenzamine c. Selective α-1 blockers: Prazosin, Terazosin, Tamsulosin d. Selective α-2 blockers: Yohimbine, Mirtazapine 2. β-blockers a.Non-selective β-blockers (1st generation): Propanolol, Timolol, Sotalol, metiprolol b.β-1 selective blockers (2nd generation): Atenolol, Metoprolol, Bisoprolol c.β-blockers with α -1 antagonist activity (3rd generation): Labetolol, carvedilol
  6. 6. Therapeutic classification •Pressor agents: Noradrenaline, Dopamine •Cardiac stimulants: Adrenaline, Dobutamine, isoprenaline •Bronchodilators: Isoprenaline Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Formoterol, Terbutaline •CNS stimulants: Amphetamine •Uterine relaxants and vasodilators: Terbutaline, Salbutamol Classification of Anxiolytics, sedative and hypnotics •Benzodiazepines: Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam •Barbiturates: Phenobarbital •Azapirones: Buspiron, gepirone, ispapirone •Sedative antihistaminic: hydroxyzine •Beta-blocker: propanolol
  7. 7. Classification of General anesthetics •Volatile anaesthetics: ether, chloroform, trichloroethylene, halothane, fluroxene, •Gaseous anasesthetics: nitrous oxide, cyclopropane •Non-volatile anaesthetics: ultra short acting barbiturates (thiopental, methohexital), ketamine, propofol Classification of CNS stimulants •Convulsants: Strychnine, Picrotoxin •Analeptics (respiratory stimulants): Doxapram •Psycho - stimulants: Amphetamines, Methylphenidate, Modafinil, Pemoline, Cocaine, Caffeine.
  8. 8. Classification of Anti-psychotics •Phenothiazines: Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine, Fluphenazine •Thioxanthenes: Thiothixene •Butyrophenones: Haloperidol •Benzazepines: Loxapine, Clozapine, Quetiapine, Olanzapine •Arylpiperazine quinolinone derivative: Aripiprazole •Others: Risperidone, Flupenthixol Classification of anti- depressants 1. Reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMAs): moclobemide, clorgyline 2. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): fluoxetine , dapoxetine 3. Atypical antidepressants: bupropion, trazodone 4. Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): venlafaxine, duloxetine 5. Tricyclic antidepressants(TCAs): a) NA + 5-HT reuptake inhibitors: doxepin, dothiepin b) Predominantly NA reuptake inhibitors: desipramine, amoxapine
  9. 9. Classification of Antiepileptic Drugs 1. Barbiturate: Phenobarbitone 2. Deoxybarbiturate: Primidone 3. Hydantoin: Phenytoin, Fosphenytoi 4. Iminostilbene: Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine 5. Succinimide: Ethosuximide 6. Aliphatic carboxylic acid: Valproic acid ,Divalproex 7. Benzodiazepines: Diazepam,Lorazepam 8. Phenyltriazine: Lamotrigine 9. Cyclic GABA analogue: Gabapentin, Pregabalin 10. Newer drugs: Vigabatrin, Topiramate Classification of Anti -parkinsonian Drugs 1. Drugs Affecting Brain Dopaminergic System (a) Dopamine precursor : Levodopa (b) Peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors: Carbidopa,Benserazide (c) Dopaminergic agonists: Bromocriptine, Pramipexole (d) MAO-B inhibitor: Selegiline (e) COMT inhibitors: Entacapone, Tolcapone (f) Dopamine facilitator: Amantadine 2. Drugs Affecting Brain Cholinergic System (a) Central anticholinergics: Procyclidine, Biperiden (b) Antihistaminics: Orphenadrine, Promethazine.

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