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Sanjay Kumar
RESEARCH SCHOLAR
Schedule
 The term “schedule” will be used. It has a clear
meaning: the instrument used to gather survey
information thro...
How do schedules work
 A rather expensive method as enumerators do
not come cheap or research scholar expenses
often run ...
Definition
 A questionnaire is a means of eliciting the
feelings, beliefs, experiences, perceptions, or
attitudes of some...
Difference Between Questionnaire and Schedule
S.No Questionnaire Schedule
1. Questionnaire is generally sent through mail
...
Cont……..
4. It is not clear that who replies. Identity of respondent is not
known.
5. The questionnaire method is likely
t...
Cont…
7. This method can be used only when
respondents are literate and
cooperative.
The information can be gathered even
...
Cont….
10. The success of questionnaire methods lies
more on the quality of the questionnaire
itself.
It depends upon the
...
Factors affecting
questionnaires
 Length of the questionnaire.
 Reputation of the sponsoring agency.
 Complexity of the...
Types of questionnaires
 Open or unrestricted form - calls for free response
from the respondent
 There is predetermined...
Closed or restricted form of
questionnaire
Offers respondents a number of alternative replies,
from which the subjects mus...
Types of closed form of
questionnaire
 Dichotomous questions: respondent to make a
choice between two responses such as y...
 Rating questions: Respondent is asked to rate a
particular issue on a scale that ranges from poor to
good
 Likert quest...
Characteristics of a good
questionnaire
 Deals with a significant topic
 Seeks only that information which cannot be obt...
Guidelines for preparing
questionnaire
o Prepared according with study objective
o Concise, precise and brief
o Criticism ...
Sequence of questions
 Arranged in logical sequence
 Answer to questions not influenced by previous
questions
 Question...
Question construction
 The sample -- who are you going to ask
 The method--- how are you going to ask them
 The questio...
Construction of questionnaire
Problem definition
Search for relevant secondary data for problem
Exploratory interviews wit...
Method of administration of
questionnaire
POSTAL
Low cost
Not in labour
intensive
PHONE
High speed
Rapport with
respondent...
• Cost effective
• Easy to analyse
• Less time and energy need to
administer
• Reduce bias as interviewer is
not present
•...
• Not suitable for all
• Low response rate
• Mailed questions may
filled by some one
• Provides superficial
information
• ...
Validity of Research tool
 Validity of an instrument refers to the degree to
which an instrument measures what it is
supp...
 Predictive validity: degree of fore casting judgment
 Concurrent validity: it is the degree of the
measures at present....
• Degree of
consistency and
accuracy with
which an
instrument
measures the
attribute for which
it is designed to
measure
R...
Test –Retest method
 Administration of a research instrument to a sample of subjects
on two different occasions
 Scores ...
Split of method
 Divide items of a research instrument in two equal
parts through grouping either in odd number
question ...
 References
 Barbara H. Forsy et.al; Methods for Translating
Survey Questionnaires Paper presented to
American Associati...
Schedule and QuestionnaireDifference between Schedule and QuestionnaireTechniques involved in designing a questionnaire
Schedule and QuestionnaireDifference between Schedule and QuestionnaireTechniques involved in designing a questionnaire
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Schedule and Questionnaire Difference between Schedule and Questionnaire Techniques involved in designing a questionnaire

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Schedule and Questionnaire Difference between Schedule and Questionnaire Techniques involved in designing a questionnaire

  1. 1. Sanjay Kumar RESEARCH SCHOLAR
  2. 2. Schedule  The term “schedule” will be used. It has a clear meaning: the instrument used to gather survey information through personal interview. “Questionnaire” has been used to label personal interview instruments and attitudinal or personality instruments. The latter are called “scales” in this book.  Schedule information includes factual information, opinions and attitudes, and reasons for behavior, opinions, and attitudes.  an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents  Comparatively an expensive way to gather data, actually filled by the enumerators / researchers responsible
  3. 3. How do schedules work  A rather expensive method as enumerators do not come cheap or research scholar expenses often run high  Schedules are filled by the enumerator / researcher who can also interpret the question if necessary  Needless to say, the identity of the respondents is known  Information collection is both assured and punctual  Questionnaires and schedules are flexible in what they can measure although they each have shortcomings in certain genres of collection
  4. 4. Definition  A questionnaire is a means of eliciting the feelings, beliefs, experiences, perceptions, or attitudes of some sample of individuals.  As a data collecting instrument, it could be structured or unstructured.  An inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents
  5. 5. Difference Between Questionnaire and Schedule S.No Questionnaire Schedule 1. Questionnaire is generally sent through mail to informants to be answered as specified in a covering letter, but otherwise without further assistance from the sender. A schedule is generally filled by the research worker or enumerator, who can interpret the questions when necessary. 2. Data collection is cheap and economical as the money is spent in preparation of questionnaire and in mailing the same to respondents. Data collection is more expensive as money is spent on enumerators and in imparting trainings to them. Money is also spent in preparing schedules. 3. Non response is usually high as many people do not respond and many return the questionnaire without answering all questions. Bias due to non response often remains indeterminate. Non response is very low because this is filled by enumerators who are able to get answers to all questions. But even in this their remains the danger of interviewer bias and cheating.
  6. 6. Cont…….. 4. It is not clear that who replies. Identity of respondent is not known. 5. The questionnaire method is likely to be very slow since many respondents do not return the questionnaire. Information is collected well in time as they are filled by enumerators. 6. No personal contact is possible in case of questionnaire as the questionnaires are sent to respondents by post who also in turn returns the same by post. Direct personal contact is established
  7. 7. Cont… 7. This method can be used only when respondents are literate and cooperative. The information can be gathered even when the respondents happen to be illiterate. 8. Wider and more representative distribution of sample is possible. There remains the difficulty in sending enumerators over a relatively wider area. 9. Risk of collecting incomplete and wrong information is relatively more under the questionnaire method, when people are unable to understand questions properly. The information collected is generally complete and accurate as enumerators can remove difficulties if any faced by respondents in correctly understanding the questions. As a result the information collected through schedule is relatively more accurate than that obtained through questionnaires.
  8. 8. Cont…. 10. The success of questionnaire methods lies more on the quality of the questionnaire itself. It depends upon the honesty and competence of enumerators 11. The physical appearance of questionnaire must be quite attractive. This may not be the case as schedules are to be filled in by enumerators and not by respondents. 12. This is not possible when collecting data through questionnaire. Along with schedule observation method can also be used.
  9. 9. Factors affecting questionnaires  Length of the questionnaire.  Reputation of the sponsoring agency.  Complexity of the questions asked.  Relative importance of the study as determined by the potential respondent.  Extent to which the respondent believes that his responses are important.  Quality and design of the questionnaire.  Time of year the questionnaires are sent out.
  10. 10. Types of questionnaires  Open or unrestricted form - calls for free response from the respondent  There is predetermined set of response  They provide true, insightful and unexpected suggestions  Allows for greater depth of response; is difficult to interpret, tabulate, and summarize.  An ideal questionnaire contains open ended questions toward end of all questions
  11. 11. Closed or restricted form of questionnaire Offers respondents a number of alternative replies, from which the subjects must choose the one that most likely matches the appropriate answer.  Characteristic of questionnaire  Facilitates easy statistical calculation  Provides easy preliminary analysis  Can be asked to different groups at different intervals  Facilitates efficient tracking of opinion.
  12. 12. Types of closed form of questionnaire  Dichotomous questions: respondent to make a choice between two responses such as yes/ no or male/ female  Multiple choice question: respondents to make a choice between more than two response alternatives  Cafeteria questions :respondents to select a response that most closely corresponds to their view.  Rank order questions – Respondents to rank their responses from most favorable to least favorable  Contingency questions: A question that is asked further only if the respondent gives a particular response to previous question.
  13. 13.  Rating questions: Respondent is asked to rate a particular issue on a scale that ranges from poor to good  Likert questions: helps know how strongly the respondent agrees with a particular statement.  Bipolar questions: These questions have two extreme answers his/ her response between two opposite ends of the scale.  Matrix questions: it includes multiple questions and identical categories are assigned .questions are placed along the top and list of questions down the side
  14. 14. Characteristics of a good questionnaire  Deals with a significant topic  Seeks only that information which cannot be obtained from other sources such as census data  As short as possible, only long enough to get the essential data.  Attractive in appearance, neatly arranged, and clearly duplicated or printed.  Directions are clear and complete. Questions are objective, with no leading suggestions to the desired response  Questions are presented in good psychological order, proceeding from general to more specific responses.  To easy tabulate and interpret.
  15. 15. Guidelines for preparing questionnaire o Prepared according with study objective o Concise, precise and brief o Criticism from faculty and class members o Trailing the questionnaire with friends o Respondents selected carefully o As par as possible open ended questions should be avoided o Controversial and ambiguous questions should be avoided o Getting permission in organization before administering questionnaire o Try to get the aid of sponsorship o Mailed questionnaire should have introduction, purpose and directions to fill the questions o Abrupt ending of the questions and questionnaire should be avoided.
  16. 16. Sequence of questions  Arranged in logical sequence  Answer to questions not influenced by previous questions  Questions should flow from general to more specific  Questions should flow least to more sensitive
  17. 17. Question construction  The sample -- who are you going to ask  The method--- how are you going to ask them  The questionnaire– what are you going to ask them  The result – what will you do with information  The cost – how much do you want to pay for answer  The time scale– By them do you need information
  18. 18. Construction of questionnaire Problem definition Search for relevant secondary data for problem Exploratory interviews with subject expertise and review personal experience with colleques Writing of specific research objectives Listing of hypothesis to be tested Development of questions for questionnaire
  19. 19. Method of administration of questionnaire POSTAL Low cost Not in labour intensive PHONE High speed Rapport with respondent High respondent rate ELECTRONIC low cost, high speed, not labour intensive PERSONALLY ADMINISTERED detailed questions , high response rate
  20. 20. • Cost effective • Easy to analyse • Less time and energy need to administer • Reduce bias as interviewer is not present • Used for large sample size • Less instructive than face to face interview Advantages of questionnaire
  21. 21. • Not suitable for all • Low response rate • Mailed questions may filled by some one • Provides superficial information • Chances of misinterpretation • People can lie and answer the questions vaguely. Disadvantages of questionnaire
  22. 22. Validity of Research tool  Validity of an instrument refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring  Types of validity  1.Face validity: overlook of instrument regarding its appropriateness to measure a particular attribute or phenomenon  2.Content validity: Scope of coverage of the content are to be measured  3.Criterion validity: Relationship between measurements of the instruments with some other external criteria
  23. 23.  Predictive validity: degree of fore casting judgment  Concurrent validity: it is the degree of the measures at present.  4.construct validity: Gives more importance to testing relationship predicted on theoretical measurement.
  24. 24. • Degree of consistency and accuracy with which an instrument measures the attribute for which it is designed to measure Reliability of the tool
  25. 25. Test –Retest method  Administration of a research instrument to a sample of subjects on two different occasions  Scores of the tool administered at two different occasions is compared and calculated by using following formula of correlation coefficient  The correlation coefficient reveals the magnitude and directions of relationships between scores generated by research instrument at two separate occasions.  Interpretation of results– the results of the correlation coefficient ranges between -1.00 through 0.0 and +1.00, and the results are interrelated as follows  +1,00 score---- perfect reliability  0.00 score ---- no reliability  Above 7 indicates --- acceptable reliability
  26. 26. Split of method  Divide items of a research instrument in two equal parts through grouping either in odd number question and even number question /first half and second half item groups  Administer two subparts of the tool simultaneously, score them independently and compute the correlation co-effcient on the two separate scores
  27. 27.  References  Barbara H. Forsy et.al; Methods for Translating Survey Questionnaires Paper presented to American Association for Public Opinion research, Montreal, Canada, May, 2006.  Kothari C.K; Research Methodology‐ Methods and Techniques , New Age International, New Delhi;2004

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