สัปดาห์ที่ 15 social exchange theory

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สัปดาห์ที่ 15 social exchange theory

  1. 1. สัปดาห์ที่ 15 เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม 1/2553 เรื่อง Social Exchange Theory
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Contributors </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Contributors </li></ul><ul><li>Founder-Premise </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Weaknesses and Criticisms </li></ul><ul><li>Example of Social Exchange Theory </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Social Exchange Theory? <ul><li>Social Psychological and Sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Views that all human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social Exchange Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>social interaction is likened to transactions in economic marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange is a theory which attempts to explain interpersonal behaviors in terms of the exchange of rewards and costs  </li></ul><ul><li>roots in Rational Choice theory - but that doesn’t explain seeking benefit for others </li></ul><ul><li>so added BEHAVIORISM (operant conditioning) people repeat behaviors which have been rewarded in the past </li></ul>
  5. 5. Theoretical Contributors <ul><li>Utilitarian Economists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are rational and will seek to maximize their gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans will elicit behaviors that will produce greatest rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Anthropology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange process derive from individuals trying to satisfy basic needs. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Specific Contributors <ul><li>Marcel Mauss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>De-emphasized psychological needs and concentrated on groups norms as regulating the exchange relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Claude Levi-Strauss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectivist exchange viewpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying patterns of society, and that certain costs may be required of the individual </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Originators <ul><li>George Homans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credited with the to consolidation of the foundations of social exchange theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied reinforcement contingencies from operant learning theory to social behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter Blau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recognized that social structures have emergent properties not found in individual elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identified the norm of reciprocity (not always eye for an eye) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mutual reciprocation is the most basic form of human interaction </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Originators (Cont’d) <ul><li>John Thibaut and Harold Kelley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of perceived rewards and costs in encouraging and constraining behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with psychological concepts build upward to the dyad and build upward from there to small groups </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Homans <ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people will do things that are rewarding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the more similar a situation is to one from the past, the more likely actions that were rewarded will be performed now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rewards gain value when deprived (and vice versa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>failure to get rewards expected = anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>getting rewards not expected = happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the frequency of a person doing an action depends on the value of the outcome and probability of getting it </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Key Concepts <ul><li>Rewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasing a Social Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material or Symbolic Exchanged in a Social Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment of Time and Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principle of Satiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loosing value due to increased availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principle of Deprivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing value due to decreased availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison Level (CL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal norms, past experiences, observations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison Level of Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolving Subjective Individual Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost as Participating in Relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interdependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually dependent on the Relationship </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Key Concepts (cont’d) <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least Interested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributive Justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward and Cost being Proprotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both individuals derive similar levels of rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction = (Rewards - Cost) - Comparison Level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and Intimate Exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normative Orientations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal/ Cultural Views on appropriateness of behavior in relationships </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Social Exchange Theory Today <ul><li>Richard Emerson </li></ul><ul><li>focus on what people put into relationships and what they get out of it </li></ul><ul><li>centers on dyads, but looks at some more complicated forms as well </li></ul><ul><li>everything we do has costs (to be minimized) and rewards (to be maximized) associated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they range from subtle to explicit </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Social Exchange Theory Today (cont’d) <ul><li>REWARDS = anything that a person gains from a relation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 main rewards: love, money, status, info, goods, services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COSTS = negative consequences of a relation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time, energy </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Power <ul><li>POWER = control over rewards and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>social power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a person’s ability to influence the behavior, thoughts or thoughts of another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exists when one member is dependent on the other for rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>called power-dependence relations </li></ul>
  15. 15. Strengths of Theory <ul><li>Most people understand general assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Very Parsimonious </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of exchange theory to explain many family issues </li></ul>
  16. 16. Criticisms <ul><li>Assumes humans act rationally when deciding on an exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Some issues are difficult to explain effectively utilizing exchange theory such as altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Valuing self-interest </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to dyadic relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to have a personal approach to situations </li></ul><ul><li>The theory assumes that the ultimate goal of a relationship is intimacy when this might not always be the case. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory reduces human interaction to purely rational process that arise from economic theory </li></ul>
  17. 17. Social Exchange Theory in the Movies <ul><li>http://www.ifilm.com/video/2369479 - </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry Mcguire </li></ul><ul><li>The Wedding Singer </li></ul>

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