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Basic mechatronics

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Basic mechatronics

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Basic mechatronics

  1. 1. BASIC MECHATRONICS Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 1
  2. 2. Objectives of this course • To study the definition and elements of mechatronics system. • To learn how to apply the principles of mechatronics and automation for the development of systems. • To study the PLC, Pneumatic, Sensors & Modular Production System (MPS). • To learn the Automation technology and industrial automation/robotics as applications of Mechatronics in manufacturing system. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 2
  3. 3. What is “Mechatronics” ? • Mechatronics is a concept of Japanese origin (1970’s) and can be defined as the application of electronics and computer technology to control the motions of mechanical systems. Mechatronics Mechanism Electronics Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 3
  4. 4. What is “Mechatronics” ? • It is a multi-disciplinary approach to product and manufacturing system design. • It involves application of electrical, mechanical, control and computer engineering to develop products, processes and systems with greater flexibility, ease in redesign and ability of reprogramming. • It concurrently includes all these disciplines. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 4
  5. 5. Mechatronics Definition • “The name [mechatronics] was coined by Ko Kikuchi, now president of Yasakawa Electric Co., Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo.” • R. Comerford, “Mecha … what?” IEEE Spectrum, 31(8), 46-49, 1994. • “Integration of electronics, control engineering, and mechanical engineering.” • W. Bolton, Mechatronics: Electronic Control Systems in Mechanical Engineering, Longman, 1995. • “Application of complex decision making to the operation of physical systems.” • D. M. Auslander and C. J. Kempf, Mechatronics: Mechanical System Interfacing, Prentice-Hall, 1996. • “Methodology used for the optimal design of electromechanical products.” • D. Shetty and R. A Kolk, Mechatronics System Design, PWS Pub. Co., 1997. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 5
  6. 6. Introduction to Mechatronics • Mechatronics can also be termed as replacement of mechanics with electronics or enhance mechanics with electronics. • For example, in modern automobiles, mechanical fuel injection systems are now replaced with electronic fuel injection systems. • This replacement made the automobiles more efficient and less pollutant. • With the help of microelectronics and sensor technology, mechatronics systems are providing high levels of precision and reliability. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 6
  7. 7. Introduction to Mechatronics • By employment of reprogrammable microcontrollers or PLC, it is now easy to add new functions and capabilities to a product or a system. • Today’s domestic washing machines are “intelligent” and four- wheel passenger automobiles are equipped with safety installations such as air-bags, parking (proximity) sensors, antitheft electronic keys etc. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 7
  8. 8. Importance of Mechatronics in automation • Today’s customers are demanding more variety and higher levels of flexibility in the products. • Due to these demands and competition in the market, manufacturers launch new/modified products to survive. • It is reducing the product life as well as lead-time to manufacture a product. • It is therefore essential to automate the manufacturing and assembly operations of a product. • There are various activities involved in the product manufacturing process. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 8
  9. 9. Importance of Mechatronics in automation Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 9
  10. 10. What CAD/CAM/CAE • CAD: Computer-Aided Design • CAM: Computer-Aided Manufacturing • CAE: Computer-Aided Engineering Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 10
  11. 11. CAD/CAM/CAE software • CAD – 2D drafting • AutoCAD, TwinCAD, etc. • CAD – Solid modeling • Solid Edge, SolidWorks, Mechanical Desktop(MDT), etc. • CAM • SOLIDCAM, SURFCAM, MasterCAM, SmartCAM, etc. • CAE • ANSYS, ABAQUS, NASTRAN, ADAMS, MOLDFLOW, etc Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 11
  12. 12. Microprocessor • CPU for Computers • No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself • Example:Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0 CPU General- Purpose Micro- processor RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port Data Bus Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System Many chips on mother’s board Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 12
  13. 13. Microcontroller • A smaller computer • On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... • Example: Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port Microcontroller CPU A single chip Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 13
  14. 14. Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller Microprocessor • CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate • designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. • expansive • versatility • general-purpose • Microcontroller • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip • fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports • for applications in which cost, power and space are critical • single-purpose Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 14
  15. 15. PC-based Measurement and Control PC Board GPIB Serial/paralell CAN BUS Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 15
  16. 16. Sensors and Actuators • Sensor A device that converts an environmental condition into an electrical signal. • Actuator A device that converts a control signal (usually electrical) into mechanical action (motion). (Taken together, sensors, actuators, controllers, and power supply form the basic elements of a control system.) Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 16
  17. 17. Actuators-Motors Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 17
  18. 18. The Following Special Formulation is Offered Mechatronics studies synergistic fusion of precise • mechatronical units, • electronic, • electro technical and computer components for the purpose of designing and manufacturing qualitatively new • modules, • systems, • machines and complexes of machines with intellectual control of their functional movements Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 18
  19. 19. Examples of Mechatronic Systems clothes washer computer disk drive Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 19
  20. 20. Mechatronics system Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 20
  21. 21. Levels of Mechatronic Systems’ Integration • conveyors, • rotary tables, • auxiliary manipulators The First Level Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 21
  22. 22. Levels of Mechatronic Systems’ Integration • operated power machines (turbines and generators), • machine tools and industrial robots with numerical program management The Second Level Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 22
  23. 23. Levels of Mechatronic Systems’ Integration Synthesis of new precise, information and measuring high technologies gives a basis for designing and producing intellectual mechatronic modules and systems. The Third Level Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 23
  24. 24. Mechatronics system • A Mechatronics system integrates various technologies involving • Sensors & Measurement systems, • Drives & Actuation systems (Mechanical /Pneumatics /Hydraulics), • Controlling system (microprocessor / microcontroller /PLC) and software engineering. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 24
  25. 25. Disciplinary Foundations of Mechatronics • Mechanical Engineering • Electrical Engineering • Electronics Engineering • Computer Engineering • Information & Technology Engineering Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 25
  26. 26. Mechatronics Systems in our daily life MEMS Tools Computers Cars Consumer Electronics Stealth Bomber High Speed Trains Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 26
  27. 27. Mechatronics Systems in Manufacturing Applications •Desktop sized Factory •Build small parts with a small factory •Greatly reduces space, energy, and materials Micro Factory Micro Factory Drilling Unit Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 27
  28. 28. Mechatronics Systems in Manufacturing Applications CNC Bending •Fully automated bending: load sheet metal and the finished bent parts come out •Can bend complex shapes Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 28
  29. 29. Mechatronics Systems in Transportation Applications Typical Applications •Brake-By-Wire system •Steer-By-Wire •Integrated vehicle dynamics •Camless engines •Integrated starter alternator AutomobilesOEM Driven •Reliability •Reduced weight •Fuel economy •Manufacturing flexibility •Design freedom •Advanced safety features •CostFriday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 29
  30. 30. •Train Position and Velocity constantly monitored from main command center. •Error margin in scheduling no more than 30 seconds •Fastest trains use magnetic levitation High Speed Trains JR-Maglev Top Speed: 574 km/h (357 mph) Country: Japan Transrapid Top Speed: 550 km/h (340 mph) Country: German Magnetic Levitation Transportation Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 30
  31. 31. Advantages Simple and intuitive personal transportation device Systems Uses •Tilt and pressure sensors •Microcontroller •Motors •Onboard power source Segway Transportation Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 31
  32. 32. System Can •Carry 340 lb •Run 4 mph •Climb, run, and walk •Move over rough terrain BigDog Advantages Robot with rough-terrain mobility that could carry equipment to remote location. Smart Robotics Application Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 32
  33. 33. Robots can vacuum floors and clean gutters so you don't have to. Cleans Gutter Vacuum Floors Smart Robotics Application Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 33
  34. 34. Prosthetics Arms, Legs, and other body parts can be replaced with electromechanical ones. Medical Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 34
  35. 35. Used by patients with slow or erratic heart rates. The pacemaker will set a normal heart rate when it sees an irregular heart rhythm. Monitors the heart. If heart fibrillates or stops completely it will shock the heart at high voltage to restore a normal heart rhythm. Pace Maker Implantable Defibrillation Medical Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 35
  36. 36. •Advanced technology is making our soldiers safer. •Some planes can now be flown remotely. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Stealth Bomber Defense Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 36
  37. 37. System Uses •Proximity sensors •Control circuitry •Electromechanical valves •Independent power source Advantages •Reduces spread of germs by making device hands free •Reduces wasted water by automatically turning off when not in use Sanitation Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 37
  38. 38. Advantages •Reduces spread of germs by making device hands free •Reduces wasted materials by controlling how much is dispensed Systems Uses •Motion sensors •Control circuitry •Electromechanical actuators •Independent power source Soap Dispenser Paper Towel Dispenser Sanitation Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 38
  39. 39. Advantages •Automatically changes cushioning in shoe for different running styles and conditions for improved comfort Running Shoes Sports Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 39
  40. 40. Smoke Detector System Smart Home Applications Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 40
  41. 41. Introduction to PLC Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 41
  42. 42. WHAT IS A CONTROL ?? Control means to make an out put ON or OFF by help of Controlling Devices like simple toggle switch to a complex system with components such as relays, timers, and switches.
  43. 43. TYPES OF CONTROL • 1) On-Off control, • 2) Sequential control, • 3) Feedback control, and • 4) Motion control. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 43
  44. 44. EXAMPLE OF AN UNCONTROLLED CIRCUIT. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 44
  45. 45. A CONTROLLED CIRCUIT Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 45
  46. 46. MANUAL CONTROL AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL • Control circuits may require • Manual control • Automatic control • or • Combination of both. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 46
  47. 47. EXAMPLE OF MANUAL CONTROL Manual Control circuits use components that require human interaction in order to operate. AC source Toggle switch
  48. 48. EXAMPLE OF MANUAL CONTROL After the toggle switch is made on manually the bulb gets ON. AC source Toggle switch
  49. 49. EXAMPLE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL Automatic control circuits can operate themselves without the need for human interaction. AC source Float switch
  50. 50. EXAMPLE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL Float Switch has been operated by a floating arrangement Automatically. So no human interaction is required for this control AC source Float switch
  51. 51. AN EXAMPLE OF ONE LINE DIAGRAM Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 51
  52. 52. EVOLUTION OF PLC • MANUAL CONTROL • HARDWIRE LOGIC(RELAYS,CONTACTORS,TIMERS) • LOGIC GATES • PLC Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 52
  53. 53. WHAT IS A PLC ?? • A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC for short) is simply a special computer device used for industrial control systems. • They are used in many industries such as oil refineries, manufacturing lines, conveyor systems and so on. • Where ever there is a need to control devices, the PLC provides a flexible way to "software" the components together. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 53
  54. 54. BASICS OF A PLC. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 54
  55. 55. DETAILS OF PLC ?? Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 55
  56. 56. REQUIREMENT OF PLC OPERATION The student needs: • PC ( Personal Computer ) • PLC’s software ( Simatic Manager) to write the programme in a programming language(LAD). • A physical PLC Unit (With a demo kit) to test the output of the programme written on above language. • Or a Simulator software to test the output of the programme without the presence of a physical PLC Unit.
  57. 57. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES • LADDER LOGIC • FBD LOGIC (FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM) • STL LOGIC(STATEMENT LIST)
  58. 58. A PHYSICAL CIRCUIT FOR MAKING A LAMP ON BY A SWITCH. HOT line NEUTRAL line Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 58
  59. 59. LADDER PROGRAMMING Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 59
  60. 60. FBD PROGRAMMING Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 60
  61. 61. STL PROGRAMMING Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 61
  62. 62. EXAMPLES OF AUTOMATED PLANTS Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 62
  63. 63. EXAMPLES OF AUTOMATED PLANTS Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 63
  64. 64. EXAMPLES OF AUTOMATED PLANTS Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 64
  65. 65. Sensors & Application Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 65
  66. 66. Introduction • Measurement is an important subsystem of a mechatronics system. • Its main function is to collect the information on system status and to feed it to the micro-processor(s) for controlling the whole system. • Measurement system comprises of sensors, transducers and signal processing devices. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 66
  67. 67. Sensor • It is defined as an element which produces signal relating to the quantity being measured. According to the Instrument Society of America, sensor can be defined as “A device which provides a usable output in response to a specified measurand.” Here, the output is usually an ‘electrical quantity’ and measurand is a ‘physical quantity, property or condition which is to be measured’. Thus in the case of, say, a variable inductance displacement element, the quantity being measured is displacement and the sensor transforms an input of displacement into a change in inductance. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 67
  68. 68. Transducer • It is defined as an element when subjected to some physical change experiences a related change or an element which converts a specified measurand into a usable output by using a transduction principle. It can also be defined as a device that converts a signal from one form of energy to another form. A wire of Constantan alloy (copper-nickel 55-45% alloy) can be called as a sensor because variation in mechanical displacement (tension or compression) can be sensed as change in electric resistance. This wire becomes a transducer with appropriate electrodes and input-output mechanism attached to it. Thus we can say that ‘sensors are transducers’. • Sensor specifications inform the user to the about deviations from the ideal behavior of the sensors. Following are the various specifications of a sensor/transducer system. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 68
  69. 69. Sensors used in our MPS are follows • Micro Limit Switch, • Features: Short Hinge Roller Lever Actuator, 1NO+1NC Contact Configuration, 3 Terminals. Designed to control the movement of a mechanical part. Typically utilized in industrial control applications to automatically monitor and indicate whether the travel limits of a particular device have been exceeded. High precision mechanism design offering acute operation and long life. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 69
  70. 70. Sensors used in our MPS are follows • Magnetic reed proximity sensor, the reed switch is an electrical switch operated by an applied magnetic field. It was invented at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1936 by W. B. Ellwood. It consists of a pair of contacts on ferrous metal reeds in a hermetically sealed glass envelope. The contacts may be normally open, closing when a magnetic field is present, or normally closed and opening when a magnetic field is applied. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 70
  71. 71. Optical proximity sensors • Optical proximity sensors use optical and electronic means for object detection. • Photo emitting devices such as Light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photosensitive devices such as photo diodes and photo transistors are used in combination to work as proximity sensing devices. • Red or infrared light is used. Semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are particularly reliable sources of red or infrared light. • LED are small and rugged, have a long service life and can be simply modulated. • Photodiodes or phototransistors are used as a receiver. • Red light has the advantage that the light beam can be seen during adjustment of the optical axes of the proximity switch. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 71
  72. 72. Working • The basic idea is to make use of IR LED to send the infrared waves to objects. • Another IR phototransistor of same type is to be used to detect the reflected wave from the object. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 72
  73. 73. Working • When IR receiver is subjected to infrared light, a voltage difference is produced across the leads. • Less voltage which is produced can be hardly detected and hence operational amplifiers(Op-amps)are used to detect the low voltages accurately. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 73
  74. 74. 5mm Infrared LED • An IR LED, also known as IR transmitter, is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared. Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminium gallium arsenide. • The device is specially matched with phototransistor, photodiode and infrared receiver module. • The infrared emitting diode is a high intensity diode, molded blue transparent plastic package. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 74
  75. 75. Photodiode (IR Receiver) • PT333-3C is a high speed and high sensitive photodiode molded in a standard 5mm package. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 75
  76. 76. Different types of optical proximity switch • Three different types of optical proximity switch are differentiated: One-way light barrier Reflective light barrier Diffuse reflective optical sensor Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 76
  77. 77. One-way light barrier • The one-way light barrier has spatially separate transmitter and receiver units. • The parts are mounted in such a way that the transmitter beam is directed at the receiver. • The output is switched if the beam is interrupted. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 77
  78. 78. Reflective light barrier • In the reflective light barrier, the transmitter and receiver are mounted together in one housing. • The reflector is mounted in such a way that the light beam transmitted by the transmitter is practically completely reflected to the receiver. • The output is switched if the beam is interrupted. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 78
  79. 79. Diffuse reflective optical sensor • In the diffuse reflective optical sensor, the transmitter and receiver are mounted together in one unit. • If the light hits a reflective object, it is redirected to the receiver and causes the output of the sensor to switch. • Because of the functional principle, the diffuse reflective optical sensor can only be used if the material or machine part to be detected is highly reflective (for example polished metal surfaces, bright paint). Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 79
  80. 80. Symbol • Symbol for proximity • Symbol for LED • +ve terminal • -ve terminal • Output terminal Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 80
  81. 81. Basic pneumatics training Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 81
  82. 82. Section details • Part A: Course • The course provides the necessary information on the subject concerned using both examples and exercises, and is to be worked through in sequence. Subjects which are dealt with in greater depth in the Theory section are marked in the text. • Part B: Theory • This section contains detailed information on fundamentals. Topics are set out in a logical manner. The student can either work through this section chapter by chapter or use it for reference purposes. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 82
  83. 83. Training aims • Structure, function and application of single-acting and double-acting cylinders • Calculating basic parameters • Direct and indirect actuation • Application and function of 3/2 and 5/2-way valves • Methods of actuation of directional control valves • Analysing circuits • Options for pressure measurement • Pressure-dependent control systems • Distinguishing flow control methods and using them as intended • Explaining and building latching circuits • Logic operations: explaining and implementing AND/OR/NOT operations • Combining logic operations • Function and application of limit switches • Time delay valves • Realising oscillating movement Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 83
  84. 84. Introduction to pneumatics • During the few decades various automation techniques has been introduced in the field of manufacturing in order to enhance the overall industrial productivity. • Among the various technologies that are playing important role in rapid growth of Indian industries, fluid power is unique. • During past decade number of applications have been developed based on Pneumatics. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 84
  85. 85. Pneumatics - Definition • The study of pneumatics deals with system operation with air or gaseous medium to impart power or to control power. • The term pneumatics is derived from the Greek word pneuma, meaning wind or breath. • Pneumatic power is the power that is transmitted by pressurized/compressed air. Normal Air Compressor Compressed Air Control valve Actuator A simple pneumatic system Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 85
  86. 86. Composition of Atmospheric air • Dry air at sea level comprises 78.03% nitrogen, 20.99% oxygen, 0.98% argon by volume. • It also contains traces of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, neon, helium, krypton and xenon. • Apart from gases, atmospheric air holds many harmful impurities like dust, etc. • Air has a mass & exert pressure on the surface of the earth. • Atmospheric pressure at normal sea level is 1.013bar. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 86
  87. 87. Air pressure • Force [F] is applied to the air enclosed in a chamber through a piston of area [A]. • The enclosed air is compressed and its pressure [P] raised in directly proportional to the applied force and inverse proportional to the area of the piston. • P=F/A F Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 87
  88. 88. Unit of pressure • In SI system unit of pressure is Pascal (Pa), & 1 Pa is constant pressure acting on surface area of 1 square meter with a perpendicular force of 1 Newton. • 1Pa = 1N/m^2 • For industrial pneumatic purpose, Pascal is to small unit for use in measurement & hence a more practical unit, called ‘bar’ is used. • 100,000 Pa = 1 bar • 14.5 psi (Pound per inch) = 1 bar Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 88
  89. 89. Pneumatic applications Some industrial applications employing pneumatics are listed below: • General methods of material handling: • – Clamping • – Shifting • – Positioning • – Orienting • – Branching of material flow • General applications: • – Packaging • – Filling • – Metering • – Locking • – Driving of axes • – Door control • – Transfer of materials • – Turning and inverting of parts • – Sorting of parts • – Stacking of components • – Stamping and embossing of components Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 89
  90. 90. Pneumatic applications Points switch for two conveyor belts Pneumatic cutter Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 90
  91. 91. Standardization • For a uniform definition & standardization of pneumatic components were initiated by German organization like VDI & VDMA. • This led to DIN & CETOP & later to DIN ISO standards & recommendations for a uniform consistent terminology in pneumatics. • System engineer must draw pneumatic circuit that installation engineer & maintenance person can read & understand easily. Therefore standardization was required. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 91
  92. 92. Standardization • CETOP : Comité Européen des Transmissions Oléohydrauliques et Pneumatiques is a federation of European manufacturing, which is involved, since 1962. • DIN : Deutsches Institute fur Normung E.V. • VDI : Verin Deutscher Ingenieure (Association of German Engineers) • VDMA : Verband Deutscher Maschinen und Anlagenbau (Association of Mechanical Engineers) Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 92
  93. 93. Some pneumatic standards • ISO 1219-1 2006 : fluid power system & component – Graphic symbols & circuit diagram. • ISO 5599 : Port marking of pneumatic direction control valve. • ISO 6432, 6431 : Mounting dimension of pneumatic cylinders. • CETOP RP41 : Hydraulic & Pneumatic system circuit diagram. • And many more… Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 93
  94. 94. Compressed Air Generation & Contamination Control Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 94
  95. 95. A typical pneumatic system Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 95
  96. 96. Air generation and distribution • The generation of compressed air starts with compression. • The compressed air flows through an entire series of components before reaching the consuming device. • The equipment to be considered in the generation and preparation of air include : Inlet filter Air compressor Air reservoir Air dryer Air filter with water separator Pressure regulator Air lubricator as required Drainage points Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 96
  97. 97. Intake filter • It is used to clean & filter the air used for systems. • Before the surrounding air enters the compressor, it must pass through a filter to remove most of the dirt & other solid contaminants. • These filters can be of dry or wet type depending on the compressor manufacturer & the application. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 97
  98. 98. Air compressors • A compressor is the most common industrial energy supply unit that convert mechanical energy into fluid energy. • It is design to take in air at atmospheric pressure and deliver the received air to a closed system with a certain volumetric flow rate, at a higher pressure. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 98
  99. 99. Reciprocating piston compressors • A piston compresses the air drawn in via an inlet valve. The air is passed on via an outlet valve. • Reciprocating compressors are very common and provide a wide range of pressures and delivery rates. • For higher pressures multistage compression is used with inter- cooling between each stage of compression. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 99
  100. 100. Reciprocating piston compressors • A reciprocating compressor consist of the crankshaft by a connecting rod. • Crankshaft is externally rotate by a electric motor. • Crankshaft & connecting rod convert rotary motion into reciprocating motion. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 100
  101. 101. Flow compressor • These are particularly suitable for large delivery quantities. • Flow compressors are made in axial or radial form. The air is made to flow by means of one or several turbine wheels. • The kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy. • In the case of an axial compressor, the air is accelerated in the axial direction of flow by means of blades. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 101
  102. 102. Reservoirs • A reservoir is configured downstream of a compressor to stabilise compressed air. • A reservoir compensates the pressure fluctuations when the compressed air is taken from the system. • If the pressure in the reservoir drops below a certain value, the compressor will compensate until the set higher value is reached again. • This has the advantage that the compressor does not need to operate continuously. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 102
  103. 103. Reservoirs Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 103
  104. 104. Air dryers • The most common type of dryer today is the refrigeration dryer. • With refrigerated drying, the compressed air is passed through a heat exchanger system through which a refrigerant flows. • The aim is to reduce the temperature of the air to a dew point which ensures that the water in the air condenses and drops out in the quantity required. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 104
  105. 105. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 105
  106. 106. Compressed air filter • The selection of the correct filter plays an important role in determining the quality and performance of the working system which is to be supplied with compressed air. • One characteristic of compressed-air filters is the pore size. • The pore size of the filter element indicates the minimum particle size which can be filtered out of the compressed air. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 106
  107. 107. Compressedairfilter Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 107
  108. 108. Lubricator • As a rule the compressed air which is generated should be dry, i.e. free of oil. • For some components lubricated air is damaging, for others, it is undesirable, but for power components it may in certain cases be necessary. • Lubrication of the compressed air should therefore always be limited to the plant sections which require lubrication. • For this purpose, lubricators are fitted to feed the compressed air with specially selected oils. • Oils which are introduced into the air from the compressor are suitable for the lubrication of control system components. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 108
  109. 109. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 109
  110. 110. Service unit • The individual functions of compressed air preparation, i.e. filtering, lubricating and regulating , can be fulfilled by individual components. • These functions have often been combined into one unit, i.e. the service unit or FLR. • Service units are connected upstream of all pneumatic systems. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 110
  111. 111. Service unit Air filter Pressure control valve Pressure gauge Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 111
  112. 112. Service unit Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 112
  113. 113. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 113
  114. 114. Actuators Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 114
  115. 115. Actuators and output devices • An actuator is an output device for the conversion of supply energy into useful work. • The output signal is controlled by the control system, and the actuator responds to the control signals via the control element. • Other types of output devices are used to indicate the status of the control system or actuators, e.g. a pneumatically actuated visual display. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 115
  116. 116. Actuators and output devices • The pneumatic actuator can be described under two groups, linear and rotary : • Linear motion • Single-acting cylinders • Double-acting cylinders • Rotary motion • Air motor • Semi-Rotary actuator Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 116
  117. 117. Single-acting cylinders • With single-acting cylinders compressed air is applied on only one side of the piston face. The other side is open to atmosphere. • The cylinder can produce work in only one direction. The return movement of the piston is effected by a built-in spring or by the application of an external force. • The spring force of the built-in spring is designed to return the piston to its start position with a reasonably high speed under no load conditions. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 117
  118. 118. Single-acting cylinders Spring to push Spring to pull Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 118
  119. 119. Plunger type single acting cylinder • In the case of plunger cylinders, the piston and rod form a single component. • Due to the design of the cylinder, the return stroke can only be effected by external forces. • The cylinders can therefore generally be installed only vertically. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 119
  120. 120. Double-acting cylinders • The construction principle of a double-acting cylinder is similar to that of the single-acting cylinder. • But no return spring, and the two ports are used alternatively as supply and exhaust ports. • The double-acting cylinder has the advantage that the cylinder is able to carry out work in both directions of motion. • The force transferred by the piston rod is somewhat greater for the forward stroke than for the return stroke as the effective piston surface is reduced on the piston rod side by the cross- sectional area of the piston rod. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 120
  121. 121. Double-acting cylinders Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 121
  122. 122. Double-acting cylinder with cushioning • If large masses are moved by a cylinder, cushioning is used in the end positions to prevent sudden damaging impacts. Before reaching the end position, a cushioning piston interrupts the direct flow path of the air to the outside. • Instead a very small and often adjustable exhaust aperture is open. • For the last part of the stroke the cylinder speed is progressively reduced. If the passage adjustment is too small, the cylinder may not reach the end position due to the blockage of air. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 122
  123. 123. Double-acting cylinder with cushioning Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 123
  124. 124. Tandem double-acting cylinder • The tandem cylinder incorporates the features of two double- acting cylinders which have been joined to form a single unit. By this arrangement and with the simultaneous loading of both pistons, the force on the piston rod is almost doubled. • This design is suitable for such applications where a large force is required but the cylinder diameter is restricted. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 124
  125. 125. Tandem double-acting cylinder Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 125
  126. 126. Cylinders with through piston rod • This cylinder has a piston rod on both sides, which is a through piston rod. The guide of the piston rod is better, as there are two bearing points. The force is identical in both directions of movement. • The through piston rod can be hollow, in which case it can be used to conduct various media, such as compressed air. A vacuum connection is also possible. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 126
  127. 127. Cylinders with through piston rod Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 127
  128. 128. Multi-position cylinders • The multi-position cylinder consists of two or several double- acting cylinders, which are interconnected. • The individual cylinders advance when pressure is applied. In the case of two cylinders with different stroke lengths, four positions are obtained. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 128
  129. 129. Multi-position cylinders Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 129
  130. 130. Multi-position cylinders Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 130
  131. 131. Rotary cylinders • With this design of double-acting cylinder, the piston rod has a geartooth profile. • The piston rod drives a gear wheel, and a rotary movement results from a linear movement. • The range of rotation varies from 45o, 90o, 180o, 270oto 360o. • The torque is dependent on pressure, piston surface and gear ratio; values of roughly up to 150 Nm are possible. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 131
  132. 132. Rotary cylinders Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 132
  133. 133. Diaphragm cylinder • This is the simplest form of single acting cylinder. In diaphragm cylinder , piston is replaced by a diaphragm is replaced by a diaphragm of hard rubber, plastic or metal clamped between the two halves of a metal casing expanded to form a wide, flat enclosure. • The operating stem which takes place of the piston rod in diaphragm cylinder can also be designed as a surface element so as to act directly as a clamping surface for example. • Only short operating strokes can be executed by a diaphragm cylinder, up to a maximum of 50 mm. This makes the diaphragm type of cylinder particularly adaptable to clamping operations. • Return stroke is accomplished by a spring built into the assembly or by the tension of diaphragm itself in the case of very short stroke. • Diaphragm cylinders are used for short stoke application like clamping, riveting, lifting, embossing and riveting Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 133
  134. 134. Diaphragm cylinder Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 134
  135. 135. Cylinder construction • The cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, bearing and end cap, piston with seal (double-cup packing), piston rod, bearing bush, scraper ring, connecting parts and seals. • The cylinder barrel (1) • The end cap (2) • The bearing cap (3) • The piston rod (4) • Sealing ring (5) • Bearing bush (6) • In front of this bearing bush is a scraper ring (7). Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 135
  136. 136. Air Motors • Devices which transform pneumatic energy into mechanical rotary movement with the possibility of continuous motion are known as pneumatic motors. • The pneumatic motor with unlimited angle of rotation has become one of the most widely used working elements operating on compressed air. • Pneumatic motors are categorised according to design: • Piston motors • Sliding-vane motors • Gear motors • Turbines (high flow) Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 136
  137. 137. Air Motors Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 137
  138. 138. Semi rotary actuator • The limited angle rotary actuator is applied when the shaft has to rotate over a limited angle. The animation shows how this simple actuator works: in this case the shaft can rotate over an angle of about 270 degrees. This type of actuator is, among others, used as a rotator actuator on (small) cranes and excavators . Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 138
  139. 139. Semi rotary actuator Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 139
  140. 140. Pneumatic grippers • Handling equipment must have grippers for picking up, moving and releasing the workpiece. Grippers establish either a force-locking or a positive-locking connection with the part. • All gripper types have a double-acting piston drive and are self- centring. • Contactless position sensing is possible with proximity sensors. External gripper fingers make the grippers suitable for a wide variety of applications. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 140
  141. 141. Pneumatic grippers • Pneumatic grippers • a) Radial grippers • b) Parallel grippers • c) 3-point grippers • d) Angle grippers Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 141
  142. 142. Vacuum generators • Handling with suction cups is generally a simple, low-cost and reliable solution. • Suction cups allow the handling of different workpieces with weights ranging from a few grammas right up to several hundred kilo grammas. • They come in a wide variety of different shapes, such as universal, flat or bellows suction cups, for example. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 142
  143. 143. Vacuum generators & Sucker Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 143
  144. 144. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 144
  145. 145. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 145
  146. 146. Pneumatic Valves Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 146
  147. 147. Pneumatic Valves • Valve is a device which is used to control out put of the circuit. • The main purpose of a valve in pneumatics or hydraulic circuit is to control Final output. • Valves are divided into number of groups according to what they control. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 147
  148. 148. Classification of Valves • Function • Example: DCV, FCV, PCV. • Design • Example: Spool valve, poppet valve. • Method of actuation • Manual, mechanical, pneumatic, electric. • Mounting angle • Manifold, in line, sub plate. • Application • Speed control, signal processing, proportional valve. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 148
  149. 149. Functional Classification of Valves • Most commonly used valves are. • Direction control valve (DCV). • Non return valves. • Pressure control valve (PCV). • Flow control valve (FCV). Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 149
  150. 150. Direction control valves • Control valve symbols – • The basic symbol for control valve is a square. • Two or more squares are used. • Each square representing the switching position provided by the valve. • Two position valve. • Three position valve. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 150
  151. 151. Graphical representation • Lines in the boxes are used to show flow path with arrow indicating direction of flow. • The shut off position is indicated by the line drawn at right angle to the horizontal line inside the rectangle. FLOW SHUT OFF / NO FLOW Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 151
  152. 152. Graphical representation • PIPE CONNECTIONS • The pipe connections i.e. inlet and outlet ports to the valve are indicated by lines drawn on outside of the box and right angle to the horizontal line . • The first position from left indicates the rest, initial or neutral position when the valve is not actuated. • The second position or square from left indicates actuated position. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 152
  153. 153. Graphical representation • PIPE CONNECTIONS • Single position (initial) • Two position valve • Three position valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 153
  154. 154. Graphical representation • PORT & POSITIONS TABLE: • The ports of the valve are show on the outside of the box. • These are labeled by a number or letter according to its functions. • For this purpose some standard letters or numbers with symbols are used which are shown in the following table. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 154
  155. 155. Graphical representation • PORT & POSITIONS TABLE: Port Alphabetic system No. sys. Comment Pressure port P 1 Supply port Working port A 2 3/2 DC valve Working ports A, B 4, 2 4/2 or 5/2 DC valve Exhaust port R 3 3/2 DC valve Exhaust ports R, E,S 3, 5 3/2 DC valve Pilot port Z or Y 12 Pilot line (1 2) Pilot port Z 14 Pilot line (1 4) Pilot port Z or Y 10 Pilot line (flow closed) Internal pilot port Pz, Py 81, 91 Auxiliary pilot air Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 155
  156. 156. COMMONLY USED DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE. • D.C. valve is used to control or to change the direction or to start or stop the fluid flow only on the receipt of any signal which may be mechanical, electrical or a fluid pressure pilot signal. • D.C. valves are described by number of ports and number of positions • n / n way valve • ( n = 1, 2, 3,……) Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 156
  157. 157. COMMONLY USED DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE. Way Valve Ports Positions 2/2 2 (1 input , 1 output) 2 3/2 3 (1 input, 1 output, 1 exhaust) 2 4/2 4 (1 input, 2 output, 1 exhaust) 2 5/2 5 (1 input, 2 output, 2 exhaust) 2 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 157
  158. 158. Ports and positions (ways) Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 158
  159. 159. 2/2 way valve • 2/2 way Normally closed valve • Initially no flow from1 to 2, switched to flow from 1 to 2. figure indicates 2/2 way valve normally closed and that when activated connects pressure port (1) to the output port (2) and therefore it is used for ON/OFF switch. 1 (P) 2 (A) Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 159
  160. 160. 2/2 way valve • 2/2 way Normally opened valves • Initially flow from 1 to 2. Switched to no flow from 1to2. figure shows 2/2 way valve normally opened with the pressure port (1) connected to the output port (2) when activated it close both the ports and it is also used for ON/OFF switch. 1 (P) 2 (A) Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 160
  161. 161. 3/2 way valve • 3/2 way normally closed valve • Initially no flow from 1to 2 but flow from 2 to 3 switched to flow from 1 to 2 and 3 closed. • Figure shows 3/2 way valve normally closed in which pressure port 1 is off and output port (2) exhausting via exhaust port (3). when it is activated the pressure is applied to the output port directly and the exhaust port will be closed. 2 1 3 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 161
  162. 162. 3/2 way valve • 3/2 way normally opened valve– • Initially flow from 1 to 2 and 3 closed, switched to flow from 2 to 3 and no flow from 1. figure indicates 3/2 way valve normally opened in which pressure is connected to the output port and exhaust port is closed. When activated pressure port (1) is off and output port (2) exhaust via exhaust port (3). 2 1 3 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 162
  163. 163. 4/2 way valve • 4/2 way valve • Initially flow from 1 to 2 and 4 to 3.switched to flow or from 1 to 4 and from 2 to 3. A 4/2 way valve is shown in figure in which pressure is applied to the output port while the output port exhaust through the exhaust port. When activated the pressure port (1) is connected to the output port (4) while output port (2) exhaust through the exhaust port (3). 4 2 1 3 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 163
  164. 164. 5/2 way valve • 5/2 way valve • Initially flow from 1 to 2 and flow 4 to 5, 3 closed. Switched to flow from 1 to 4 and from 2 to 3, 5 closed. Figure indicates 5/2 way valve in which pressure is applied to the output port while output port exhaust through the exhaust port. When activated pressure (1) is connected to the output port (4) exhaust through exhaust port (5) 3 will be closed. 4 2 5 1 3 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 164
  165. 165. Methods of actuation Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 165
  166. 166. Methods of actuation Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 166
  167. 167. Methods of actuation Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 167
  168. 168. 3/2 way valve 2 1 3 2 1 3 Push button operated spring returned 3/2 way normally closed valve Push button operated spring returned 3/2 way normally open valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 168
  169. 169. 3/2 way valve Internal construction of a 3/2 way normally closed valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 169
  170. 170. Striking switch 2 1 3 striking switch 3/2 way normally closed valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 170
  171. 171. 3/2 way valve Internal construction of a 3/2 way normally open valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 171
  172. 172. 3/2 way valve 2 1 3 Roller operated spring returned 3/2 way normally closed valve Roller operated spring returned 3/2 way normally open valve 2 1 3 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 172
  173. 173. 3/2 way roller operated valve Internal construction of a roller operated 3/2 way NC valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 173
  174. 174. 3/2 way Idle return roller operated spring returned 2 1 3 Idle return roller operated spring returned 3/2 way normally Closed valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 174
  175. 175. Pneumatically operated spring returned Pneumatically operated spring returned 3/2 way normally closed valve (3/2 way single pilot) Pneumatically operated spring returned 3/2 way normally open valve (3/2 way single pilot) 2 1 3 2 1 3 12 12 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 175
  176. 176. Pneumatically operated spring returned Internal construction of a 3/2 way single pilot valve NC Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 176
  177. 177. 4/2 BOTH SIDE PILOT OPERATED VALVE 14 12 Pneumatically operated Spring returned 5/2 way valve (5/2 way single pilot)  MEMORY VALVE Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 177
  178. 178. 4/2 SINGLE SIDE PILOT OPERETED SPRING TO RETURN 14 Pneumatically operated Spring returned 4/2 way valve (4/2 way single pilot) Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 178
  179. 179. Pneumatically operated Spring returned 4 2 5 1 3 Pneumatically operated Spring returned 5/2 way valve (5/2 way single pilot) 14 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 179
  180. 180. Push button operated Spring returned 4 2 5 1 3 striking switch 5/2 way valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 180
  181. 181. Both pneumatically operated valve • 5/2 way valve 4 2 5 1 3 Pneumatically operated pneumatically return 5/2 way valve (5/2 way double pilot valve / memory valve) 14 12 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 181
  182. 182. 5/2 way double pilot valve 5/2 way double pilot valve with longitudinal slide Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 182
  183. 183. Shutoff valves Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 183
  184. 184. Non return valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 184
  185. 185. Pilot operated check valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 185
  186. 186. Two pressure valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 186
  187. 187. Shuttle valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 187
  188. 188. Flow control valves Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 188
  189. 189. Throttle valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 189
  190. 190. One way flow control valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 190
  191. 191. Meter in & out control circuits Meter in control Meter out control Slow Nor mal Slow Nor mal Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 191
  192. 192. Pressure control valves • The function of pressure valves, is to influence the pressure in an overall pneumatic system or in a part of the system. Pressure regulating valves are generally adjustable against spring compression. The symbols are distinguished according to the following types: • Pressure regulating valve without relief port • Pressure regulating valve with relief port • Pressure sequence valves Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 192
  193. 193. Pressure control valves Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 193
  194. 194. Auxiliary symbols Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 194
  195. 195. Pneumatic control system Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 195
  196. 196. Pneumatic control system Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 196
  197. 197. Signal flow diagram indicates Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 197
  198. 198. Logics • AND logic • OR logic • NOT logic • NAND logic • NOR logic • EX-OR logic Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 198
  199. 199. Pneumatic preset counter The pneumatic preset counter counts pneumatic signals, decrementing from a preset number. When zero is reached, the counter emits a pneumatic output signal. It has 4 ports 1 (P) – pressure port / input port 2 (A) – output port 12 (Z) – pulse counting port 10 (Y) – Reset port Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 199
  200. 200. Adjustable Pressure Sequence valve Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 200
  201. 201. Aluminium profile plate • The aluminium profile plate forms the basis for all training packages. • All of the components fit securely and safely into the grooves on the profile plate. • There are grooves on each side and, if required, both sides can be fitted with components. • The grooves are compatible with the ITEM profile system. • Grid dimensions: 50 mm. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 201
  202. 202. Compressor • Oil-lubricated, extremely quiet (45 dB) • Pressure: 800 kPa (8 bar) Pmax • Performance: 50 l/min • Reservoir capacity: 24 l • Noise level: 45 dB/1 m • Pressure regulator valve with gauge Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 202
  203. 203. Electro Pneumatics Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 203
  204. 204. Learning objectives Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 204
  205. 205. Introduction • Various kind of energy medium can be utilized within a factory or even within a production machine to permit optimum utilization of different drive and controls. • Combination of electrical control system and Pneumatic power system is named as electro Pneumatic system/electro Pneumatics. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 205
  206. 206. Electro Pneumatics • Electro Pneumatic system consist of an electrical control system operating a Pneumatic power system. • Devices such as solenoid valve, electrical-limit switches & proximity sensors are used in automatic electro Pneumatic system. • The control system has 3 basic divisions corresponding to its main task: ▫ Information gathering [sensors, limit switch, etc.] ▫ Processing [relay, logic elements, pressure switch, etc.] ▫ Taking action [pneumatics valves] Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 206
  207. 207. Integration of technology • The integration of Pneumatic & electrical technology has played a vital role in the optimum design & development of a large number of industrial production system. • In complex application, electrical controls are employed almost exclusively. • The electrical actuation of Pneumatic valves has certain advantages over pure Pneumatic controls. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 207
  208. 208. Advantages of electro Pneumatics • Speedy signal transmission over great distances. • Signaling components are cheaper. • Less air required in electro Pneumatic system. • Flexibility in development & alteration of controls. • Cost-effective & efficient production system can be easily designed. • Electrical control devices can be also interface with PLC control. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 208
  209. 209. Solenoid valves • As we know Pneumatic valve can be actuated manually, pilot or electrically. • In the electrical actuation, the necessary actuation force is developed electrically to operated a solenoid valve. • A solenoid valve is a converter that generates pneumatic output in response to a electrical signal. • Solenoid valve are classified into 3 categories: ▫ Direct acting valve ▫ Pilot operated valve ▫ Proportional valve [Advance Electro-Pneumatics] Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 209
  210. 210. Fundamental of solenoid valves • When the wire is wound in a form of a long cylinder coil and an iron core is placed in the center of that coil and a electric current is passed through the coil, a strong magnate field is developed. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 210
  211. 211. Solenoid • A solenoid consist of a coil and moveable iron core used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy/movement. • A solenoid design for AC voltage is known as AC solenoid & solenoid design for DC voltage is known as DC solenoid. • Both are different in core construction, behavior during switching & miscellaneous characteristics. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 211
  212. 212. AC & DC currents Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 212
  213. 213. DC Solenoids vs AC solenoids • The core of a DC solenoid consist of a solid soft iron & the heat losses during the operation of DC solenoids depend on the coil resistance & the current magnitude. • The operation of solenoids with AC current introduces hysteresis & eddy current losses in the core additionally. • So the armature of the AC solenoid consist of laminated metal sheets to reduce iron losses. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 213
  214. 214. Behavior of solenoid during switching • When the coil of a DC solenoid is switched on, maximum power is developed before the armature can pulled in. But, to hold the armature only little amount of power is need, & rest of the power is given off as heat. • AC solenoids are inductive in nature, therefore when an AC solenoid coil is switched on, a higher initial current is drawn from the supply, & consequently a large force is developed. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 214
  215. 215. Industrial control voltages • In early days the control voltages used in industries were 230VAC, 110VAC, etc. • The tendency was to reduce the control voltage to a lower level from the operator’s safety point of view. • The type of supply was also changes from AC to DC due to many advantages of DC supply. • At present , 24V DC is the standard industrial control voltage. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 215
  216. 216. Power supply unit • The signal control section of an electro Pneumatic controller is supplied with power via the electrical mains. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 216
  217. 217. Power supply unit • The transformer reduces the operating voltage. The mains voltage (i. e. 230 V AC) is applied to the input of the transformer. • A lower voltage (i. e. 24 V AC) is available at the output. • The rectifier converts the AC voltage into DC voltage. • The capacitor at the rectifier output smooth the voltage. • The voltage regulator at the output of the power supply unit is required to ensure that the electrical voltage remains constant regardless of the current flowing. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 217
  218. 218. Electro Pneumatics components • 3/2-way single solenoid valve, spring return Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 218
  219. 219. 3/2-way single solenoid valve, spring return Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 219
  220. 220. 5/2-way solenoid valve, spring return Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 220
  221. 221. 5/2-way solenoid valve, spring return Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 221
  222. 222. 5/2-way solenoid valve, both side Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 222
  223. 223. Memory function • A memory function ‘remembers’ the state of the last output even after the input signal (ON) responsible for this output has been removed. • To reset the memory function another input (OFF) need to given. • An electrical latching relay circuit , explained in example is another example of the memory function. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 223
  224. 224. 5/3-way solenoid valve, both side spring Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 224
  225. 225. 5/3-way solenoid valve, both side spring Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 225
  226. 226. Push button and control switches • Switches are installed in circuits to apply a current to a load or to interrupt the circuit. These switches are divided into pushbuttons and control switches. • Control switches are mechanically detente in the selected position. The switch position remains unchanged until a new switch position is selected. Example: Light switches in the home. • Push button switches only maintain the selected position as long as the switch is actuated (pressed). Example: Bell push Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 226
  227. 227. Normally open contact Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 227
  228. 228. Normally closed contact Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 228
  229. 229. Changeover contact Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 229
  230. 230. Push button and control switch box Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 230
  231. 231. Basic logic Functions • Yes function/Buffer • NOT function • OR function • AND function • NOR function • NAND function • EX-OR function Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 231
  232. 232. Relays Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 232
  233. 233. Applications of relays • In electro Pneumatic control systems, relays are used for the following functions: ▫ Signal multiplication ▫ Delaying and conversion of signals ▫ Isolation of control circuit from main circuit • In purely electrical controllers, the relay is also used for isolation of DC and AC circuits Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 233
  234. 234. Limit switches • A limit switch is actuated when a machine part or work-piece is in a certain position. Normally, actuation is effected by a cam. • Limit switches are normally changeover contacts. They can then be connected – as required as a normally open contact, normally closed contact or changeover contact. Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 234
  235. 235. Limit switches Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 235
  236. 236. Proximity switches • In contrast to limit switches, proximity switches operated contactless (non-contact switching) and without an external mechanical actuating force. As a result, proximity switches have a long service life and high switching reliability. The following types of proximity switch are differentiated: • Magnetically actuated proximity switch (Reed switch) • Inductive proximity switch • Capacitive proximity switch • Optical proximity switch Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 236
  237. 237. Magnetically actuated proximity switch Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 237
  238. 238. Proximity switches • Inductive, optical and capacitive proximity switches are electronic sensors. They normally have three electrical contacts. ▫ Contact for supply voltage (24 V) ▫ Contact for ground (0 V) ▫ Contact for output signal Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 238
  239. 239. Inductive proximity sensors Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 239
  240. 240. Capacitive proximity sensor Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 240
  241. 241. Optical proximity sensor Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 241
  242. 242. The MPS – Modular Production System Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 242
  243. 243. The MPS – Modular Production System • The Modular Production System consists of simplified, scaled down versions of actual industrial processes. • The entire system is broken down into individual modules, usually mounted on trolleys for easy movability. • Each module is designed to perform a single function, such as Distribution, Pick and Place, Testing, Sorting etc. • Each module has its own electric / pneumatic supply, control panel, and a PLC for control of its various functions. Introduction to the MPS Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 243
  244. 244. The MPS – Common Components • Provides the Start / Stop / Reset functions. • Indicators for Start / Reset buttons. • Auto / Manual operation key switch. • Other indications can have different functions. Control Panel Touch Panel Buttons MPS Control Panel Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 244
  245. 245. The MPS – Common Components • Sensor outputs, which go to the PLC inputs, are on the rear. • PLC outputs, which go to solenoid coils are on the front. Terminal Strip Top View Front – PLC Outputs Rear – PLC Inputs Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 245
  246. 246. The MPS – Common Components • Each station has an infrared transmitter on the left, and a receiver on the right. • Distribution station has only receiver, and Sorting station has only transmitter, being the first and last stations. • The transmitter sends a busy signal to the previous station to signal that the station is not still ready to receive the next work piece. • When a busy signal is received, the previous station waits till this signal goes away, before passing on the next work piece. • When stations are used separately, this signal being absent, each station transfers it’s work piece without waiting . • The act of checking if the next station is ready, before passing on a work piece is called handshaking, and is used commonly in fully automated processes. Infra-Red Transmitter & Receiver TransmitteronleftsideReceiveronrightside Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 246
  247. 247. The MPS – Distribution Station Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 247
  248. 248. The MPS – Distribution Station Function : • Always the first station in a MPS chain. • Distribute work pieces from the magazine, one at a time to the next MPS station. • Ensuring that next station is ready to receive work piece before transferring the next work piece. Focuses On : • Rotary actuators. • Vacuum generators & venturi principle. • Vacuum sensor. • Suction cups. • Compact performance valve terminals. An Overview Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 248
  249. 249. The MPS – Distribution Station Distribution Magazine : • Work piece stack holds up to 8 work pieces. • Ejection cylinder is normally in extended position. The work piece is ejected when the ejection cylinder retracts. • When ejection cylinder retracts, ejector arm clamps the work piece and holds it in place, till it is picked up by the pick-up arm. Major Components Ejection cylinder extended Ejection cylinder retracted Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 249
  250. 250. The MPS – Distribution Station Pick-up Arm : • Uses a suction cup gripper to pick up the work piece and transfer it to the next station. • Pick-up arm is driven by swivel cylinder, with end position sensing micro switches. Major Components Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 250
  251. 251. The MPS – Distribution Station Valve Terminal, Vacuum Generator, Vacuum Sensor : • Valve terminal includes several components.  3/2 single solenoid valves.  Vacuum generator. • Vacuum sensor is used to check whether work piece has been picked up. Major Components Vacuum Sensor Valve Terminal with Vacuum Generator Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 251
  252. 252. The MPS – Testing Station Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 252
  253. 253. The MPS – Testing Station Function : • Tests each work piece for proper height and rejects those which are more or less than the acceptable limits. • Checks and rejects black work pieces. Focuses On : • Sensors.  Optical diffuse sensor.  Polarized retro reflective sensor to avoid false signals from metallic surfaces.  Capacitive sensor.  Magnetic sensor.  Analog height sensor. An Overview Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 253
  254. 254. The MPS – Testing Station Valve Terminal & Work Piece Slides : • Upper slide is for accepted work pieces. This slide is an air slide with perforations to facilitate smooth transfer of work pieces to the next station. • The air supply to the upper slide is turned on as soon as a work piece is pushed out from the input receptacle. • The lower slide is for rejected work pieces. Major Components Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 254
  255. 255. The MPS – Testing Station Testing Module : • Capacitive sensor checks presence of work piece. • Optical diffuse sensor looks for non-black work pieces. • Retro reflective sensor checks for any obstruction to movement of receptacle. • Analog sensor senses the height of the work piece. Major Components Receptacle top view Height sensorRetro reflective sensor Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 255
  256. 256. The MPS – Testing Station Analogue Comparator Module : • Compares the height of the workpiece against two preset values, representing the lower and the upper limits. • A good work piece generates a 24V “good” signal, which is sent to the PLC. • If a “good” signal is not received, the work piece is assumed to be bad. Major Components Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 256
  257. 257. The MPS – Sorting Station Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 257
  258. 258. The MPS – Sorting Station Function : • Sorts the workpieces into three slides, based on color and material. • Sorting gates are operated by short stroke cylinders via deflectors. Focuses On : • Material and color recognition using commonly available sensors. • Conveyor and diverter methods. • Polarized retro reflective sensor to avoid false signals from metallic workpieces. An Overview Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 258
  259. 259. The MPS – Sorting Station Conveyor and sensors : • A fiber optic sensor at the receiving end is used to check if a part is available. The sensitivity level of this sensor is kept high, so that a black workpiece is also sensed. • A stopper which is normally extended stops the workpiece just after the part available sensor, so that the material / color of the workpiece can be checked. • A second fiber optic sensor further down senses if a non black workpiece is present. The sensitivity level of this sensor is deliberately kept low to avoid detecting black workpieces. • The inductive sensor senses only the metallic workpieces. Major Components Part available sensor (fiber optic) Workpiece not black sensor (fiber optic) Stopper Inductive sensor Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 259
  260. 260. The MPS – Sorting Station Work piece Diverters : • Diverters are used to divert the workpiece onto one of three slides, based on color and material. • Two diverters are provided for the first and second slides, while the last slide has a fixed diverter. Major Components Diverter 1 Diverter 2 Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 260
  261. 261. The MPS – Sorting Station Slide barrier sensor : • Uses a retro-reflective sensor and reflector with a unique ability to rotate the angle of polarization. • Reflections from highly reflective workpieces do not cause false signals. Major Components Reflector with ability to rotate the angle of polarization Retro- reflective sensor Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 261
  262. 262. The MPS – Sorting Station Valve Bank : • Three valves are used for the three cylinders in the sorting station.  3/2 normally open valve for the stopper.  Two 5/2 valves for the diverter cylinders. Major Components Friday, April 1, 2016 Basic Mechatronics 262

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