General management theory and practice-btts

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General management theory and practice-btts

  1. 1. 1<br />Bachelor of Travel & Tourism Study (BTTS)General Management Theory & Practice<br />Credit Hour: 3 Credit Internal Assessment : 20%Theory (Semester End Exam): 80%<br />Course Objectives:<br />This core course aims to provide students an understanding and appreciation of the general principles and components of management. <br />Sanjay Kumar Jha<br />Program Coordinator Cum Sr. Lecturer<br />Kathmandu Academy of Tourism & Hospitality Management(KATHM)<br />(Affiliated with Purbanchal University, NEPAL)<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Course Contents: <br />Unit:- I- General Management Theory and Practice L.H.5<br /><ul><li>Definition of management, nature of management,
  3. 3. Management "science, art and profession, management and administration, functions of management, levels of management.
  4. 4. Development of management thoughts</li></ul>Unit:- II Management and society: L.H.4<br /><ul><li>Concept of environment, internal and external environment, social responsibility (SR) of management.</li></ul>Unit:- III- Planning: Fundamentals of planning L.H.3 <br /><ul><li>The nature and purpose of planning , steps in planning ,
  5. 5. types of plans, corporate planning, strategic planning,
  6. 6. operational planning</li></ul>Fudamental of Management<br />
  7. 7. 3<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Course Contents: <br />Unit:- IV Objectives: L.H.3<br /><ul><li>Concept and features of objectives, hierarchy of objectives, management of objectives, process of MBO, advantages and disadvantages of MBO.
  8. 8. Policy and strategy
  9. 9. Concept, features and roles of policy and strategy</li></ul>Unit:- V Decision making: L.H.3<br /><ul><li>Meaning and nature, process, techniques of decision making</li></ul>Unit:- VI- Organizing L.H.5 <br /><ul><li>Meaning , characteristics, types (formal/informal)span of management
  10. 10. Organizational structure, role and features, departmentation, bases of department
  11. 11. Departmentation (functions, customer, product, geography,
  12. 12. Authority and its delegation and decentralization.</li></ul>Fudamental of Management<br />
  13. 13. 4<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Course Contents: <br />Unit:- VII- Staffing L.H.5 <br /><ul><li>Conceptual nature of human resource management (HRM), features of HRM, functions of HRM (operative/managerial)
  14. 14. Recruitment and Selection
  15. 15. Performance appraisal - meaning, uses, process, methods of performance appraisal.</li></ul>Unit:- VIII- Directing L.H.7 <br /><ul><li>Meaning and importance, McGregor's theory X and theory Y
  16. 16. Motivation: Meaning and importance, motivation and behavior, theories of motivation Maslow's need hierarchy, Herzberg's motivation
  17. 17. hygiene theory, Vroom's Valence expectation theory</li></ul>Unit:- IX- Leadership L.H.3 <br /><ul><li>Meaning. Characteristics, difference between manager ship and leadership, leadership styles, Trail Approach and behavioral approach leadership </li></ul>Fudamental of Management<br />
  18. 18. 5<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Course Contents: <br />Unit: - X: - Communication L.H.3 <br /><ul><li>Meaning, process, direction of communication, communication barriers, making communication effective.</li></ul>Unit: - XI Controlling L.H.8 <br /><ul><li>Meaning and nature, importance of control, process of control, types of control, control techniques (direct supervision and personal observation, financial statements, breakeven analysis, management information system, management audit, return on investment, self control, budgetary control (types and advantages)</li></ul>REFERENCES<br /><ul><li>Robbins, Stephen P. & Decenzo Devid, “Fundamentals of Management, Pearson Educatin Incorporation, New Delhi.</li></ul>Fudamental of Management<br />
  19. 19. 1.6<br />Unit-IGeneral Management Theory & Practice<br />Unit:- I- General Management Theory and <br /> PracticeL. H.9 <br /><ul><li>Definition of management, nature of management,
  20. 20. Management "science, art and profession, management and administration, functions of management, levels of management.
  21. 21. Development of management thoughts</li></ul>Sanjay Kumar Jha<br />Program Coordinator Cum Sr. Lecturer<br />Kathmandu Academy of Tourism & Hospitality Management(KATHM)<br />(Affiliated with Purbanchal University, NEPAL)<br />
  22. 22. 1.7<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Learning Objectives<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br /><ul><li>Definition of Management
  23. 23. Nature of Management
  24. 24. Function of Management
  25. 25. Level of Management
  26. 26. Management Skill and Organizational Hierarchy
  27. 27. Aproaches to mangement
  28. 28. Development of management thoughts</li></li></ul><li>1.8<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />What is Management?<br />Management is a universal phenomenon. It is a very popular and widely used term. All organizations - business, political, cultural or social are involved in management because it is the management which helps and directs the various efforts towards a definite purpose.<br />Management can be defined in detail in following categories: <br /><ul><li>Management as a Process
  29. 29. Management as an Activity
  30. 30. Management as a Discipline
  31. 31. Management as a Group
  32. 32. Management as a Science
  33. 33. Management as an Art
  34. 34. Management as a Profession
  35. 35. Management as magic and politics</li></ul>General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  36. 36. 1.9<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Definition of Management<br />According to Koontz and Weihrich, Management is define as “the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working togather in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims”<br />According to Louis E. Boone and Kurtz, management is define as “the use of people and other resources to accomplish objective”<br />According to Mary Parker Fpllett, management is define as “the act of getting things done through people”<br />Management is the process of using what you have to do what you want to do by using available resources. <br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  37. 37. 1.10<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Definition of Management<br />According to F.W.Taylor, Management is define as “Management is knowing exactly what you want people to do and then seeing that thay do it in the best and cheapest way”<br />According to Henry Fayol, management is define as “To manage is to forcast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.”<br />According to Kast and Rosenzweig, management is define as “Management involves the coordination of human and material resources toward objective accomplishment.”<br />Management is an activity that converts disorganized human and physical resources into useful and effective results”<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  38. 38. 1.11<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Nature & Characteristics of Management<br />Management is a goal – oriented process <br />Manaagement works through and with people<br />Manage has environment<br />Management is a group activity <br />Management is an intangible force <br />Management is all pervasive <br />Management is multidimensional <br />Management is a continuous process <br />Management is a dynamic function <br />Management gets the job done.<br />Management attains efficiency and effectiveness.<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  39. 39. 1.12<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Importance of Management<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Acquisition and utilization of resources<br />Environmental adaptation <br />Goal achivement<br />Problem Solving<br />Performance Control <br />Social Responsibility<br />Help to increse the productivity of human resources<br />Objectives of Management<br />Getting Maximum Results with Minimum Efforts <br />Increasing the Efficiency of factors of Production <br />Maximum Prosperity for Employer & Employees <br />Human betterment & Social Justice <br />
  40. 40. 1.13<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Techniques for World-Class Management <br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />All hands on deck, Everyone in the company must be involved.<br />Great expectations, Goals must be set high to make progress<br />Clear vision:- Goals must be stated clearly so everyone understands.<br />Set a fast pace:- Move ahead with determinition and confidence.<br />Commit to change:- Make change an ongoing process. <br />Trust:- Management must tolerate mistakes to earn workers trust<br />Listen:-Management must let workers be heard to get the best ideas.<br />Inspired leadership:-Managers must inspire staff to take risks<br />
  41. 41. 1.14<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Resources for Organization<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Human Resources:- Which include managerial talents, skilled and unskilled labour.<br />Finacial Resource:- Capital Investement<br />Physical Resources:- These include the raw materials, office and production facilities, equipment, machineries & other accessories.<br />Information Resources:- These are usefull datas and information needed to make effective decision by management<br />There are six basic kinds of resources, referred to as the six Ms of managements<br />Men & Women (Human Resources) Machines(Physical Resources)<br />Materials (Physical Resources) Methods (Physical Resources) <br />Market (Information Resources) Money (Financial Resources) <br />
  42. 42. 1.15<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management Process<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Three ways to examine how management works<br /><ul><li>Tasks performed
  43. 43. Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling
  44. 44. Roles played (set of behaviors associated with a particular job)
  45. 45. Interpersonal, information-based, decision-making
  46. 46. Skills needed
  47. 47. Conceptual, human relations, technical</li></li></ul><li>1.16<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management Process(Cont..)<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Organizing Coordinting<br />Staffing<br />Directing Controlling<br />Evaluating<br />Planing<br />Change in procedures<br />Revision in Plan<br />
  48. 48. 1.17<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management Process(Cont..)<br />Organizing<br /><ul><li>Groups related activities together and assigns employees to perform them
  49. 49. A manager sets up a team of employees to restock an aisle in a supermarket</li></ul>General Management Theory and Practice<br />Planning<br /><ul><li>Decides company goals and the actions to meet them
  50. 50. CEO sets a goal of increasing sales by 10% in the next year by developing a new software program</li></li></ul><li>1.18<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management Process(Cont..)<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Staffing<br /><ul><li>Decides how many and what kind of people a business needs to meet its goals and then recruits, selects, and trains the right people
  51. 51. A restaurant manager interviews and trains servers</li></ul>Controlling<br /><ul><li>Measures how the business performs to ensure that financial goals are being met
  52. 52. Analyzing accounting records
  53. 53. Make changes if financial standards not being met</li></ul>Leading<br /><ul><li>Provides guidance employees need to perform their tasks
  54. 54. Keeping the lines of communication open
  55. 55. Holding regular staff meetings</li></li></ul><li>1.19<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Function of Management <br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Planing<br />Setting goals & deciding how best to achieve them<br />Organizing<br />Allocating and arraning resources<br />Controlling <br />Regulating activities to reach goal<br />Managing for effectiveness & efficiency<br />Staffing<br />Feeling and keeping filled the position in the organization structure<br />Leading <br />Influencing other to toward the goals<br />
  56. 56. 1.20<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Is management an art or a science?<br /><ul><li>Management as an art -successful managers are born with appropriate intuition, personal insight, intelligence & personality, which they develop through the practice of leadership.
  57. 57. Managegment Art is the ‘art of Art’ because it organizes and uses human talent.
  58. 58. The Art of Management is a personal creative power plus skill in performance</li></ul>General Management Theory and Practice<br /><ul><li>Management as a science successful managers have learned the appropriate body of knowledge & have developed an ability to apply acquired skills & techniques.
  59. 59. Being Science is ‘systemetic study of natue’ and in many management problem and issues can be approached in ways that are rational, logic, objective and systemeatic by using gathered data, facts and objective information so it is a science.</li></li></ul><li>1.21<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management as a Profession<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />A profession may be defined as an occupation that requires specialized knowledge and intensive academic preparations to which entry is regulated by a representative body. The essentials of a profession are:<br /><ul><li>Specialized Knowledge
  60. 60. Formal Education & Training
  61. 61. Social Obligations
  62. 62. Code of Conduct
  63. 63. Representative Association </li></li></ul><li>1.22<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management as magic and politics<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Management as magic – successful managers recognise that nobody really knows what is going on & persuades others of their own powers by calling up the appropriate gods & engaging in the expected rituals<br />Management as politics – successful managers can work out the unwritten laws of life in the organisational jungle & are able to play the game so that they win<br />
  64. 64. 1.23<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management and Administration<br />On the Basis of Function<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  65. 65. 1.24<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management and Administration<br />On the Basis of Uses<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  66. 66. 1.25<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management as magic and politics<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Administrative management function & operative management function as shown in the figure. However, the managers who are higher up in the hierarchy denote more time on administrative function & the lower level denote more time on directing and controlling worker’s performance i.e. management<br />
  67. 67. 1.26<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Management Level<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  68. 68. 1.27<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Level of Manager <br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Managers are often classified into three levels:<br />Top Level<br />Manager<br />Middle Level Manager<br />Frontline Managers/<br />Supervisory Managers<br />Employees<br />
  69. 69. 1.28<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Fuctions: Top Level Manager<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Top Level Manager:- Chairperson/ President/ Vice Chairperson or president/ Board of Directors/ Managing Director / Executive Dorector etc..<br />Top level managers are responsible for making medium-to long –range plans and for establishing goals and strategies to meet those goals.<br />Evaluates overall performace of various departments and ensures cooperation.<br />Involved in selection of key personnel.<br />Consults subordinate managers on subjects or problems of general scope.<br />
  70. 70. 1.29<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Fuctions: Middle Level Manager<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Middle Level Manager:- Front office/ Security/ Administrative /Food & Beverage/ Banquate/ Sales & Marketing/HR/ Purchase Manager/ Executive HK/ Execuitive Chef etc..<br />Responsible for making short-to-medium range plans and for establishing goals and objectives to meet those goals.<br />They manage the work for frontline managers<br />Analyzes managerial performance to determine capability and readiness for promotion.<br />Establishes departmental policies.<br />Reviews daily & weekly reports on production or sales. Counsels subordinates on production, personnel or other problems. <br />Selects and recruits of personnels<br />
  71. 71. 1.30<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Fuctions: Frontline Manager/Supervisor<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Frontline Manager/ Supervisor :- Front office/ HK/Floor/ Public Area Supervisor /Captain/ Administrative officer /Food & Beverage supervisor/ Banquate supervisors/ Marketing Officer /HR Officer / Purchase supervisor etc..<br />Responsible for making detailed, short range operating plans for establishing goals and objectives to meet those goals.<br />Reviews performance of subordinates<br />Supervises day –to-day operations.<br />Makes specific task assignments.<br />Maintains close contact with operative employees. <br />
  72. 72. 1.31<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Hospitality Managerial Skills<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br /><ul><li>A hospitality manager or supervisor’s job is varied and complex. Hence, they need certain skills peform the functions associated with their job. According to Robert L. Kalz identified three kinds of skills for administration.</li></ul>Technical Skills:- Knowledge of and proficiency in activities involving method, processes and procedures. Engineers ,computer specialist, waiters, waiteress, chef, cooks, ticketing officer etc.<br />Human Skills:- The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is human skill. It is the ability to lead, motivate and communicate with people to accomplish certain objective. It is also important in creation of an environment inn which people feels secure and free to express their openions.<br />Conceptual Skill:- It refers to the ability to think and conceptualize abstract situations. It is the ability to understand and coordinate the full range of corporte objectives and activites.<br />
  73. 73. 1.32<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Hospitality Managerial Skills<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Top Level Mngr<br />Level of Management<br />Middle Level Mngr<br />Frontline Level Mngr<br />Conceptual<br />Skill<br />Human <br />Skills<br />Technical <br />Skills<br />
  74. 74. 1.33<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />The Hospitality Manager’s Role(Mibtzberg’s Managerial Roles)<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  75. 75. 1.34<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />The Hospitality Manager’s Role(Mibtzberg’s Managerial Roles)<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  76. 76. 1.35<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Differences between Leader &Manager<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  77. 77. 1.36<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Principle of Management(Fayol’s Principles of Management)<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Division of Work:- Specialization for all kinds of works to develop expertise. Task should be divided up.<br />Authority & Responsibility are related: Authority flows from responsibility.<br />Discipline:- It is absolutely essential for smooth running of business. It is obedience and respect for agreement and rules.<br />Unity of Command :- One employee should have only one boss.<br />Unity of Direction:- There should be one hand and one plan for a group of activities having same objective.<br />Subordinate of individual interests to general interests:- Interest of organization should be above the interest of individuals.<br />Remuneration:- Fair and equitable pay to employees.<br />
  78. 78. 1.37<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Principle of Management(Fayol’s Principles of Management)<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Centralization:- Highly centralized power structure; order should be issued only from the top.<br /> Scalar Chain:- All employees are linked with each other in a hierarchy or superior-subordinate relationship. Communication should flow from top to bottom.<br />Order:- A place for every thing and every thing in its proper place.<br />Equity: Sense of kindliness and justice throughout all levels of personnel.<br />Stability of tenure of personnel:- Job security to avoid turnover of employees.<br />Initiative:- Encourage subordinate’s initiative.<br />Team Spirit :- Union is strength. There should be cohesiveness and team spirit<br />
  79. 79. 1.38<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Threats/Challenges Faced by Modern Managers<br />Personal/Domestic/Psychological Constraints<br />Culture/Social/Economic Factors<br />Dynamic Customers<br />Natural/Demographic/Geographical Conditions<br />Resources/Suppliers/Technology<br />Competitions/Competitors<br />Legal/Political/Governmental Restrictions<br />Owners/Shareholders/Regulators.<br />International Markets/Norms and Practices<br />Societal Norms/Obligations & Responsibilities<br />Environmental Change and Complexity<br />Strategic Alliances<br />Labour Unions/Formal Groups/Informal Groups<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />
  80. 80. 1.39<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Development of Management Thoughts<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br />Industrial Revolution<br />Era of Scientific Management<br />Administrative Theory<br />Era of Behavioural Science<br />
  81. 81. 1.40<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Industrial Revolution<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br /><ul><li>Use of energy and machines
  82. 82. Mass production
  83. 83. Customer had a choice to choose from
  84. 84. Rise to efficiency and effectiveness
  85. 85. Minimum age for the children</li></ul>Era of Scientific Management<br /><ul><li>Scientific Mgt arose to increase the productivity in US.
  86. 86. There were no effective standards
  87. 87. No incentive to produce more as they were paid on hourly basis</li></li></ul><li>1.41<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Era of Scientific Management<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br /><ul><li>Scientific Mgt arose to increase the productivity in US.
  88. 88. There were no effective standards
  89. 89. No incentive to produce more as they were paid on hourly basis</li></li></ul><li>1.42<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Industrial Revolution<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br /><ul><li>Use of energy and machines
  90. 90. Mass production
  91. 91. Customer had a choice to choose from
  92. 92. Rise to efficiency and effectiveness
  93. 93. Minimum age for the children</li></li></ul><li>1.43<br />By Sanjay Kr Jha<br />Industrial Revolution<br />General Management Theory and Practice<br /><ul><li>Use of energy and machines
  94. 94. Mass production
  95. 95. Customer had a choice to choose from
  96. 96. Rise to efficiency and effectiveness
  97. 97. Minimum age for the children</li>

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