Introduction To Copyright


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  • Introduction To Copyright

    1. 1. 21 January 2003 Introduction to Copyright John Kelly JISC Legal Information Service
    2. 2. <ul><li>More data was created in the last two years than has ever existed before </li></ul><ul><li>Not only do we have more information but this information is increasingly being 'born digital'. </li></ul><ul><li>(Anon)‏ </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Assisting Further and Higher Education Institutions with legal compliance in the Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) field is in essence what J-LIS does. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Obligatory Disclaimer! <ul><li>We cannot offer legal advice - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can offer/direct you to information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We are not professional lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Each institution is independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We cannot replace an institution's responsibility to seek professional legal advice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However … we can alert institutions to the fact such advice is required! </li></ul>
    5. 5. Core Areas of Law & Legislation - I <ul><li>Data protection & privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 Data Protection Act - records management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 Freedom of Information Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human rights & discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 Human Rights Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disability and the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2001 Special Educational Needs and Disability Act </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Liability <ul><li>“ Education officers in Wirral were contacted by solicitors representing a pair of teenagers who are still at school. They were demanding to know why there parents had not been prosecuted for allowing them to truant” </li></ul><ul><li>Reported TES July 2002 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Core Areas of Law & Legislation - II <ul><li>Intellectual property rights (IPR)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1988 Copyright, Designs & Patents Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001 EU directive on - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Copyright and the information society’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring & encryption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(RIPA)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital signatures, e-Commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Communications Act 2000 </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Education Sector today <ul><li>Cocooned - historically </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating the risks </li></ul><ul><li>Putting the risks in context </li></ul><ul><li>Email - Web access </li></ul><ul><li>Where does responsibility lie? </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation </li></ul>
    9. 9. Core Areas of Law and Legislation - III <ul><li>ISP liability (internet service provider)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defamation - Godfrey v Demon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cybercrime and criminal liability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Misuse Act, pornography etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence & e-Commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your Ideas ? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Copyright ( History )‏ <ul><li>“ An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by Vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or Purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned.” </li></ul><ul><li>Statute of Anne, from 1710. </li></ul><ul><li>Statute of Anne - 1710 </li></ul>
    11. 11. What is Copyright? <ul><li>A work </li></ul><ul><li>Originality & quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of London Press Ltd v University Tutorial Press Ltd 1916 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has to be in a fixed format </li></ul><ul><li>Does not cover ideas & facts </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic </li></ul><ul><li>Different media & territories </li></ul><ul><li>Bootlegging </li></ul>
    12. 12. What works does it cover? <ul><li>Literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works </li></ul><ul><li>Sound ‘recordings’ </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasts and cable ‘transmissions’ </li></ul><ul><li>Films (including on video, DVD etc)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Performances ( ‘live’ theatre, dance, music)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Typography </li></ul><ul><li>Designs </li></ul>
    13. 13. Copyright - Who owns it? <ul><li>Author, (or first creator)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Employers </li></ul><ul><li>Students? </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment of rights </li></ul>
    14. 14. Copyright (Cont)‏ <ul><li>Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Berne Convention </li></ul><ul><li>The Universal Convention </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO Treaty of 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>European Union Copyright Directive </li></ul>
    15. 15. How long does copyright last? <ul><li>The author(s)/creator(s) lifetime and then: </li></ul><ul><li>70 years - literary, dramatic, musical & artistic works </li></ul><ul><li>70 years - films </li></ul><ul><li>50 years - broadcasts, (TV, sound, cable etc.), computer generated works & performances </li></ul><ul><li>25 years - typographical arrangements (from date of publication)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>10/15 years - designs (from creation/1st sales)‏ </li></ul>
    16. 16. Fair Dealing <ul><li>Only applies to certain purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Private Study </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism and Review </li></ul><ul><li>Insubstantial Use & Incidental Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Does NOT cover multiple copying or teaching! </li></ul><ul><li>Does apply to digital material </li></ul>
    17. 17. Software <ul><li>Copyright crackdown </li></ul><ul><li>Law firms could be hit by police powers </li></ul><ul><li>Law firms are being advised to alert clients, and their own staff, to the dangers of having illegal copyright material on PCs, following the introduction of tougher regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>The Copyright, etc. and Trade Marks (Offences and Enforcement) Act 2002, passed last month to amend the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, gives the police power to secure warrants to search, and seize property from any business they believe is using unlicensed software. Previous powers limited searches to traders and importers of illegal material. </li></ul><ul><li>The term 'illegal software' does not only cover pirate copies, but also unlicensed duplicates downloaded onto PCs. </li></ul><ul><li>Article Published: 06/09/2002 - Law Gazette </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    18. 18. ISP Liability <ul><li>Whether you are an ISP, a VISP or a web host or merely providing chat room or discussion group facilities on your web site, there is a risk that you could be liable for material posted by third parties. </li></ul>
    19. 19. IP Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright clearance and digitisation in UK Higher Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical guidelines on electronic copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>