Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 38Intangible AssetsContents                                          ParagraphsOBJECTI...
INTANGIBLE ASSETS WITH FINITE USEFULLIVES                                              97–106Amortisation period and amort...
Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 38                Intangible Assets(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraph...
3   If another Standard prescribes the accounting for a specific type of intangible    asset, an entity applies that Stand...
hardware and it is treated as property, plant and equipment. The same applies to    the operating system of a computer. Wh...
(b) willing buyers and sellers can normally be found at any time; and(c) prices are available to the public.Amortisation i...
An impairment loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset    exceeds its recoverable amount.    An intangi...
licences, import quotas, franchises, customer or supplier relationships, customer        loyalty, market share and marketi...
of others to those benefits. The capacity of an entity to control the future     economic benefits from an intangible asse...
relationships. Because such exchange transactions also provide evidence that       the customer relationships are separabl...
subsequent expenditures are likely to maintain the expected future economic     benefits embodied in an existing intangibl...
25   Normally, the price an entity pays to acquire separately an intangible asset will     reflect expectations about the ...
30     Recognition of costs in the carrying amount of an intangible asset ceases when       the asset is in the condition ...
there to be an inflow of economic benefits, even if there is uncertainty about the     timing or the amount of the inflow....
the acquirer recognises the intangible asset separately from goodwill, but     together with the related item.37   The acq...
(a)    discounting estimated future net cash flows from the asset; or     (b)    estimating the costs the entity avoids by...
Acquisition by way of a government grant44     In some cases, an intangible asset may be acquired free of charge, or for  ...
(c)    the difference in (a) or (b) is significant relative to the fair value of the              assets exchanged.       ...
51   It is sometimes difficult to assess whether an internally generated intangible     asset qualifies for recognition be...
55   In the research phase of an internal project, an entity cannot demonstrate that an     intangible asset exists that w...
(e)     the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources             to complete the development and ...
62   An entity’s costing systems can often measure reliably the cost of generating an     intangible asset internally, suc...
Ind AS 23 specifies criteria for the recognition of interest as an element of the       cost of an internally generated in...
recognised at the end of 20X5 plus Rs.2,000 expenditure recognised in 20X6). Theentity recognises an impairment loss of Rs...
establishing a legal entity, expenditure to open a new facility or business             (ie pre-opening costs) or expendit...
its class shall also be accounted for using the same model, unless there is     no active market for those assets.73   A c...
way through the process (see paragraph 65), the revaluation model may be     applied to the whole of that asset.78   It is...
82   If the fair value of a revalued intangible asset can no longer be determined     by reference to an active market, th...
Useful life88   An entity shall assess whether the useful life of an intangible asset is finite     or indefinite and, if ...
(g) the period of control over the asset and legal or similar limits on the use of the         asset, such as the expiry d...
period over which the entity controls access to these benefits. The useful life is     the shorter of the periods determin...
amortisation charge for each period shall be recognised in profit or loss      unless this or another Standard permits or ...
entity expects to dispose of the intangible asset before the end of its economic      life.102   An estimate of an asset’s...
In this case, economic benefits that flow from the asset may not be received until      later periods.Intangible assets wi...
111   To determine whether an intangible asset is impaired, an entity applies Ind AS      36. That Standard explains when ...
116   The consideration receivable on disposal of an intangible asset is recognised      initially at its fair value. If p...
(i)     additions,   indicating     separately    those    from        internal                        development,       ...
(e)              copyrights, patents and other industrial property rights, service                       and operating rig...
(c)    for intangible assets acquired by way of a government grant and             initially recognised at fair value (see...
(b)    the amount of the revaluation surplus that relates to intangible             assets at the beginning and end of the...
Ind IAS 38Intangible AssetsIllustrative examplesThese examples accompany, but are not part of Ind AS 38.Assessing the usef...
AS 36 by assessing at the end of each reporting period whether there is any indicationthat it may be impaired.Example 3 An...
The route authority may be renewed every five years, and the acquiring entity intends tocomply with the applicable rules a...
impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 annually and whenever there is an indicationthat it may be impaired.Example 9 A tr...
Appendix AIntangible Assets—Web Site Costs(This appendix is an integral part of Ind AS 38)Issue1      An entity may incur ...
(a)    whether the web site is an internally generated intangible asset that is           subject to the requirements of I...
As38 intangible assets
As38 intangible assets
As38 intangible assets
As38 intangible assets
As38 intangible assets
As38 intangible assets
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As38 intangible assets

  1. 1. Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 38Intangible AssetsContents ParagraphsOBJECTIVE 1SCOPE 2–7DEFINITIONS 8–17Intangible assets 9–17 Identifiability 11–12 Control 13–16 Future economic benefits 17RECOGNITION AND MEASUREMENT 18–67Separate acquisition 25–32Acquisition as part of a business combination 33–43 Measuring the fair value of an intangible asset acquired in a business combination 35–41 Subsequent expenditure on an acquired in-process research and development project 42–43Acquisition by way of a government grant 44Exchanges of assets 45–47Internally generated goodwill 48–50Internally generated intangible assets 51–67 Research phase 54–56 Development phase 57–64 Cost of an internally generated intangible asset 65–67RECOGNITION OF AN EXPENSE 68–71Past expenses not to be recognised as an asset 71MEASUREMENT AFTER RECOGNITION 72–87Cost model 74Revaluation model 75–87USEFUL LIFE 88–96 1
  2. 2. INTANGIBLE ASSETS WITH FINITE USEFULLIVES 97–106Amortisation period and amortisation method 97–99Residual value 100–103Review of amortisation period and amortisationmethod 104–106INTANGIBLE ASSETS WITH INDEFINITEUSEFUL LIVES 107–110Review of useful life assessment 109–110RECOVERABILITY OF THE CARRYINGAMOUNT-IMPAIRMENT LOSSES 111RETIREMENTS AND DISPOSALS 112–117DISCLOSURE 118–128General 118–123Intangible assets measured after recognitionusing the revaluation model 124–125Research and development expenditure 126–127Other information 128ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLESAssessing the useful lives of intangible assetsAPPENDICESA Intangible Assets—Web Site CostsB References to matters contained in other Indian Accounting Standards1 Comparison with IAS 38, Intangible Assets 2
  3. 3. Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 38 Intangible Assets(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type,which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles. ).Objective1 The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for intangible assets that are not dealt with specifically in another Standard. This Standard requires an entity to recognise an intangible asset if, and only if, specified criteria are met. The Standard also specifies how to measure the carrying amount of intangible assets and requires specified disclosures about intangible assets.Scope2 This Standard shall be applied in accounting for intangible assets, except (a) intangible assets that are within the scope of another Standard; (b) financial assets, as defined in Ind AS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation; (c) the recognition and measurement of exploration and evaluation assets (see Ind AS 106 Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources); and (d) expenditure on the development and extraction of minerals, oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources. 3
  4. 4. 3 If another Standard prescribes the accounting for a specific type of intangible asset, an entity applies that Standard instead of this Standard. For example, this Standard does not apply to: (a) intangible assets held by an entity for sale in the ordinary course of business (see Ind AS 2 Inventories and Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts). (b) deferred tax assets (see Ind AS 12 Income Taxes). (c) leases that are within the scope of Ind AS 17 Leases. (d) assets arising from employee benefits (see Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits). (e) financial assets as defined in Ind AS 32. The recognition and measurement of some financial assets are covered by Ind AS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements, Ind AS 28 Investments in Associates and Ind AS 31 Interests in Joint Ventures. (f) goodwill acquired in a business combination (see Ind AS 103 Business Combinations). (g) deferred acquisition costs, and intangible assets, arising from an insurer’s contractual rights under insurance contracts within the scope of Ind AS 104 Insurance Contracts. Ind AS 104 sets out specific disclosure requirements for those deferred acquisition costs but not for those intangible assets. Therefore, the disclosure requirements in this Standard apply to those intangible assets. (h) non-current intangible assets classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with Ind AS 105 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations.4 Some intangible assets may be contained in or on a physical substance such as a compact disc (in the case of computer software), legal documentation (in the case of a licence or patent) or film. In determining whether an asset that incorporates both intangible and tangible elements should be treated under Ind AS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment or as an intangible asset under this Standard, an entity uses judgement to assess which element is more significant. For example, computer software for a computer-controlled machine tool that cannot operate without that specific software is an integral part of the related 4
  5. 5. hardware and it is treated as property, plant and equipment. The same applies to the operating system of a computer. When the software is not an integral part of the related hardware, computer software is treated as an intangible asset.5 This Standard applies to, among other things, expenditure on advertising, training, start-up, research and development activities. Research and development activities are directed to the development of knowledge. Therefore, although these activities may result in an asset with physical substance (eg a prototype), the physical element of the asset is secondary to its intangible component, ie the knowledge embodied in it.6 In the case of a finance lease, the underlying asset may be either tangible or intangible. After initial recognition, a lessee accounts for an intangible asset held under a finance lease in accordance with this Standard. Rights under licensing agreements for items such as motion picture films, video recordings, plays, manuscripts, patents and copyrights are excluded from the scope of Ind AS 17 and are within the scope of this Standard.7 Exclusions from the scope of a Standard may occur if activities or transactions are so specialised that they give rise to accounting issues that may need to be dealt with in a different way. Such issues arise in the accounting for expenditure on the exploration for, or development and extraction of, oil, gas and mineral deposits in extractive industries and in the case of insurance contracts. Therefore, this Standard does not apply to expenditure on such activities and contracts. However, this Standard applies to other intangible assets used (such as computer software), and other expenditure incurred (such as start-up costs), in extractive industries or by insurers.Definitions8 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified: An active market is a market in which all the following conditions exist: (a) the items traded in the market are homogeneous; 5
  6. 6. (b) willing buyers and sellers can normally be found at any time; and(c) prices are available to the public.Amortisation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of anintangible asset over its useful life.An asset is a resource:(a) controlled by an entity as a result of past events; and(b) from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity.Carrying amount is the amount at which an asset is recognised in thebalance sheet after deducting any accumulated amortisation andaccumulated impairment losses thereon.Cost is the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid or the fair value ofother consideration given to acquire an asset at the time of its acquisitionor construction, or, when applicable, the amount attributed to that assetwhen initially recognised in accordance with the specific requirements ofother Indian Accounting Standards, eg Ind AS 102 Share-based Payment.Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted forcost, less its residual value.Development is the application of research findings or other knowledge to aplan or design for the production of new or substantially improvedmaterials, devices, products, processes, systems or services before thestart of commercial production or use.Entity-specific value is the present value of the cash flows an entity expectsto arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at theend of its useful life or expects to incur when settling a liability.Fair value of an asset is the amount for which that asset could be exchangedbetween knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction. 6
  7. 7. An impairment loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance. Monetary assets are money held and assets to be received in fixed or determinable amounts of money. Research is original and planned investigation undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding. The residual value of an intangible asset is the estimated amount that an entity would currently obtain from disposal of the asset, after deducting the estimated costs of disposal, if the asset were already of the age and in the condition expected at the end of its useful life. Useful life is: (a) the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an entity; (b) the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by an entity. Intangible assets9 Entities frequently expend resources, or incur liabilities, on the acquisition, development, maintenance or enhancement of intangible resources such as scientific or technical knowledge, design and implementation of new processes or systems, licences, intellectual property, market knowledge and trademarks (including brand names and publishing titles). Common examples of items encompassed by these broad headings are computer software, patents, copyrights, motion picture films, customer lists, mortgage servicing rights, fishing 7
  8. 8. licences, import quotas, franchises, customer or supplier relationships, customer loyalty, market share and marketing rights.10 Not all the items described in paragraph 9 meet the definition of an intangible asset, ie identifiability, control over a resource and existence of future economic benefits. If an item within the scope of this Standard does not meet the definition of an intangible asset, expenditure to acquire it or generate it internally is recognised as an expense when it is incurred. However, if the item is acquired in a business combination, it forms part of the goodwill recognised at the acquisition date (see paragraph 68). Identifiability11 The definition of an intangible asset requires an intangible asset to be identifiable to distinguish it from goodwill. Goodwill recognised in a business combination is an asset representing the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognised. The future economic benefits may result from synergy between the identifiable assets acquired or from assets that, individually, do not qualify for recognition in the financial statements.12 An asset is identifiable if it either: (a) is separable, ie is capable of being separated or divided from the entity and sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or together with a related contract, identifiable asset or liability, regardless of whether the entity intends to do so; or (b) arises from contractual or other legal rights, regardless of whether those rights are transferable or separable from the entity or from other rights and obligations. Control13 An entity controls an asset if the entity has the power to obtain the future economic benefits flowing from the underlying resource and to restrict the access 8
  9. 9. of others to those benefits. The capacity of an entity to control the future economic benefits from an intangible asset would normally stem from legal rights that are enforceable in a court of law. In the absence of legal rights, it is more difficult to demonstrate control. However, legal enforceability of a right is not a necessary condition for control because an entity may be able to control the future economic benefits in some other way.14 Market and technical knowledge may give rise to future economic benefits. An entity controls those benefits if, for example, the knowledge is protected by legal rights such as copyrights, a restraint of trade agreement (where permitted) or by a legal duty on employees to maintain confidentiality.15 An entity may have a team of skilled staff and may be able to identify incremental staff skills leading to future economic benefits from training. The entity may also expect that the staff will continue to make their skills available to the entity. However, an entity usually has insufficient control over the expected future economic benefits arising from a team of skilled staff and from training for these items to meet the definition of an intangible asset. For a similar reason, specific management or technical talent is unlikely to meet the definition of an intangible asset, unless it is protected by legal rights to use it and to obtain the future economic benefits expected from it, and it also meets the other parts of the definition.16 An entity may have a portfolio of customers or a market share and expect that, because of its efforts in building customer relationships and loyalty, the customers will continue to trade with the entity. However, in the absence of legal rights to protect, or other ways to control, the relationships with customers or the loyalty of the customers to the entity, the entity usually has insufficient control over the expected economic benefits from customer relationships and loyalty for such items (eg portfolio of customers, market shares, customer relationships and customer loyalty) to meet the definition of intangible assets. In the absence of legal rights to protect customer relationships, exchange transactions for the same or similar non-contractual customer relationships (other than as part of a business combination) provide evidence that the entity is nonetheless able to control the expected future economic benefits flowing from the customer 9
  10. 10. relationships. Because such exchange transactions also provide evidence that the customer relationships are separable, those customer relationships meet the definition of an intangible asset. Future economic benefits17 The future economic benefits flowing from an intangible asset may include revenue from the sale of products or services, cost savings, or other benefits resulting from the use of the asset by the entity. For example, the use of intellectual property in a production process may reduce future production costs rather than increase future revenues. Recognition and measurement18 The recognition of an item as an intangible asset requires an entity to demonstrate that the item meets: (a) the definition of an intangible asset (see paragraphs 8–17); and (b) the recognition criteria (see paragraphs 21–23). This requirement applies to costs incurred initially to acquire or internally generate an intangible asset and those incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it.19 Paragraphs 25–32 deal with the application of the recognition criteria to separately acquired intangible assets, and paragraphs 33–43 deal with their application to intangible assets acquired in a business combination. Paragraph 44 deals with the initial measurement of intangible assets acquired by way of a government grant, paragraphs 45–47 with exchanges of intangible assets, and paragraphs 48–50 with the treatment of internally generated goodwill. Paragraphs 51–67 deal with the initial recognition and measurement of internally generated intangible assets.20 The nature of intangible assets is such that, in many cases, there are no additions to such an asset or replacements of part of it. Accordingly, most 10
  11. 11. subsequent expenditures are likely to maintain the expected future economic benefits embodied in an existing intangible asset rather than meet the definition of an intangible asset and the recognition criteria in this Standard. In addition, it is often difficult to attribute subsequent expenditure directly to a particular intangible asset rather than to the business as a whole. Therefore, only rarely will subsequent expenditure—expenditure incurred after the initial recognition of an acquired intangible asset or after completion of an internally generated intangible asset—be recognised in the carrying amount of an asset. Consistently with paragraph 63, subsequent expenditure on brands, mastheads, publishing titles, customer lists and items similar in substance (whether externally acquired or internally generated) is always recognised in profit or loss as incurred. This is because such expenditure cannot be distinguished from expenditure to develop the business as a whole.21 An intangible asset shall be recognised if, and only if: (a) it is probable that the expected future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the entity; and (b) the cost of the asset can be measured reliably.22 An entity shall assess the probability of expected future economic benefits using reasonable and supportable assumptions that represent management’s best estimate of the set of economic conditions that will exist over the useful life of the asset.23 An entity uses judgement to assess the degree of certainty attached to the flow of future economic benefits that are attributable to the use of the asset on the basis of the evidence available at the time of initial recognition, giving greater weight to external evidence.24 An intangible asset shall be measured initially at cost. Separate acquisition 11
  12. 12. 25 Normally, the price an entity pays to acquire separately an intangible asset will reflect expectations about the probability that the expected future economic benefits embodied in the asset will flow to the entity. In other words, the entity expects there to be an inflow of economic benefits, even if there is uncertainty about the timing or the amount of the inflow. Therefore, the probability recognition criterion in paragraph 21(a) is always considered to be satisfied for separately acquired intangible assets.26 In addition, the cost of a separately acquired intangible asset can usually be measured reliably. This is particularly so when the purchase consideration is in the form of cash or other monetary assets.27 The cost of a separately acquired intangible asset comprises: (a) its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates; and (b) any directly attributable cost of preparing the asset for its intended use.28 Examples of directly attributable costs are: (a) costs of employee benefits (as defined in Ind AS 19) arising directly from bringing the asset to its working condition; (b) professional fees arising directly from bringing the asset to its working condition; and (c) costs of testing whether the asset is functioning properly.29 Examples of expenditures that are not part of the cost of an intangible asset are: (a) costs of introducing a new product or service (including costs of advertising and promotional activities); (b) costs of conducting business in a new location or with a new class of customer (including costs of staff training); and (c) administration and other general overhead costs. 12
  13. 13. 30 Recognition of costs in the carrying amount of an intangible asset ceases when the asset is in the condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Therefore, costs incurred in using or redeploying an intangible asset are not included in the carrying amount of that asset. For example, the following costs are not included in the carrying amount of an intangible asset: (a) costs incurred while an asset capable of operating in the manner intended by management has yet to be brought into use; and (b) initial operating losses, such as those incurred while demand for the asset’s output builds up.31 Some operations occur in connection with the development of an intangible asset, but are not necessary to bring the asset to the condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. These incidental operations may occur before or during the development activities. Because incidental operations are not necessary to bring an asset to the condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, the income and related expenses of incidental operations are recognised immediately in profit or loss, and included in their respective classifications of income and expense.32 If payment for an intangible asset is deferred beyond normal credit terms, its cost is the cash price equivalent. The difference between this amount and the total payments is recognised as interest expense over the period of credit unless it is capitalised in accordance with Ind AS 23 Borrowing Costs. Acquisition as part of a business combination33 In accordance with Ind AS 103 Business Combinations, if an intangible asset is acquired in a business combination, the cost of that intangible asset is its fair value at the acquisition date. The fair value of an intangible asset will reflect expectations about the probability that the expected future economic benefits embodied in the asset will flow to the entity. In other words, the entity expects 13
  14. 14. there to be an inflow of economic benefits, even if there is uncertainty about the timing or the amount of the inflow. Therefore, the probability recognition criterion in paragraph 21(a) is always considered to be satisfied for intangible assets acquired in business combinations. If an asset acquired in a business combination is separable or arises from contractual or other legal rights, sufficient information exists to measure reliably the fair value of the asset. Thus, the reliable measurement criterion in paragraph 21(b) is always considered to be satisfied for intangible assets acquired in business combinations.34 In accordance with this Standard and Ind AS 103, an acquirer recognises at the acquisition date, separately from goodwill, an intangible asset of the acquiree, irrespective of whether the asset had been recognised by the acquiree before the business combination. This means that the acquirer recognises as an asset separately from goodwill an in-process research and development project of the acquiree if the project meets the definition of an intangible asset. An acquiree’s in-process research and development project meets the definition of an intangible asset when it: (a) meets the definition of an asset; and (b) is identifiable, ie is separable or arises from contractual or other legal rights. Measuring the fair value of an intangible asset acquired in a business combination35 If an intangible asset acquired in a business combination is separable or arises from contractual or other legal rights, sufficient information exists to measure reliably the fair value of the asset. When, for the estimates used to measure an intangible asset’s fair value, there is a range of possible outcomes with different probabilities, that uncertainty enters into the measurement of the asset’s fair value.36 An intangible asset acquired in a business combination might be separable, but only together with a related contract, identifiable asset or liability. In such cases, 14
  15. 15. the acquirer recognises the intangible asset separately from goodwill, but together with the related item.37 The acquirer may recognise a group of complementary intangible assets as a single asset provided the individual assets have similar useful lives. For example, the terms ‘brand’ and ‘brand name’ are often used as synonym for trademarks and other marks. However, the former are general marketing terms that are typically used to refer to a group of complimentary assets such as a trademark (or service mark) and its related trade name, formulas, recipes and technological expertise.38 [Refer to Appendix 1]39 Quoted market prices in an active market provide the most reliable estimate of the fair value of an intangible asset (see also paragraph 78). The appropriate market price is usually the current bid price. If current bid prices are unavailable, the price of the most recent similar transaction may provide a basis from which to estimate fair value, provided that there has not been a significant change in economic circumstances between the transaction date and the date at which the asset’s fair value is estimated.40 If no active market exists for an intangible asset, its fair value is the amount that the entity would have paid for the asset, at the acquisition date, in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable and willing parties, on the basis of the best information available. In determining this amount, an entity considers the outcome of recent transactions for similar assets. For example, an entity may apply multiples reflecting current market transactions to factors that drive the profitability of the asset (such as revenue, operating profit or earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation).41 Entities that are involved in the purchase and sale of intangible assets may have developed techniques for estimating their fair values indirectly. These techniques may be used for initial measurement of an intangible asset acquired in a business combination if their objective is to estimate fair value and if they reflect current transactions and practices in the industry to which the asset belongs. These techniques include, for example: 15
  16. 16. (a) discounting estimated future net cash flows from the asset; or (b) estimating the costs the entity avoids by owning the intangible asset and not needing: (i) to license it from another party in an arm’s length transaction (as in the ‘relief from royalty’ approach; using discounted net cash flows );or (ii) to recreate or replace it (as in the cost approach). Subsequent expenditure on an acquired in-process research and development project42 Research or development expenditure that: (a) relates to an in-process research or development project acquired separately or in a business combination and recognised as an intangible asset; and (b) is incurred after the acquisition of that project shall be accounted for in accordance with paragraphs 54–62.43 Applying the requirements in paragraphs 54–62 means that subsequent expenditure on an in-process research or development project acquired separately or in a business combination and recognised as an intangible asset is: (a) recognised as an expense when incurred if it is research expenditure; (b) recognised as an expense when incurred if it is development expenditure that does not satisfy the criteria for recognition as an intangible asset in paragraph 57; and (c) added to the carrying amount of the acquired in-process research or development project if it is development expenditure that satisfies the recognition criteria in paragraph 57. 16
  17. 17. Acquisition by way of a government grant44 In some cases, an intangible asset may be acquired free of charge, or for nominal consideration, by way of a government grant. This may happen when a government transfers or allocates to an entity intangible assets such as airport landing rights, licences to operate radio or television stations, import licences or quotas or rights to access other restricted resources. In accordance with Ind AS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance, an entity recognises both the intangible asset and the grant initially at fair value. Exchanges of assets45 One or more intangible assets may be acquired in exchange for a non-monetary asset or assets, or a combination of monetary and non-monetary assets. The following discussion refers simply to an exchange of one non-monetary asset for another, but it also applies to all exchanges described in the preceding sentence. The cost of such an intangible asset is measured at fair value unless (a) the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or (b) the fair value of neither the asset received nor the asset given up is reliably measurable. The acquired asset is measured in this way even if an entity cannot immediately derecognise the asset given up. If the acquired asset is not measured at fair value, its cost is measured at the carrying amount of the asset given up.46 An entity determines whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance by considering the extent to which its future cash flows are expected to change as a result of the transaction. An exchange transaction has commercial substance if: (a) the configuration (ie risk, timing and amount) of the cash flows of the asset received differs from the configuration of the cash flows of the asset transferred; or (b) the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity’s operations affected by the transaction changes as a result of the exchange; and 17
  18. 18. (c) the difference in (a) or (b) is significant relative to the fair value of the assets exchanged. For the purpose of determining whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance, the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity’s operations affected by the transaction shall reflect post-tax cash flows. The result of these analyses may be clear without an entity having to perform detailed calculations.47 Paragraph 21(b) specifies that a condition for the recognition of an intangible asset is that the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. The fair value of an intangible asset for which comparable market transactions do not exist is reliably measurable if (a) the variability in the range of reasonable fair value estimates is not significant for that asset or (b) the probabilities of the various estimates within the range can be reasonably assessed and used in estimating fair value. If an entity is able to determine reliably the fair value of either the asset received or the asset given up, then the fair value of the asset given up is used to measure cost unless the fair value of the asset received is more clearly evident. Internally generated goodwill48 Internally generated goodwill shall not be recognised as an asset.49 In some cases, expenditure is incurred to generate future economic benefits, but it does not result in the creation of an intangible asset that meets the recognition criteria in this Standard. Such expenditure is often described as contributing to internally generated goodwill. Internally generated goodwill is not recognised as an asset because it is not an identifiable resource (ie it is not separable nor does it arise from contractual or other legal rights) controlled by the entity that can be measured reliably at cost.50 Differences between the market value of an entity and the carrying amount of its identifiable net assets at any time may capture a range of factors that affect the value of the entity. However, such differences do not represent the cost of intangible assets controlled by the entity. Internally generated intangible assets 18
  19. 19. 51 It is sometimes difficult to assess whether an internally generated intangible asset qualifies for recognition because of problems in: (a) identifying whether and when there is an identifiable asset that will generate expected future economic benefits; and (b) determining the cost of the asset reliably. In some cases, the cost of generating an intangible asset internally cannot be distinguished from the cost of maintaining or enhancing the entity’s internally generated goodwill or of running day-to-day operations. Therefore, in addition to complying with the general requirements for the recognition and initial measurement of an intangible asset, an entity applies the requirements and guidance in paragraphs 52–67 to all internally generated intangible assets.52 To assess whether an internally generated intangible asset meets the criteria for recognition, an entity classifies the generation of the asset into: (a) a research phase; and (b) a development phase. Although the terms ‘research’ and ‘development’ are defined, the terms ‘research phase’ and ‘development phase’ have a broader meaning for the purpose of this Standard.53 If an entity cannot distinguish the research phase from the development phase of an internal project to create an intangible asset, the entity treats the expenditure on that project as if it were incurred in the research phase only. Research phase54 No intangible asset arising from research (or from the research phase of an internal project) shall be recognised. Expenditure on research (or on the research phase of an internal project) shall be recognised as an expense when it is incurred. 19
  20. 20. 55 In the research phase of an internal project, an entity cannot demonstrate that an intangible asset exists that will generate probable future economic benefits. Therefore, this expenditure is recognised as an expense when it is incurred.56 Examples of research activities are: (a) activities aimed at obtaining new knowledge; (b) the search for, evaluation and final selection of, applications of research findings or other knowledge; (c) the search for alternatives for materials, devices, products, processes, systems or services; and (d) the formulation, design, evaluation and final selection of possible alternatives for new or improved materials, devices, products, processes, systems or services. Development phase57 An intangible asset arising from development (or from the development phase of an internal project) shall be recognised if, and only if, an entity can demonstrate all of the following: (a) the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale. (b) its intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it. (c) its ability to use or sell the intangible asset. (d) how the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits. Among other things, the entity can demonstrate the existence of a market for the output of the intangible asset or the intangible asset itself or, if it is to be used internally, the usefulness of the intangible asset. 20
  21. 21. (e) the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset. (f) its ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.58 In the development phase of an internal project, an entity can, in some instances, identify an intangible asset and demonstrate that the asset will generate probable future economic benefits. This is because the development phase of a project is further advanced than the research phase.59 Examples of development activities are: (a) the design, construction and testing of pre-production or pre-use prototypes and models; (b) the design of tools, jigs, moulds and dies involving new technology; (c) the design, construction and operation of a pilot plant that is not of a scale economically feasible for commercial production; and (d) the design, construction and testing of a chosen alternative for new or improved materials, devices, products, processes, systems or services.60 To demonstrate how an intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits, an entity assesses the future economic benefits to be received from the asset using the principles in Ind AS 36 Impairment of Assets. If the asset will generate economic benefits only in combination with other assets, the entity applies the concept of cash-generating units in Ind AS 36.61 Availability of resources to complete, use and obtain the benefits from an intangible asset can be demonstrated by, for example, a business plan showing the technical, financial and other resources needed and the entity’s ability to secure those resources. In some cases, an entity demonstrates the availability of external finance by obtaining a lender’s indication of its willingness to fund the plan. 21
  22. 22. 62 An entity’s costing systems can often measure reliably the cost of generating an intangible asset internally, such as salary and other expenditure incurred in securing copyrights or licences or developing computer software.63 Internally generated brands, mastheads, publishing titles, customer lists and items similar in substance shall not be recognised as intangible assets.64 Expenditure on internally generated brands, mastheads, publishing titles, customer lists and items similar in substance cannot be distinguished from the cost of developing the business as a whole. Therefore, such items are not recognised as intangible assets. Cost of an internally generated intangible asset65 The cost of an internally generated intangible asset for the purpose of paragraph 24 is the sum of expenditure incurred from the date when the intangible asset first meets the recognition criteria in paragraphs 21, 22 and 57. Paragraph 71 prohibits reinstatement of expenditure previously recognised as an expense.66 The cost of an internally generated intangible asset comprises all directly attributable costs necessary to create, produce, and prepare the asset to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Examples of directly attributable costs are: (a) costs of materials and services used or consumed in generating the intangible asset; (b) costs of employee benefits (as defined in Ind AS 19) arising from the generation of the intangible asset; (c) fees to register a legal right; and (d) amortisation of patents and licences that are used to generate the intangible asset. 22
  23. 23. Ind AS 23 specifies criteria for the recognition of interest as an element of the cost of an internally generated intangible asset.67 The following are not components of the cost of an internally generated intangible asset: (a) selling, administrative and other general overhead expenditure unless this expenditure can be directly attributed to preparing the asset for use; (b) identified inefficiencies and initial operating losses incurred before the asset achieves planned performance; and (c) expenditure on training staff to operate the asset.Example illustrating paragraph 65An entity is developing a new production process. During 20X5, expenditure incurredwas Rs.1,000 , of which Rs.900 was incurred before 1 December 20X5 and Rs.100 wasincurred between 1 December 20X5 and 31 December 20X5. The entity is able todemonstrate that, at 1 December 20X5, the production process met the criteria forrecognition as an intangible asset. The recoverable amount of the know-how embodiedin the process (including future cash outflows to complete the process before it isavailable for use) is estimated to be Rs.500.At the end of 20X5, the production process is recognised as an intangible asset at a costof Rs.100 (expenditure incurred since the date when the recognition criteria were met,ie 1 December 20X5). The Rs.900 expenditure incurred before 1 December 20X5 isrecognised as an expense because the recognition criteria were not met until1 December 20X5. This expenditure does not form part of the cost of the productionprocess recognised in the balance sheet.During 20X6, expenditure incurred is Rs.2,000. At the end of 20X6, the recoverableamount of the know-how embodied in the process (including future cash outflows tocomplete the process before it is available for use) is estimated to be Rs.1,900.At the end of 20X6, the cost of the production process is Rs.2,100 (Rs.100 expenditure 23
  24. 24. recognised at the end of 20X5 plus Rs.2,000 expenditure recognised in 20X6). Theentity recognises an impairment loss of Rs.200 to adjust the carrying amount of theprocess before impairment loss (Rs.2,100) to its recoverable amount (Rs.1,900).This impairment loss will be reversed in a subsequent period if the requirements for thereversal of an impairment loss in Ind AS 36 are met.Recognition of an expense68 Expenditure on an intangible item shall be recognised as an expense when it is incurred unless: (a) it forms part of the cost of an intangible asset that meets the recognition criteria (see paragraphs 18–67); or (b) the item is acquired in a business combination and cannot be recognised as an intangible asset. If this is the case, it forms part of the amount recognised as goodwill at the acquisition date (see Ind AS 103).69 In some cases, expenditure is incurred to provide future economic benefits to an entity, but no intangible asset or other asset is acquired or created that can be recognised. In the case of the supply of goods, the entity recognises such expenditure as an expense when it has a right to access those goods. In the case of the supply of services, the entity recognises the expenditure as an expense when it receives the services. For example, expenditure on research is recognised as an expense when it is incurred (see paragraph 54), except when it is acquired as part of a business combination. Other examples of expenditure that is recognised as an expense when it is incurred include: (a) expenditure on start-up activities (ie start-up costs), unless this expenditure is included in the cost of an item of property, plant and equipment in accordance with Ind AS 16. Start-up costs may consist of establishment costs such as legal and secretarial costs incurred in 24
  25. 25. establishing a legal entity, expenditure to open a new facility or business (ie pre-opening costs) or expenditures for starting new operations or launching new products or processes (ie pre-operating costs). (b) expenditure on training activities. (c) expenditure on advertising and promotional activities (including mail order catalogues). (d) expenditure on relocating or reorganising part or all of an entity.69A An entity has a right to access goods when it owns them. Similarly, it has a right to access goods when they have been constructed by a supplier in accordance with the terms of a supply contract and the entity could demand delivery of them in return for payment. Services are received when they are performed by a supplier in accordance with a contract to deliver them to the entity and not when the entity uses them to deliver another service, for example, to deliver an advertisement to customers.70 Paragraph 68 does not preclude an entity from recognising a prepayment as an asset when payment for goods has been made in advance of the entity obtaining a right to access those goods. Similarly, paragraph 68 does not preclude an entity from recognising a prepayment as an asset when payment for services has been made in advance of the entity receiving those services. Past expenses not to be recognised as an asset71 Expenditure on an intangible item that was initially recognised as an expense shall not be recognised as part of the cost of an intangible asset at a later date.Measurement after recognition72 An entity shall choose either the cost model in paragraph 74 or the revaluation model in paragraph 75 as its accounting policy. If an intangible asset is accounted for using the revaluation model, all the other assets in 25
  26. 26. its class shall also be accounted for using the same model, unless there is no active market for those assets.73 A class of intangible assets is a grouping of assets of a similar nature and use in an entity’s operations. The items within a class of intangible assets are revalued simultaneously to avoid selective revaluation of assets and the reporting of amounts in the financial statements representing a mixture of costs and values as at different dates. Cost model74 After initial recognition, an intangible asset shall be carried at its cost less any accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses. Revaluation model75 After initial recognition, an intangible asset shall be carried at a revalued amount, being its fair value at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated amortisation and any subsequent accumulated impairment losses. For the purpose of revaluations under this Standard, fair value shall be determined by reference to an active market. Revaluations shall be made with such regularity that at the end of the reporting period the carrying amount of the asset does not differ materially from its fair value.76 The revaluation model does not allow: (a) the revaluation of intangible assets that have not previously been recognised as assets; or (b) the initial recognition of intangible assets at amounts other than cost77 The revaluation model is applied after an asset has been initially recognised at cost. However, if only part of the cost of an intangible asset is recognised as an asset because the asset did not meet the criteria for recognition until part of the 26
  27. 27. way through the process (see paragraph 65), the revaluation model may be applied to the whole of that asset.78 It is uncommon for an active market with the characteristics described in paragraph 8 to exist for an intangible asset, although this may happen. For example, in some jurisdictions, an active market may exist for freely transferable taxi licences, fishing licences or production quotas. However, an active market cannot exist for brands, newspaper mastheads, music and film publishing rights, patents or trademarks, because each such asset is unique. Also, although intangible assets are bought and sold, contracts are negotiated between individual buyers and sellers, and transactions are relatively infrequent. For these reasons, the price paid for one asset may not provide sufficient evidence of the fair value of another. Moreover, prices are often not available to the public.79 The frequency of revaluations depends on the volatility of the fair values of the intangible assets being revalued. If the fair value of a revalued asset differs materially from its carrying amount, a further revaluation is necessary. Some intangible assets may experience significant and volatile movements in fair value, thus necessitating annual revaluation. Such frequent revaluations are unnecessary for intangible assets with only insignificant movements in fair value.80 If an intangible asset is revalued, any accumulated amortisation at the date of the revaluation is either: (a) restated proportionately with the change in the gross carrying amount of the asset so that the carrying amount of the asset after revaluation equals its revalued amount; or (b) eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset and the net amount restated to the revalued amount of the asset.81 If an intangible asset in a class of revalued intangible assets cannot be revalued because there is no active market for this asset, the asset shall be carried at its cost less any accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. 27
  28. 28. 82 If the fair value of a revalued intangible asset can no longer be determined by reference to an active market, the carrying amount of the asset shall be its revalued amount at the date of the last revaluation by reference to the active market less any subsequent accumulated amortisation and any subsequent accumulated impairment losses.83 The fact that an active market no longer exists for a revalued intangible asset may indicate that the asset may be impaired and that it needs to be tested in accordance with Ind AS 36.84 If the fair value of the asset can be determined by reference to an active market at a subsequent measurement date, the revaluation model is applied from that date.85 If an intangible asset’s carrying amount is increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase shall be recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation surplus. However, the increase shall be recognised in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognised in profit or loss.86 If an intangible asset’s carrying amount is decreased as a result of a revaluation, the decrease shall be recognised in profit or loss. However, the decrease shall be recognised in other comprehensive income to the extent of any credit balance in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset. The decrease recognised in other comprehensive income reduces the amount accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation surplus.87 The cumulative revaluation surplus included in equity may be transferred directly to retained earnings when the surplus is realised. The whole surplus may be realised on the retirement or disposal of the asset. However, some of the surplus may be realised as the asset is used by the entity; in such a case, the amount of the surplus realised is the difference between amortisation based on the revalued carrying amount of the asset and amortisation that would have been recognised based on the asset’s historical cost. The transfer from revaluation surplus to retained earnings is not made through profit or loss. 28
  29. 29. Useful life88 An entity shall assess whether the useful life of an intangible asset is finite or indefinite and, if finite, the length of, or number of production or similar units constituting, that useful life. An intangible asset shall be regarded by the entity as having an indefinite useful life when, based on an analysis of all of the relevant factors, there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which the asset is expected to generate net cash inflows for the entity.89 The accounting for an intangible asset is based on its useful life. An intangible asset with a finite useful life is amortised (see paragraphs 97–106), and an intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not (see paragraphs 107–110). The Illustrative Examples accompanying this Standard illustrate the determination of useful life for different intangible assets, and the subsequent accounting for those assets based on the useful life determinations.90 Many factors are considered in determining the useful life of an intangible asset, including: (a) the expected usage of the asset by the entity and whether the asset could be managed efficiently by another management team; (b) typical product life cycles for the asset and public information on estimates of useful lives of similar assets that are used in a similar way; (c) technical, technological, commercial or other types of obsolescence; (d) the stability of the industry in which the asset operates and changes in the market demand for the products or services output from the asset; (e) expected actions by competitors or potential competitors; (f) the level of maintenance expenditure required to obtain the expected future economic benefits from the asset and the entity’s ability and intention to reach such a level; 29
  30. 30. (g) the period of control over the asset and legal or similar limits on the use of the asset, such as the expiry dates of related leases; and (h) whether the useful life of the asset is dependent on the useful life of other assets of the entity.91 The term ‘indefinite’ does not mean ‘infinite’. The useful life of an intangible asset reflects only that level of future maintenance expenditure required to maintain the asset at its standard of performance assessed at the time of estimating the asset’s useful life, and the entity’s ability and intention to reach such a level. A conclusion that the useful life of an intangible asset is indefinite should not depend on planned future expenditure in excess of that required to maintain the asset at that standard of performance.92 Given the history of rapid changes in technology, computer software and many other intangible assets are susceptible to technological obsolescence. Therefore, it is likely that their useful life is short.93 The useful life of an intangible asset may be very long or even indefinite. Uncertainty justifies estimating the useful life of an intangible asset on a prudent basis, but it does not justify choosing a life that is unrealistically short.94 The useful life of an intangible asset that arises from contractual or other legal rights shall not exceed the period of the contractual or other legal rights, but may be shorter depending on the period over which the entity expects to use the asset. If the contractual or other legal rights are conveyed for a limited term that can be renewed, the useful life of the intangible asset shall include the renewal period(s) only if there is evidence to support renewal by the entity without significant cost. The useful life of a reacquired right recognised as an intangible asset in a business combination is the remaining contractual period of the contract in which the right was granted and shall not include renewal periods.95 There may be both economic and legal factors influencing the useful life of an intangible asset. Economic factors determine the period over which future economic benefits will be received by the entity. Legal factors may restrict the 30
  31. 31. period over which the entity controls access to these benefits. The useful life is the shorter of the periods determined by these factors.96 Existence of the following factors, among others, indicates that an entity would be able to renew the contractual or other legal rights without significant cost: (a) there is evidence, possibly based on experience, that the contractual or other legal rights will be renewed. If renewal is contingent upon the consent of a third party, this includes evidence that the third party will give its consent; (b) there is evidence that any conditions necessary to obtain renewal will be satisfied; and (c) the cost to the entity of renewal is not significant when compared with the future economic benefits expected to flow to the entity from renewal. If the cost of renewal is significant when compared with the future economic benefits expected to flow to the entity from renewal, the ‘renewal’ cost represents, in substance, the cost to acquire a new intangible asset at the renewal date.Intangible assets with finite useful lives Amortisation period and amortisation method97 The depreciable amount of an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life. Amortisation shall begin when the asset is available for use, ie when it is in the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Amortisation shall cease at the earlier of the date that the asset is classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with Ind AS 105 and the date that the asset is derecognised. The amortisation method used shall reflect the pattern in which the asset’s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity. If that pattern cannot be determined reliably, the straight-line method shall be used. The 31
  32. 32. amortisation charge for each period shall be recognised in profit or loss unless this or another Standard permits or requires it to be included in the carrying amount of another asset.98 A variety of amortisation methods can be used to allocate the depreciable amount of an asset on a systematic basis over its useful life. These methods include the straight-line method, the diminishing balance method and the unit of production method. The method used is selected on the basis of the expected pattern of consumption of the expected future economic benefits embodied in the asset and is applied consistently from period to period, unless there is a change in the expected pattern of consumption of those future economic benefits.99 Amortisation is usually recognised in profit or loss. However, sometimes the future economic benefits embodied in an asset are absorbed in producing other assets. In this case, the amortisation charge constitutes part of the cost of the other asset and is included in its carrying amount. For example, the amortisation of intangible assets used in a production process is included in the carrying amount of inventories (see Ind AS 2 Inventories). Residual value100 The residual value of an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be assumed to be zero unless: (a) there is a commitment by a third party to purchase the asset at the end of its useful life; or (b) there is an active market for the asset and: (i) residual value can be determined by reference to that market; and (ii) it is probable that such a market will exist at the end of the asset’s useful life.101 The depreciable amount of an asset with a finite useful life is determined after deducting its residual value. A residual value other than zero implies that an 32
  33. 33. entity expects to dispose of the intangible asset before the end of its economic life.102 An estimate of an asset’s residual value is based on the amount recoverable from disposal using prices prevailing at the date of the estimate for the sale of a similar asset that has reached the end of its useful life and has operated under conditions similar to those in which the asset will be used. The residual value is reviewed at least at each financial year-end. A change in the asset’s residual value is accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with Ind AS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.103 The residual value of an intangible asset may increase to an amount equal to or greater than the asset’s carrying amount. If it does, the asset’s amortisation charge is zero unless and until its residual value subsequently decreases to an amount below the asset’s carrying amount. Review of amortisation period and amortisation method104 The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life shall be reviewed at least at each financial year-end. If the expected useful life of the asset is different from previous estimates, the amortisation period shall be changed accordingly. If there has been a change in the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset, the amortisation method shall be changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such changes shall be accounted for as changes in accounting estimates in accordance with Ind AS 8.105 During the life of an intangible asset, it may become apparent that the estimate of its useful life is inappropriate. For example, the recognition of an impairment loss may indicate that the amortisation period needs to be changed.106 Over time, the pattern of future economic benefits expected to flow to an entity from an intangible asset may change. For example, it may become apparent that a diminishing balance method of amortisation is appropriate rather than a straight-line method. Another example is if use of the rights represented by a licence is deferred pending action on other components of the business plan. 33
  34. 34. In this case, economic benefits that flow from the asset may not be received until later periods.Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives107 An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life shall not be amortised.108 In accordance with Ind AS 36, an entity is required to test an intangible asset with an indefinite useful life for impairment by comparing its recoverable amount with its carrying amount (a) annually, and (b) whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. Review of useful life assessment109 The useful life of an intangible asset that is not being amortised shall be reviewed each period to determine whether events and circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life assessment for that asset. If they do not, the change in the useful life assessment from indefinite to finite shall be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with Ind AS 8.110 In accordance with Ind AS 36, reassessing the useful life of an intangible asset as finite rather than indefinite is an indicator that the asset may be impaired. As a result, the entity tests the asset for impairment by comparing its recoverable amount, determined in accordance with Ind AS 36, with its carrying amount, and recognising any excess of the carrying amount over the recoverable amount as an impairment loss.Recoverability of the carrying amount—impairmentlosses 34
  35. 35. 111 To determine whether an intangible asset is impaired, an entity applies Ind AS 36. That Standard explains when and how an entity reviews the carrying amount of its assets, how it determines the recoverable amount of an asset and when it recognises or reverses an impairment loss.Retirements and disposals112 An intangible asset shall be derecognised: (a) on disposal; or (b) when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.113 The gain or loss arising from the derecognition of an intangible asset shall be determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds, if any, and the carrying amount of the asset. It shall be recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised (unless Ind AS 17 requires otherwise on a sale and leaseback). Gains shall not be classified as revenue.114 The disposal of an intangible asset may occur in a variety of ways (eg by sale, by entering into a finance lease, or by donation). In determining the date of disposal of such an asset, an entity applies the criteria in Ind AS 18 Revenue for recognising revenue from the sale of goods. Ind AS 17 applies to disposal by a sale and leaseback.115 If in accordance with the recognition principle in paragraph 21 an entity recognises in the carrying amount of an asset the cost of a replacement for part of an intangible asset, then it derecognises the carrying amount of the replaced part. If it is not practicable for an entity to determine the carrying amount of the replaced part, it may use the cost of the replacement as an indication of what the cost of the replaced part was at the time it was acquired or internally generated.115A In the case of a reacquired right in a business combination, if the right is subsequently reissued (sold) to a third party, the related carrying amount, if any, shall be used in determining the gain or loss on reissue. 35
  36. 36. 116 The consideration receivable on disposal of an intangible asset is recognised initially at its fair value. If payment for the intangible asset is deferred, the consideration received is recognised initially at the cash price equivalent. The difference between the nominal amount of the consideration and the cash price equivalent is recognised as interest revenue in accordance with Ind AS 18 reflecting the effective yield on the receivable.117 Amortisation of an intangible asset with a finite useful life does not cease when the intangible asset is no longer used, unless the asset has been fully depreciated or is classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with Ind AS 105.Disclosure General118 An entity shall disclose the following for each class of intangible assets, distinguishing between internally generated intangible assets and other intangible assets: (a) whether the useful lives are indefinite or finite and, if finite, the useful lives or the amortisation rates used; (b) the amortisation methods used for intangible assets with finite useful lives; (c) the gross carrying amount and any accumulated amortisation (aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period; (d) the line item(s) of the statement of profit and loss in which any amortisation of intangible assets is included; (e) a reconciliation of the carrying amount at the beginning and end of the period showing: 36
  37. 37. (i) additions, indicating separately those from internal development, those acquired separately, and those acquired through business combinations; (ii) assets classified as held for sale or included in a disposal group classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105 and other disposals; (iii) increases or decreases during the period resulting from revaluations under paragraphs 75, 85 and 86 and from impairment losses recognised or reversed in other comprehensive income in accordance with Ind AS 36 (if any); (iv) impairment losses recognised in profit or loss during the period in accordance with Ind AS 36 (if any); (v) impairment losses reversed in profit or loss during the period in accordance with Ind AS 36 (if any); (vi) any amortisation recognised during the period; (vii) net exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements into the presentation currency, and on the translation of a foreign operation into the presentation currency of the entity; and (viii) other changes in the carrying amount during the period.119 A class of intangible assets is a grouping of assets of a similar nature and use in an entity’s operations. Examples of separate classes may include: (a) brand names; (b) mastheads and publishing titles; (c) computer software; (d) licences and franchises; 37
  38. 38. (e) copyrights, patents and other industrial property rights, service and operating rights; (f) recipes, formulae, models, designs and prototypes; and (g) intangible assets under development. The classes mentioned above are disaggregated (aggregated) into smaller (larger) classes if this results in more relevant information for the users of the financial statements.120 An entity discloses information on impaired intangible assets in accordance with Ind AS 36 in addition to the information required by paragraph 118(e)(iii)–(v).121 Ind AS 8 requires an entity to disclose the nature and amount of a change in an accounting estimate that has a material effect in the current period or is expected to have a material effect in subsequent periods. Such disclosure may arise from changes in: (a) the assessment of an intangible asset’s useful life; (b) the amortisation method; or (c) residual values.122 An entity shall also disclose: (a) for an intangible asset assessed as having an indefinite useful life, the carrying amount of that asset and the reasons supporting the assessment of an indefinite useful life. In giving these reasons, the entity shall describe the factor(s) that played a significant role in determining that the asset has an indefinite useful life. (b) a description, the carrying amount and remaining amortisation period of any individual intangible asset that is material to the entity’s financial statements. 38
  39. 39. (c) for intangible assets acquired by way of a government grant and initially recognised at fair value (see paragraph 44): (i) the fair value initially recognised for these assets; (ii) their carrying amount; and (iii) whether they are measured after recognition under the cost model or the revaluation model. (d) the existence and carrying amounts of intangible assets whose title is restricted and the carrying amounts of intangible assets pledged as security for liabilities. (e) the amount of contractual commitments for the acquisition of intangible assets.123 When an entity describes the factor(s) that played a significant role in determining that the useful life of an intangible asset is indefinite, the entity considers the list of factors in paragraph 90. Intangible assets measured after recognition using the revaluation model124 If intangible assets are accounted for at revalued amounts, an entity shall disclose the following: (a) by class of intangible assets: (i) the effective date of the revaluation; (ii) the carrying amount of revalued intangible assets; and (iii) the carrying amount that would have been recognised had the revalued class of intangible assets been measured after recognition using the cost model in paragraph 74; 39
  40. 40. (b) the amount of the revaluation surplus that relates to intangible assets at the beginning and end of the period, indicating the changes during the period and any restrictions on the distribution of the balance to shareholders; and (c) the methods and significant assumptions applied in estimating the assets’ fair values.125 It may be necessary to aggregate the classes of revalued assets into larger classes for disclosure purposes. However, classes are not aggregated if this would result in the combination of a class of intangible assets that includes amounts measured under both the cost and revaluation models. Research and development expenditure126 An entity shall disclose the aggregate amount of research and development expenditure recognised as an expense during the period.127 Research and development expenditure comprises all expenditure that is directly attributable to research or development activities (see paragraphs 66 and 67 for guidance on the type of expenditure to be included for the purpose of the disclosure requirement in paragraph 126). Other information128 An entity is encouraged, but not required, to disclose the following information: (a) a description of any fully amortised intangible asset that is still in use; and (b) a brief description of significant intangible assets controlled by the entity but not recognised as assets because they did not meet the recognition criteria in this Standard or because they were acquired or generated before this standard was effective.. 40
  41. 41. Ind IAS 38Intangible AssetsIllustrative examplesThese examples accompany, but are not part of Ind AS 38.Assessing the useful lives of intangible assetsThe following guidance provides examples on determining the useful life of an intangibleasset in accordance with Ind AS 38.Each of the following examples describes an acquired intangible asset, the facts andcircumstances surrounding the determination of its useful life, and the subsequentaccounting based on that determination.Example 1 An acquired customer listA direct-mail marketing company acquires a customer list and expects that it will be ableto derive benefit from the information on the list for at least one year, but no more thanthree years.The customer list would be amortised over management’s best estimate of its useful life,say 18 months. Although the direct-mail marketing company may intend to add customernames and other information to the list in the future, the expected benefits of theacquired customer list relate only to the customers on that list at the date it wasacquired. The customer list also would be reviewed for impairment in accordance withInd AS 36 Impairment of Assets by assessing at the end of each reporting periodwhether there is any indication that the customer list may be impaired.Example 2 An acquired patent that expires in 15 yearsThe product protected by the patented technology is expected to be a source of net cashinflows for at least 15 years. The entity has a commitment from a third party to purchasethat patent in five years for 60 per cent of the fair value of the patent at the date it wasacquired, and the entity intends to sell the patent in five years.The patent would be amortised over its five-year useful life to the entity, with a residualvalue equal to the present value of 60 per cent of the patent’s fair value at the date itwas acquired. The patent would also be reviewed for impairment in accordance with Ind 41
  42. 42. AS 36 by assessing at the end of each reporting period whether there is any indicationthat it may be impaired.Example 3 An acquired copyright that has a remaining legal lifeof 50 yearsAn analysis of consumer habits and market trends provides evidence that thecopyrighted material will generate net cash inflows for only 30 more years.The copyright would be amortised over its 30-year estimated useful life. The copyrightalso would be reviewed for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 by assessing at theend of each reporting period whether there is any indication that it may be impaired.Example 4 An acquired broadcasting licence that expires in fiveyearsThe broadcasting licence is renewable every 10 years if the entity provides at least anaverage level of service to its customers and complies with the relevant legislativerequirements. The licence may be renewed indefinitely at little cost and has beenrenewed twice before the most recent acquisition. The acquiring entity intends to renewthe licence indefinitely and evidence supports its ability to do so. Historically, there hasbeen no compelling challenge to the licence renewal. The technology used inbroadcasting is not expected to be replaced by another technology at any time in theforeseeable future. Therefore, the licence is expected to contribute to the entity’s netcash inflows indefinitely.The broadcasting licence would be treated as having an indefinite useful life because itis expected to contribute to the entity’s net cash inflows indefinitely. Therefore, thelicence would not be amortised until its useful life is determined to be finite. The licencewould be tested for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 annually and wheneverthere is an indication that it may be impaired.Example 5 The broadcasting licence in Example 4The licensing authority subsequently decides that it will no longer renew broadcastinglicences, but rather will auction the licences. At the time the licensing authority’s decisionis made, the entity’s broadcasting licence has three years until it expires. The entityexpects that the licence will continue to contribute to net cash inflows until the licenceexpires.Because the broadcasting licence can no longer be renewed, its useful life is no longerindefinite. Thus, the acquired licence would be amortised over its remaining three-yearuseful life and immediately tested for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36.Example 6 An acquired airline route authority between twoEuropean cities that expires in three years 42
  43. 43. The route authority may be renewed every five years, and the acquiring entity intends tocomply with the applicable rules and regulations surrounding renewal. Route authorityrenewals are routinely granted at a minimal cost and historically have been renewedwhen the airline has complied with the applicable rules and regulations. The acquiringentity expects to provide service indefinitely between the two cities from its hub airportsand expects that the related supporting infrastructure (airport gates, slots, and terminalfacility leases) will remain in place at those airports for as long as it has the routeauthority. An analysis of demand and cash flows supports those assumptions.Because the facts and circumstances support the acquiring entity’s ability to continueproviding air service indefinitely between the two cities, the intangible asset related tothe route authority is treated as having an indefinite useful life. Therefore, the routeauthority would not be amortised until its useful life is determined to be finite. It would betested for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 annually and whenever there is anindication that it may be impaired.Example 7 An acquired trademark used to identify anddistinguish a leading consumer product that has been a market-share leader for the past eight yearsThe trademark has a remaining legal life of five years but is renewable every 10 years atlittle cost. The acquiring entity intends to renew the trademark continuously andevidence supports its ability to do so. An analysis of (1) product life cycle studies, (2)market, competitive and environmental trends, and (3) brand extension opportunitiesprovides evidence that the trademarked product will generate net cash inflows for theacquiring entity for an indefinite period.The trademark would be treated as having an indefinite useful life because it is expectedto contribute to net cash inflows indefinitely. Therefore, the trademark would not beamortised until its useful life is determined to be finite. It would be tested for impairmentin accordance with Ind AS 36 annually and whenever there is an indication that it may beimpaired.Example 8 A trademark acquired 10 years ago thatdistinguishes a leading consumer productThe trademark was regarded as having an indefinite useful life when it was acquiredbecause the trademarked product was expected to generate net cash inflowsindefinitely. However, unexpected competition has recently entered the market and willreduce future sales of the product. Management estimates that net cash inflowsgenerated by the product will be 20 per cent less for the foreseeable future. However,management expects that the product will continue to generate net cash inflowsindefinitely at those reduced amounts.As a result of the projected decrease in future net cash inflows, the entity determinesthat the estimated recoverable amount of the trademark is less than its carrying amount,and an impairment loss is recognised. Because it is still regarded as having an indefiniteuseful life, the trademark would continue not to be amortised but would be tested for 43
  44. 44. impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 annually and whenever there is an indicationthat it may be impaired.Example 9 A trademark for a line of products that was acquiredseveral years ago in a business combinationAt the time of the business combination the acquiree had been producing the line ofproducts for 35 years with many new models developed under the trademark. At theacquisition date the acquirer expected to continue producing the line, and an analysis ofvarious economic factors indicated there was no limit to the period the trademark wouldcontribute to net cash inflows. Consequently, the trademark was not amortised by theacquirer. However, management has recently decided that production of the product linewill be discontinued over the next four years.Because the useful life of the acquired trademark is no longer regarded as indefinite, thecarrying amount of the trademark would be tested for impairment in accordance with IndAS 36 and amortised over its remaining four-year useful life. 44
  45. 45. Appendix AIntangible Assets—Web Site Costs(This appendix is an integral part of Ind AS 38)Issue1 An entity may incur internal expenditure on the development and operation of its own web site for internal or external access. A web site designed for external access may be used for various purposes such as to promote and advertise an entity’s own products and services, provide electronic services, and sell products and services. A web site designed for internal access may be used to store company policies and customer details, and search relevant information.2 The stages of a web site’s development can be described as follows: (a) Planning – includes undertaking feasibility studies, defining objectives and specifications, evaluating alternatives and selecting preferences. (b) Application and Infrastructure Development – includes obtaining a domain name, purchasing and developing hardware and operating software, installing developed applications and stress testing. (c) Graphical Design Development – includes designing the appearance of web pages. (d) Content Development – includes creating, purchasing, preparing and uploading information, either textual or graphical in nature, on the web site before the completion of the web site’s development. This information may either be stored in separate databases that are integrated into (or accessed from) the web site or coded directly into the web pages.3 Once development of a web site has been completed, the Operating stage begins. During this stage, an entity maintains and enhances the applications, infrastructure, graphical design and content of the web site.4 When accounting for internal expenditure on the development and operation of an entity’s own web site for internal or external access, the issues are: 45
  46. 46. (a) whether the web site is an internally generated intangible asset that is subject to the requirements of Ind AS 38; and (b) the appropriate accounting treatment of such expenditure.5 This Appendix does not apply to expenditure on purchasing, developing, and operating hardware (eg web servers, staging servers, production servers and Internet connections) of a web site. Such expenditure is accounted for under Ind AS 16. Additionally, when an entity incurs expenditure on an Internet service provider hosting the entity’s web site, the expenditure is recognised as an expense under paragraph 88 of Ind AS 1 and the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India when the services are received.6 Ind AS 38 does not apply to intangible assets held by an entity for sale in the ordinary course of business (see Ind AS 2 and Ind AS 11 ) or leases that fall within the scope of Ind AS 17. Accordingly, this Appendix does not apply to expenditure on the development or operation of a web site (or web site software) for sale to another entity. When a web site is leased under an operating lease, the lessor applies this Appendix. When a web site is leased under a finance lease, the lessee applies this Appendix after initial recognition of the leased asset.Accounting Principles7 An entity’s own web site that arises from development and is for internal or external access is an internally generated intangible asset that is subject to the requirements of Ind AS 38.8 A web site arising from development shall be recognised as an intangible asset if, and only if, in addition to complying with the general requirements described in paragraph 21 of Ind AS 38 for recognition and initial measurement, an entity can satisfy the requirements in paragraph 57 of Ind AS 38. In particular, an entity may be able to satisfy the requirement to demonstrate how its web site will generate probable future economic benefits in accordance with paragraph 57 (d) of Ind AS 38 when, for example, the web site is capable of generating revenues, including direct revenues from enabling orders to be placed. An entity is not able to demonstrate how a web site developed solely or primarily for promoting and advertising its own products and services will generate probable future economic benefits, and consequently all expenditure on developing such a web site shall be recognised as an expense when incurred.9 Any internal expenditure on the development and operation of an entity’s own web site shall be accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 38. The nature of each activity for which expenditure is incurred (eg training employees and maintaining the web site) and the web site’s stage of development or post-development shall be evaluated to determine the appropriate accounting treatment (additional guidance is provided in the examples accompanying this Appendix). For example: 46

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