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Speech defects

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Speech defects

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Speech defects

  1. 1. Speech defects
  2. 2. Definition • Speech disorders or speech impediments are a type of communication disorders where 'normal' speech is disrupted.
  3. 3. Classification Stuttering Cluttering Dysprosody Muteness Speech sound disorders -Articulation disorders / phonetic disorders -Phonemic disorders Voice disorders Dysarthria Apraxia
  4. 4. Terminologies • Dysprosody: is characterized by alterations in intensity, in the timing of utterance segments, and in rhythm, cadence, and intonation of words. • Muteness: is complete inability to speak. • Articulation disorders: are characterized by difficulty learning to produce sounds physically.
  5. 5. • Phonemic disorders: are characterized by difficulty in learning the sound distinctions of a language, so that one sound may be used in place of many. • Voice disorders: are impairments, often physical, that involve the function of the larynx or vocal resonance. • Dysarthria: is a weakness or paralysis of speech muscles caused by damage to the nerves and/or brain. • Apraxia: of speech may result from stroke or be developmental, and involves inconsistent production of speech sounds and rearranging of sounds in a word ("potato" may become "topato" and next "totapo").
  6. 6. Causes • • • • • • • • Unknown Hearing Loss, Neurological Disorders, Brain Injury, Mental Retardation, Drug Abuse, Physical Impairments: Cleft Lip And Palate, Vocal Abuse Or Misuse.
  7. 7. Treatment • Speech therapy
  8. 8. Speech therapy / Speech Language therapy • In speech language therapy, an sleep language pathologist (SLP) will work with a child one on one, in a small group, or directly on a classroom to overcome difficulties involved with a specific disorder.
  9. 9. Indications • • • • • • • • • • • Hearing impairment Cognitive or developmental delays Weak oral muscles Excessive drooling Chronic hoarseness Birth defects such as CL/CP Autism Motor planning problems Respiratory problems Feeding and swallowing disorders Traumatic brain injury
  10. 10. Strategies used 1. Language intervention activities: – A SLP will interact with a child by playing and talking, using pictures, books, objects or ongoing events to stimulate language development. The therapist model correct pronunciation & use repetition exercises to build speech and language skills.
  11. 11. 2. Articulation therapy - Articulation exercises involve having the therapist model correct sounds and syllables for a child, often during play activities. The level of play is age appropriate and related to the childs specific needs
  12. 12. 3. Oral-motor / feeding and swallowing therapy - The SLP will use a variety of oral exercisesincluding facial massage and various tongue, lip and jaw exercises to strengthen the muscles of the mouth.
  13. 13. Thank you

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