Schedule and QuestionnaireDifference between Schedule and QuestionnaireTechniques involved in designing a questionnaire
The term “schedule” will be used. It has a clear
meaning: the instrument used to gather survey
information through personal interview.
“Questionnaire” has been used to label personal
interview instruments and attitudinal or personality
instruments. The latter are called “scales” in this book.
Schedule information includes factual information,
opinions and attitudes, and reasons for behavior,
opinions, and attitudes.
an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially
large number of respondents
Comparatively an expensive way to gather data,
actually filled by the enumerators / researchers
How do schedules work
A rather expensive method as enumerators do
not come cheap or research scholar expenses
often run high
Schedules are filled by the enumerator /
researcher who can also interpret the question if
Needless to say, the identity of the respondents
Information collection is both assured and
Questionnaires and schedules are flexible in what
they can measure although they each have
shortcomings in certain genres of collection
A questionnaire is a means of eliciting the
feelings, beliefs, experiences, perceptions, or
attitudes of some sample of individuals.
As a data collecting instrument, it could be
structured or unstructured.
An inexpensive way to gather data from a
potentially large number of respondents
Difference Between Questionnaire and Schedule
S.No Questionnaire Schedule
1. Questionnaire is generally sent through mail
to informants to be answered as specified in a
covering letter, but otherwise without further
assistance from the sender.
A schedule is generally filled by the research
worker or enumerator, who can interpret the
questions when necessary.
2. Data collection is cheap and economical as
the money is spent in preparation of
questionnaire and in mailing the same to
Data collection is more expensive as money
is spent on enumerators and in imparting
trainings to them. Money is also spent in
3. Non response is usually high as many people
do not respond and many return the
questionnaire without answering all
questions. Bias due to non response often
Non response is very low because this is
filled by enumerators who are able to get
answers to all questions. But even in this
their remains the danger of interviewer bias
4. It is not clear that who replies. Identity of respondent is not
5. The questionnaire method is likely
to be very slow since many
respondents do not return the
Information is collected well in
time as they are filled by
6. No personal contact is possible in
case of questionnaire as the
questionnaires are sent to
respondents by post who also in
turn returns the same by post.
Direct personal contact is
7. This method can be used only when
respondents are literate and
The information can be gathered even
when the respondents happen to be
8. Wider and more representative
distribution of sample is possible.
There remains the difficulty in sending
enumerators over a relatively wider area.
9. Risk of collecting incomplete and
wrong information is relatively more
under the questionnaire method, when
people are unable to understand
The information collected is generally
complete and accurate as enumerators can
remove difficulties if any faced by
respondents in correctly understanding the
questions. As a result the information
collected through schedule is relatively
more accurate than that obtained through
10. The success of questionnaire methods lies
more on the quality of the questionnaire
It depends upon the
11. The physical appearance of questionnaire
must be quite attractive.
This may not be the
case as schedules are to
be filled in by
enumerators and not by
12. This is not possible when collecting data
Along with schedule
observation method can
also be used.
Length of the questionnaire.
Reputation of the sponsoring agency.
Complexity of the questions asked.
Relative importance of the study as determined
by the potential respondent.
Extent to which the respondent believes that his
responses are important.
Quality and design of the questionnaire.
Time of year the questionnaires are sent out.
Types of questionnaires
Open or unrestricted form - calls for free response
from the respondent
There is predetermined set of response
They provide true, insightful and unexpected
Allows for greater depth of response; is difficult to
interpret, tabulate, and summarize.
An ideal questionnaire contains open ended
questions toward end of all questions
Closed or restricted form of
Offers respondents a number of alternative replies,
from which the subjects must choose the one that
most likely matches the appropriate answer.
Characteristic of questionnaire
Facilitates easy statistical calculation
Provides easy preliminary analysis
Can be asked to different groups at different
Facilitates efficient tracking of opinion.
Types of closed form of
Dichotomous questions: respondent to make a
choice between two responses such as yes/ no or
Multiple choice question: respondents to make a
choice between more than two response
Cafeteria questions :respondents to select a
response that most closely corresponds to their
Rank order questions – Respondents to rank their
responses from most favorable to least favorable
Contingency questions: A question that is asked
further only if the respondent gives a particular
response to previous question.
Rating questions: Respondent is asked to rate a
particular issue on a scale that ranges from poor to
Likert questions: helps know how strongly the
respondent agrees with a particular statement.
Bipolar questions: These questions have two
extreme answers his/ her response between two
opposite ends of the scale.
Matrix questions: it includes multiple questions and
identical categories are assigned .questions are
placed along the top and list of questions down the
Characteristics of a good
Deals with a significant topic
Seeks only that information which cannot be obtained
from other sources such as census data
As short as possible, only long enough to get the
Attractive in appearance, neatly arranged, and clearly
duplicated or printed.
Directions are clear and complete. Questions are
objective, with no leading suggestions to the desired
Questions are presented in good psychological order,
proceeding from general to more specific responses.
To easy tabulate and interpret.
Guidelines for preparing
o Prepared according with study objective
o Concise, precise and brief
o Criticism from faculty and class members
o Trailing the questionnaire with friends
o Respondents selected carefully
o As par as possible open ended questions should be
o Controversial and ambiguous questions should be avoided
o Getting permission in organization before administering
o Try to get the aid of sponsorship
o Mailed questionnaire should have introduction, purpose
and directions to fill the questions
o Abrupt ending of the questions and questionnaire should
Sequence of questions
Arranged in logical sequence
Answer to questions not influenced by previous
Questions should flow from general to more
Questions should flow least to more sensitive
The sample -- who are you going to ask
The method--- how are you going to ask them
The questionnaire– what are you going to ask
The result – what will you do with information
The cost – how much do you want to pay for
The time scale– By them do you need information
Construction of questionnaire
Search for relevant secondary data for problem
Exploratory interviews with subject expertise
and review personal experience with
Writing of specific research objectives
Listing of hypothesis to be tested
Development of questions for
Method of administration of
Not in labour
low cost, high
speed, not labour
• Cost effective
• Easy to analyse
• Less time and energy need to
• Reduce bias as interviewer is
• Used for large sample size
• Less instructive than face to
• Not suitable for all
• Low response rate
• Mailed questions may
filled by some one
• Provides superficial
• Chances of
• People can lie and
answer the questions
Validity of Research tool
Validity of an instrument refers to the degree to
which an instrument measures what it is
supposed to be measuring
Types of validity
1.Face validity: overlook of instrument regarding
its appropriateness to measure a particular
attribute or phenomenon
2.Content validity: Scope of coverage of the
content are to be measured
3.Criterion validity: Relationship between
measurements of the instruments with some
other external criteria
Predictive validity: degree of fore casting judgment
Concurrent validity: it is the degree of the
measures at present.
4.construct validity: Gives more importance to
testing relationship predicted on theoretical
• Degree of
attribute for which
it is designed to
Test –Retest method
Administration of a research instrument to a sample of subjects
on two different occasions
Scores of the tool administered at two different occasions is
compared and calculated by using following formula of
The correlation coefficient reveals the magnitude and directions
of relationships between scores generated by research
instrument at two separate occasions.
Interpretation of results– the results of the correlation coefficient
ranges between -1.00 through 0.0 and +1.00, and the results
are interrelated as follows
+1,00 score---- perfect reliability
0.00 score ---- no reliability
Above 7 indicates --- acceptable reliability
Split of method
Divide items of a research instrument in two equal
parts through grouping either in odd number
question and even number question /first half and
second half item groups
Administer two subparts of the tool
simultaneously, score them independently and
compute the correlation co-effcient on the two
Barbara H. Forsy et.al; Methods for Translating
Survey Questionnaires Paper presented to
American Association for Public Opinion
research, Montreal, Canada, May, 2006.
Kothari C.K; Research Methodology‐ Methods
and Techniques , New Age International, New