สัปดาห์ที่  16-17 เอกสารประกอบการสอน  วิชา  427-303 Sociological Theories ภาคเรียนที่  1/2554 เรื่อง แนวคิด พัฒนาการของทฤษ...
image of George Ritzer's integrative  ( micro - macro )  theory of social analysis
ทฤษฎีสังคมวิทยา Auguste Comte  ( 1798  -  1857 ) http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / comte . htm
Auguste Comte  ( 1798  -  1857 ) French philosopher regarded as the founder of sociology, a term he coined 1830 .  He soug...
Auguste Comte  ( 1798  -  1857 ) In his six-volume "Cours de philosophie positive" 1830–42, Comte argued that hu...
Auguste Comte  ( 1798  -  1857 ) Comte, born in Montpellier, was expelled from the Paris Ecole Polytechnique for leading a...
http :// www . socresonline . org . uk / home . html Sociological Research Online : focusing on theoretical, empirical and...
Phenomenology and Sociology   Phenomenology is a 20th century philosophical way of thinking about the nature of reality wh...
These ideas influenced sociologists such as  Alfred Schutz  ( 1899-1959 )  who thought that Sociology should look at the w...
Ethnomethodology http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/CURRIC/soc/ethno/intro.htm
http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / crime / devmap . htm
Erving Goffman Symbolic Interactionist Brief Biography 1922-88, American sociologist; b. Manville, Alta. He developed a pe...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of  common sense  is: </li></...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Scientific Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>The definition for  scientific inquiry...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><ul><li>The scientific method provides a more thorough, thoughtful explanation ...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Most people are constantly in the process of making informal observations a...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Perception Screening Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Scientific Inquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence (objective facts) is used...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Real World Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Freshman Seminar (Bolender 1994) </li...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>The sociologist as a destroyer of myths. </li></ul><ul><li>Norbert Elias ([...
Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Scientific inquiry-- </li></ul><ul><li>How will this help me in real life? ...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of a paradigm is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradigms. ....
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>When paradigms change, the world itself changes with them. Led by a new paradigm, scientists a...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Does one’s paradigm make any difference in the real world?  You bet it does ! </li></ul><ul><l...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Assumption </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of  assumption  is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. . . a ...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><ul><ul><li>For example: Plato’s Six Basic Assumptions of Society (he was a sociologist before the...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A definition of  theory  is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. . . A theory is ...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><ul><ul><li>Theories in sociology are intended to be descriptive, explanatory, and predictive of p...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Proposition </li></ul><ul><li>A definition of  proposition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. . . are “...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Theories also contain concepts, which are created by giving names to...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><ul><li>“ Each concept communicates to the specialist a vast amount of experience, abstracted and ...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a substitute for some...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Real Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is anchored in concrete or observable phenomena and has ...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Operational Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement theory concerns the linkage between c...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of  hypothesis  is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a sta...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Emile Durkheim’s Study of Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Theory:  Society is a closed system with e...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Concepts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solidarity </li></u...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of logic and authority <...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Deductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>From the  General </li></ul><ul><li>To the  Particular <...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Inductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>To the  General </li></ul><ul><li>From the  Particular <...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Common Sense versus Scientific Inquiry   </li></ul><ul><li>500 plus years ago--Why did the une...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>What impact  did this “paradigm” have on mankind? </li></ul>
ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><li>Go to page 7 of the worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>The theme: The earth is flat (o...
ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><li>Go to page 8 of the worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><ul><li>The edges of all the “known” surface land mass is bordered by water. </li><...
ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><ul><li>All of the surface land mass has been explored or at least mapped. </li></u...
ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><ul><li>Operational definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The earth has only  X...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>The development of sociological theories has been slow. Attempting to develop scientific theor...
Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigms Comparison Table </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Pa...
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  • http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / Theory . htm 11 Nov 2006
  • http :// en . wikibooks . org / wiki / Image : Ritzers_integration_theory . jpg
  • http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / comte . htm
  • http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / comte . htm
  • http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / T&amp;M / phen . htm
  • http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / T&amp;M / phen . htm
  • Refer to word document called : Outline of Theory Lectures for SOC444 Sociological Theory Mish, Frederick C., ed. 1991 . Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary . 9th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
  • Bolender, Ronald Keith. 1993. Assignment for First Class Session . Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova Southeastern University. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Bunker, B. B., H. B. Pearlson, and J. W. Schulz. 1975. A Student’s Guide to Conducting Social Science Research. New York: Human Sciences Press.
  • Bunker, B. B., H. B. Pearlson, and J. W. Schulz. 1975. A Student’s Guide to Conducting Social Science Research. New York: Human Sciences Press. Selltiz, C., L. S. Wrightsman, and S. W. Cook. 1976. Research Methods in Social Relations . 3rd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Bunker, B. B., H. B. Pearlson, and J. W. Schulz. 1975. A Student’s Guide to Conducting Social Science Research. New York: Human Sciences Press.
  • Refer to word document called : Outline of Theory Lectures for SOC444 Sociological Theory Bolender, Ronald Keith. 1994. The Evaluation of Institutional Goals for Freshman Seminar at Mount Vernon Nazarene College. Washington DC: The George Washington University. ERIC Document: ED 406 912 Moffit, Robert E. 1996. Getting Backup: Twenty-One Steps Public Officials Can Take To Support Their Local Police . The Heritage Foundation. [On-line]. Available Internet: http://www.heritage.org/heritage/library/categories/crimelaw/bg1089b.html
  • Elias, Norbert. [1970] 1978. What is Sociology? Translated by Stephen Mennell and Grace Morrissey. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Scientific Inquiry —How will is help me in real life? One of the primary outcomes of a four year liberal arts education is to be able to think conceptually and broadly—then translate it into a real world application. Of course some of the academic exercises you go through are slightly artificial—but they stretch your intellectual capacities. It would be similar for an athlete to say that certain types of required training techniques are valueless because the specific routines are not identical to a real world game or event. The purpose of training is to stretch and develop (in an artificial sense) the athlete so that he/she will be prepared for a real world game. Raw intelligence is nice, but not required for the real world if you develop your reasoning and problem solving abilities. This is true for the specific details (such as ASA/APS style and presentation formats) that may not be required in the real world—but it will probably improved your performance in the real world.
  • Denisoff, R. Serge, Orel Callahan, and Mark H. Levine, eds. 1974. Theories and Paradigms in Contemporary Sociology . Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers.
  • Kuhn, Thomas Samuel. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . 2d ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago.
  • O’Reilly, Brian. 1997. “Why Doctors Aren’t Curing Ulcers.” Fortune , June 9, pp. 100-112. An example of a change in paradigm is the treatment of stomach ulcers. In 1984, an Australian doctor named Dr. Barry Marshall had discovered that ulcers were caused by a bacteria in the stomach acid. The scientific community would not seriously listen to the scientist—because everyone knew that organisms cannot live in stomach acid. After much persistence, he proved his theory. Still, today much of the medication related to ulcers is unnecessary because it is not designed to kill the virus. Old ideas are hard to change (O’Reilly 1997:100-112). Does one’s paradigm make any difference in the real world? You bet it does! Instead of helping raise the standard of living for millions of people and saving billions of dollars a year in drugs and other related treatments—the medical community has been slow to adopt the new method for curing (not just treating) ulcers. Dr. Marshall used radical techniques for finding the cure (O’Reilly 1997): Animal experiments with the bacteria had failed to generate ulcers, so by 1984 Marshall was desperate to see whether he was right. He raised the beaker and gulped down the bacteria. “It tasted like swamp water,” he later said. The move turned out to be one of the best—and worst—he ever made. Barry Marshall wound up revolutionizing the understanding of ulcers. His work showed that they are not caused by stress or diet or acid. Ulcers are almost always the product of a clever corkscrew-shaped organism called Helicobacter pylori , which can be eradicated with as little as two weeks of antibotic therapy. (His research also led to the discovery that H. pylori triggers most stomach cancers too.) Marshall’s work is momentous. It has been compared with the development of polio vaccine and the eradication of smallpox. He is a serious contender for the Nobel Prize. And yet it is only now—13 years after Marshall drank the bacteria and a decade since his work first drew broad attention—that his controversial ideas and methods are finding their way, haltingly, into common medical practice. Even so, ulcers remain widespread, treatment of them with antibiotics is rare, and acid-blocking ulcer drugs are still the biggest-selling medicines on earth. (P. 102)
  • Perdue, William D. 1986. Sociological Theory: Explanation, Paradigm, and Ideology . Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
  • Denisoff, R. Serge, Orel Callahan, and Mark H. Levine, eds. 1974. Theories and Paradigms in Contemporary Sociology . Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers.
  • Ward, Thomas J. 1974. “Definitions of Theory in Sociology.” Pp. 28-40 in Theories and Paradigms in Contemporary Sociology , edited by R. Serge Denisoff, Orel Callahan, and Mark H. Levine. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers.
  • Definitions . ---- Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine (1974) stated: Definitions are included in most delineations of theory. As Robert Bierstedt (Reading 7) indicates, there are two types of definitions: the nominal and the real. A nominal definition is a substitute for some concrete object. The words “sports car” are not in actual fact a car with a lowslung body, wire wheels, and great acceleration. A nominal definition, according to Bierstedt, has “no truth claims and it is therefore senseless to ask whether it is true or false.” A real definition is anchored in concrete or observable phenomena and has empirical or testable implications. The President of the United States, according to Weber’s notion, should enjoy high status. Sociologists can test this be conducting a survey and polling citizens as to the prestige of the office, and, objectively, they can examine the political and economic power of the office by observing operations at the White House. In this way status takes on a real definition which is tied to the real world. (Pp. 23-24)
  • Selltiz, Wrightsman, and Cook (1976) stated: Measurement theory concerns the linkage between concepts and indicators in a study. Operational definitions are always based on measurement theories that assign empirical meaning to concepts.(P. 40) The operational definition stipulates which specific indicators (or observations ) are to be assigned which specific meanings. (P. 40) One never ask whether operational definitions are “true” or “false.” But several evaluative criteria must be brought to bear on definitions. Definitions ought to: (1) assign empirical and logical meaning to concepts in an explicit and precise way; and (2) assign meaning to concepts so that indicators of the concepts relate to indicators of other concepts in ways that are predicted by theory. In other words, definitions ought to be unambiguous and clear in what they refer to, and definitions ought to be constructed so that the concepts fit into theories. If concepts are defined so that they fit into theories, then we can be assured that our definitions are useful. Beyond this, criteria for definitions become less clear, although some definitions may be more useful in theories than other definitions, just as some definitions may lead to measures that are accurate and precise more easily then other measures. (P. 40)
  • Hypothesis . ---- Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine (1974) stated: Hypotheses are statements outlining the relationship between two or more factors of events, such as X causes Y . A hypothesis is reasoned or deducted from a theory and seeks to make a general statement specific. Marxist theory holds that “being determines consciousness.” The Marxian hypothesis is that economic positions should determine political opinion. To verify or falsify parts of the theory, this hypothesis is put to the test through the use of induction. Thus, reasoning is from the specific to the general. If economic position does in fact determine political attitudes, it can be said that Marx cannot be falsified in that area of his theory. A classic example of the testing of a hypothesis deduced from a sociological theory is found in Emile Durkheim’s Suicide (1951). Durkheim argued that society was an organism with interrelated parts. The key to society was its social cohesion, which cemented the parts together. In Suicide , as Pitirim Sorokin (Reading 6) observes, Durkheim reasoned that lack of social cohesion leaves an individual in a “normless” state because the rules of conduct are not clear. This anomic condition may lead to suicide. Catholics, hypothesized the French theorist, are more socially cohesive than Protestants, because Catholic doctrine is more specific and directive on the issue than the viewpoint of the more interpretive and individualized Protestants. His hypothesis was that Protestants will exhibit a higher rate of suicide than Catholics. His study, which tested his theory of social integration through the use of suicide rates, confirmed that this was the case. However, he was not specifically concerned with the rate of suicide; rather, his interest was in comparing people he believed were highly and poorly integrated. (P. 24) Selltiz, Wrightsman, and Cook (1976) stated: Hypotheses , or the consequences of our theoretical assumptions are the statements that we usually submit to actual testing. Hypotheses are empirically tested because we are uncertain of the extent to which they are correct. (P. 17)
  • A classic example of the testing of a hypothesis deduced from a sociological theory is found in Emile Durkheim’s Suicide (1951). Durkheim argued that society was an organism with interrelated parts. The key to society was its social cohesion, which cemented the parts together. In Suicide , as Pitirim Sorokin (Reading 6) observes, Durkheim reasoned that lack of social cohesion leaves an individual in a “normless” state because the rules of conduct are not clear. This anomic condition may lead to suicide. Catholics, hypothesized the French theorist, are more socially cohesive than Protestants, because Catholic doctrine is more specific and directive on the issue than the viewpoint of the more interpretive and individualized Protestants. His hypothesis was that Protestants will exhibit a higher rate of suicide than Catholics. His study, which tested his theory of social integration through the use of suicide rates, confirmed that this was the case. However, he was not specifically concerned with the rate of suicide; rather, his interest was in comparing people he believed were highly and poorly integrated. (P. 24)
  • Logic: Deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning . Ligas (1993:7) and McMillian and Schumacher (1997:93-107) stated the following regarding deductive and inductive reasoning processes:
  • DEDUCTIVE REASONING Use of Logic and Authority From the General To the Particular Major Premise: Minor Premise: Conclusion: A valid conclusion can be deducted from valid premises Criticisms Major premises are often preconceived notions which inevitable bias the conclusions. If the premises are true and the argument valid, then the conclusion is certain to be true. However, the conclusion does not add anything new that is not already contained in the premises.
  • INDUCTIVE REASONING Use of Empirical Observation From the Particular To the General Study of individual cases Lead to a hypothesis and to a generalization Criticisms Random collection of individual observations without a unifying concept or focus often obscured investigations and rarely led to generalization or theory. Same set of observations can lead to different conclusions and support different, even opposing theories.
  • These documents are on the Internet web site.
  • สัปดาห์ที่ 17 แนวคิด พัฒนาการ

    1. 1. สัปดาห์ที่ 16-17 เอกสารประกอบการสอน วิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories ภาคเรียนที่ 1/2554 เรื่อง แนวคิด พัฒนาการของทฤษฎีสังคมวิทยา
    2. 2.
    3. 3. image of George Ritzer's integrative ( micro - macro ) theory of social analysis
    4. 4. ทฤษฎีสังคมวิทยา Auguste Comte ( 1798 - 1857 ) http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / comte . htm
    5. 5. Auguste Comte ( 1798 - 1857 ) French philosopher regarded as the founder of sociology, a term he coined 1830 . He sought to establish sociology as an intellectual discipline, using a scientific approach ( 'positivism' ) as the basis of a new science of social order and social development .
    6. 6. Auguste Comte ( 1798 - 1857 ) In his six-volume &quot;Cours de philosophie positive&quot; 1830–42, Comte argued that human thought and social development evolve through three stages: the theological, the metaphysical, and the positive or scientific. Although he originally sought to proclaim society's evolution to a new golden age of science, industry, and rational morality, his radical ideas were increasingly tempered by the political and social upheavals of his time. His influence continued in Europe and the USA until the early 20th century.
    7. 7. Auguste Comte ( 1798 - 1857 ) Comte, born in Montpellier, was expelled from the Paris Ecole Polytechnique for leading a student revolt 1816. In 1818 he became secretary to the socialist Saint-Simon and was much influenced by him. He began lecturing on the 'Positive Philosophy' 1826, but almost immediately succumbed to a nervous disorder and once tried to commit suicide in the river Seine. On his recovery he resumed his lectures and mathematical teaching.
    8. 8. http :// www . socresonline . org . uk / home . html Sociological Research Online : focusing on theoretical, empirical and methodological discussions which engage with current political, cultural and intellectual topics and debates. Email : [email_address]
    9. 9. Phenomenology and Sociology Phenomenology is a 20th century philosophical way of thinking about the nature of reality which has influenced Sociology . The German Philosopher Edmund Husserl is closely linked with phenomenology . Phenomenology argues that the only 'PHENOMENA' that we can be sure of is that we are 'conscious' thinking beings . Therefore we should study any phenomena around us in terms of the way we conscoiusly experience them . This examination should be free of preconceptions and causal ideas .
    10. 10. These ideas influenced sociologists such as Alfred Schutz ( 1899-1959 ) who thought that Sociology should look at the way individual 'construct' the social world . He tried to combine the work of Weber with that of Husserl in his book &quot; The Phenomenology of the Social World &quot; ( 1932 ). Phenomenology
    11. 11. Ethnomethodology http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/CURRIC/soc/ethno/intro.htm
    12. 12. http :// www . hewett . norfolk . sch . uk / CURRIC / soc / crime / devmap . htm
    13. 13. Erving Goffman Symbolic Interactionist Brief Biography 1922-88, American sociologist; b. Manville, Alta. He developed a performance-oriented theory of behavior in The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959). Asylums (1961), which dealt with personality changes among inmates of a mental asylum, led to his study of other institutions. He taught at the universities of California and Pennsylvania. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
    14. 14. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of common sense is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1: the unreflective opinions of ordinary men 2: sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgement (Mish 1991:266) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common sense is a valuable tool for our everyday lives -- we would not want to totally demean its value </li></ul>
    15. 15. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Scientific Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>The definition for scientific inquiry is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A deliberate, focused, systematic, and logical means of explaining an observable event in one’s world (Bolender 1993:11) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><ul><li>The scientific method provides a more thorough, thoughtful explanation of events than most common sense answers could give. The scientific method may conclude that it has not found a good answer to the purpose of the event, however that is generally still a more thorough answer than most common sense answers provide (Bolender 1993:11-12). </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Most people are constantly in the process of making informal observations about their world. Attempts are made to describe, explain, predict, and control daily events (Bunker, Pearlson, and Schulz 1975). </li></ul>
    18. 18. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Perception Screening Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The layperson uses common sense to deal with everyday observations (Selltiz, Wrightsman, and Cook 1976). Laypeople use subjective ideas (opinions) to determine if an observation is reliable (Bunker, Pearlson, and Schulz 1975). </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Scientific Inquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence (objective facts) is used in scientific inquiry to indicate if an idea is supportable (Bunker, Pearlson, and Schulz 1975). </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Real World Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Freshman Seminar (Bolender 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Crime in Major Cities (Moffit 1996) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>The sociologist as a destroyer of myths. </li></ul><ul><li>Norbert Elias ([1970] 1978:50) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense <ul><li>Scientific inquiry-- </li></ul><ul><li>How will this help me in real life? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of a paradigm is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradigms. . . are taken-for-granted ideas and assumptions not debated by members of a scientific discipline (Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974). </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>When paradigms change, the world itself changes with them. Led by a new paradigm, scientists adapt new instruments and look in new places. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1970:110?) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Does one’s paradigm make any difference in the real world? You bet it does ! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why Doctors Are Not Curing Ulcers ” </li></ul><ul><li>Brian O’Reilly (1997:100-112) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Assumption </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of assumption is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. . . a preconception or “given.” . . . it refers to something that is taken for granted (Perdue 1986:5-6). </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Theory and Paradigm <ul><ul><ul><li>For example: Plato’s Six Basic Assumptions of Society (he was a sociologist before the discipline officially existed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man is an organism. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms tend toward survival. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man survives in groups. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man is a social animal. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man lives in an ordered society. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The order of society is knowable. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Rose 1967 and Carroll 1972 in Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:4-5) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A definition of theory is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. . . A theory is a logical deductive-inductive system of concepts, definitions, and propositions which states a relationship between two or more selected aspects of phenomena and from which testable hypotheses can be derived (Ward 1974:39). </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Theory and Paradigm <ul><ul><ul><li>Theories in sociology are intended to be descriptive, explanatory, and predictive of phenomena of interest to the discipline and to its individual practitioners (Ward 1974:39). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A theory is a set of concepts plus the interrelationships that are assumed to exist among those concepts. A theory also includes consequences that we assume logically to follow from the relationships proposed in the theory. These consequences are called hypotheses (Selltiz, Wrightsman, and Cook 1976). </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Proposition </li></ul><ul><li>A definition of proposition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. . . are “statements about the nature of reality” which describe connections between phenomena or events. “Man is an organism and must eat to survive” is a propositional statement which can easily be put to the test. At a higher level sociologists may say, “Changes in the economic structure will result in changes in the nonmaterial aspects of society.” This statement can also be put to the test (Phillips 1971:52 in Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:23). </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Theories also contain concepts, which are created by giving names to events, phenomena, and processes. Concepts are merely the symbols scientists use as a form of shorthand (Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:23). </li></ul>
    32. 32. Theory and Paradigm <ul><ul><li>“ Each concept communicates to the specialist a vast amount of experience, abstracted and clarified for those who understand the term (Goode and Hatt 1952:44 in Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:23). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Status is a concept which refers to an individual’s location in society-high, low, or middle range (Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:23). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a substitute for some concrete object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sports car </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Real Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is anchored in concrete or observable phenomena and has empirical or testable implications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The President of the United States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bierstedt in Denisoff, Callahan, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levine 1974:23-24) </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Operational Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement theory concerns the linkage between concepts and indicators in a study. Operational definitions are always based on measurement theories that assign empirical meaning to concepts. . . The operational definition stipulates which specific indicators (or observations) are to be assigned which specific meanings (Selltiz, Wrightsman, and Cook 1976:40). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: IQ is an operational definition of intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of hypothesis is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a statement outlining the relationship between two or more factors of events, such as X causes Y . A hypothesis is reasoned or deducted from a theory and seeks to make a general statement specific (Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974: 24). </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Emile Durkheim’s Study of Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Theory: Society is a closed system with each member interrelated to all the other members within the society. There is a phenomenon of social integration. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposition: Society is an organism with interrelated parts, therefore, the stronger the social cohesion, the stronger the society. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Concepts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solidarity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational Definition: Suicide is an objective measurement of social cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: The annual suicide rate for Catholics will be lower than Protestants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothesis is a deduction of the theory </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of logic and authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of empirical observation </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Deductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>From the General </li></ul><ul><li>To the Particular </li></ul>
    41. 41. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Inductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>To the General </li></ul><ul><li>From the Particular </li></ul>
    42. 42. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Common Sense versus Scientific Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>500 plus years ago--Why did the uneducated man think the earth was flat (or hump-back)? </li></ul>
    43. 43. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>What impact did this “paradigm” have on mankind? </li></ul>
    44. 44. ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><li>Go to page 7 of the worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>The theme: The earth is flat (or hump-back) </li></ul><ul><li>Make an attempt to complete each component as if you accepted this paradigm </li></ul>
    45. 45. ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><li>Go to page 8 of the worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The earth is flat (or at least hump-back). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The world ends at the “four corners” of the earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “known” surface land mass has been explored. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><ul><li>The edges of all the “known” surface land mass is bordered by water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The is flat (or at least hump-back). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The earth has “edges.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propositions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man cannot travel beyond the edge of the earth without falling off. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><ul><li>All of the surface land mass has been explored or at least mapped. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four corners of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edge of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries of the earth </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 48. ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet <ul><ul><li>Operational definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The earth has only X number of nautical miles between the western coast of Europe and the western boundary of the earth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a ship sails indefinitely in one direction (west, east, south, or north), it will fall off the edge of the earth. </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>The development of sociological theories has been slow. Attempting to develop scientific theories about society is very complex. The variables are endless. </li></ul><ul><li>Does that make it any less of a worthy goal? </li></ul><ul><li>The answer is no. It just makes the task that much more challenging. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Theory and Paradigm <ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigms Comparison Table </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm and Assumption Document </li></ul>

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