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Types of Embedded
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger
mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded
as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded
systems control many devices in common use today.
Hard to Define
Computing Systems embedded within electronic
Nearly any computing system other than a desktop
An Embedded system is a specific to a application, whereas a computer system is
Though the components are same there is substantial difference in them.
A personal computer is not designed to perform a specific function, rhather it is able to
do many things.
The essential difference is that a computer when manufactured is in blank state, the
manufacturer does not know what the customer will do with it, while an Embedded
system is application specific.
An Embedded system is a component within some large systems
If required each of the embedded systems are connected by a sort of a communication
Numerous embedded systems make up the computer system.
It is designed to do some particular task.
Embedded systems are not always standalone devices.
The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware
and are stored in ROM or flash memory chips.
Timeliness - Even infinitely fast computer embedded software needs to deal with time
because the physical processes with which it interacts evolves over time.
Concurrency - Engage with the physical world where multiple things happen at once.
Liveliness - Program must not terminate or block waiting for events that will never occur.
Heterogeneity - Different computational styles and implementation technologies
interact with events occurring.
Reactivity - React continuously to the environment at the speed of the environment.
Reliability and security - The system must be reliable and secure against errors.
Interaction with physical devices - The communication of embedded systems is
performed through unusual i/o devices that sometimes require signal conditioning.
Robustness - The conditions of the embedded systems operation may be adverse, so
they must be as robust as possible.
Easy to manufacture
Portable, such as digital watches, mp3 player, etc
Real time response
No user interface
Not much data storage
C has been the language of the embedded programmers. It is fairly simple to learn,
compilers are available for almost every processor in use today.
C which is considered as a middle level language having both the constructs of the low-
level as well as high-level, has all the rich features in it that makes it the choice of the
C is not the only language used by embedded programmers there are other languages like
These languages though exists did not gain popularity as C.
Hardware products for National Instruments embedded
systems share a common architecture that includes three
components: an embedded controller for communication and
processing; an FPGA for advanced control, timing, signal
processing, filtering, and custom protocols; and industrial I/O
modules for connectivity to any sensor or device. All of the
components are reconfigurable through a single software